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Spectrum of religions


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A review on the world religion

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Spectrum of religions

  1. 1. TextBethany House Publishers Minneapolis, MN 1996
  2. 2. Competing Balancing Monotheism Polytheism Monism Atheism Dualism Dualism One Two equal & Concept Two opposing Impersonal Transcendent Many gods opposing No god of God gods Oneness God forces Hinduism Judaism Tribal ; Folk Taoism Humanism Primary Buddhism Christianity Zoroastrianism religions Yin/Yang MarxismExamples New Age Islam Shinto concept Confucionism Sikhism Can be A microcosm One with Part creation Made to join A complex View of influenced, of two essence; Different frm battle against form ofHumanity possessed by interacting illusion of Animals evil matter spirits forces separationHumanity’s Breaking law Out of Superstition; Choosing to Angering the Ignorance of Primary Sin alignment with irrational do evil gods innate divinity Problem Not Submit natural thinking Applying Live law Living in Enlightenment Choosing to Appeasing the rational Solution By faith in J harmony with Realization of do right gods thinking for Seek/submit nature oneness problems Sometimes Usually Reincarnated Person Eternal life in Eternal life in Afterlife advances to advances to or merges ceases to heaven or hell heaven or hell spirit world spirit world with oneness exist
  3. 3. A TIME LINE OF THE WORLD RELIGIONS1500 B.C. HINDUISM1440 B.C. JUDAISM660 B.C. SHINTOISM600 B.C. TAOISM563 B.C. BUDDHISM563 B.C. CONFUCIANISM30 A.D. CHRISTIANITY622 A.D. ISLAM1469 A.D. SIKHISM Compact Guide to World Religions, Gen.Editor Dean C. Halverson
  4. 4. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE RELIGIONS (1) CHRISTI HINDUISM BUDDHISM ISLAM -ANITY Personal Impersonal No god or Unknowable Creator;REALITY essence; or many Buddha Creator Revealed gods essence Himself Created by Created byHUMAN Divine in our No personal God ; nothing God in His -ITY essence essence like Him image Trapped in Trapped in Under reincarnation Under God’sPROBL- reincarnation in in a suffering judgement of judgement for an illusory world; Allah due to EM world; due to sin of due to ignorance failure to desire & rebellion & karma keep the Law karma
  5. 5. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE RELIGIONS (11) CHRISTI - HINDUISM BUDDHISM ISLAM ANITY Deliverance Deliverance Deliverance Deliverance from from suffering from from world thro’SALVA - thro’ judgement judgement by knowledge, TION cessation of thro’ faith in God’s works or desire (w/self obedience to provision devotion or divine help) Law thro’ Christ Merging with Extinction Ultimate Reality from suffering,AFTER Paradise or Heaven with or heavenly bliss desire & LIFE hell God or hell in the presence individuality of the gods (nirvana)
  6. 6. ANIMISUM
  7. 7. ANIMISM PERSONAL SPIRIT BEINGS GOD OF THE BIBLELimited to one geographic location God of the Universe Power over various aspects of Has power over all things nature Doesn’t depend on sacrifice Depends on our sacrifices Provides sacrifice on our behalfIMPERSONAL SPIRITUAL FORCE GOD OF THE BIBLE Cannot be manipulated by charmsSpiritual forces can be manipulated or rituals Spiritual forces can be used for God is holy & hates evil either evil or good
  8. 8. ANIMISTIC & BIBLICAL WORLDVIEWS ANIMISM CHRISTIANITY God exists but cannot know God is beyond comprehension GOD Him or communicate with but made Himself knowable; Him can communicate with Him Religions concerned with God concerned with both theULTIMATE/ ultimate: sin & salvation. present & the ultimate. GodIMMEDIATE ISSUES Animism offers power to provides daily needs & eternal cope with immediate needs THE Spirits either represent God Spirits deceptive & evil. Holy SPIRITS or is our intermediaries Spirit is God THE Spirits do have limited power The spirits & instruments ofPOWER but leads to bondage. God is magic harm others or bring OF greater & disarms powers. us benefits
  9. 9. BUDDHISM
  10. 10. FOUNDING OF BUDDHISM ounded by Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 482 B.C) ife of Buddha 3 periods - enjoyment, enquiry & enlightenment 63-534 B.C Born in Nepal (previously India) sheltered from suffering. Encoun ge, sickness,death & poverty 34- 528 Left life of luxury, practiced extreme asceticism; after 6 years weak,while bathing, clung to overhang branch 28 - 483 B.C in city of Bodh Gaya, sat under Bo tree, meditated (deep), tempMara (evilone), resisted & attained enlightenmentMiddle Way - avoided both extreme affluence & asceticism fter 45 years of spreading message he died, probably food poisoning ast words “Decay is inherent in all component things. Work out your own swith diligence”or 200 years did not spread beyond India until King Asoka became a Buddhisesources to send missionaries to Syria, Egypt, Sri Lanka, Myanmar & Thailand
  11. 11. BUDDHISM & CHRISTIANITY THERAVADA MAHAYANA CHRISTIANITY Nirvana an abstract Abstract void as well Personal God; selfGOD void as Buddha essence existent & changeless An impermanent Same. For some Made in God’s image.HUMA- collection of personal existence in Life after death. Of NITY aggregates Pure Land for a while value Suffering due toPROB- Suffering due to sin. desire of temporary; Same LEM Fulfilled in obedience illusion of existenceSOLU- Become Buddha Forgiven by & Cease all desireTION nature in self reconciled to God Self-reliance. Middle Self- reliance. Eight Reliance on God. THEMEANS path; accumulate fold path. Depend on Repent of sin. Trust
  12. 12. JESUS & BUDDHA/BODHISATTVAS THERAVADA CHRISTIANITYGod’s existence unimportant. Does Jesus has special relationship withnot pertain to escape from suffering God Buddha points the way to Nirvana Jesus is the way to salvation Overcome suffering by eliminating Problem is sin. Repent & be desire obedient MAHAYANA CHRISTIANITY Many bodhisattvas One incarnation of GodBodhisattvas has compassion for the Jesus is God’s demonstration of suffering love to the worldBodhisattvas views physical world as God created universe thro’ Jesus & an illusion to be escaped said it was good
  13. 13. HINDUISM
  14. 14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRAHMAN in HINDUISM NIRGUNA BRAHMAN (“without attributes”) SAGUNA BRAHMAN (“with attributes”) Also called ISHVARA VISHNUBRAHMAN SIVA The preserverThe Creator The Destroyer AVATARS Ten mythical incarnations of Vishnu
  15. 15. DEVELOPMENT OF HINDUISM• 13% of world population - Majority in India 700 mil. (82%). Nepal 89%, Mauritius 50% Fiji 41% Surinam 27%. In bali 200mil. N.America over 1 m.• Began ca. 1500 BC in India as a simple polytheistic & ritualistic religion performed by head of household. As centuries passed, became complex & priestly class created to perform rituals. They became sole mediators with the gods. The Vedas (knowledge”) written during this period• Priest gained power over lives & finally ca. 600BC people revolted & Hinduism emphasized internal meditation as opposed to external rituals• 800-300 BC Upanishads (conclusion of Vedas) written - expounded idea that behind the gods stands one impersonal force or Reality. Concept developed to one with attributes, a personified form of Brahman, Ishvara• Ishvara became known to humanity thro’ three manifestations - each of these had at least one divine spouse or devi• Ishvara became personified further thro 10 mythical incarnations of Vishnu including animals (eg fish, boar, tortoise) & persons (Rama, Krishna & Buddha)
  16. 16. BELIEFS OF HINDUISMAlthough Hinduism is tremendously diverse, most Hindus holdto the following beliefs•THE IMPERSONAL NATURE OF BRAHMANSince ultimate reality is an impersonal force of existence, theuniverse is continuous & extended from the Being of Brahman•THE BRAHMAN/ATMAN UNITYTrue self (atman) is extended from & one with Brahman. We areignorant of our divine nature & mistakenly attach to desire•THE LAW OF KARMALaw of cause & effect. Reap what you sow. Effects after life•SAMSARA (REINCARNATION)Wheel of life, death & rebirth. Reaping in this life consequences ofprevious. Determines whether new life is human, insect etc•MOKSHA (LIBERATION)Realization that individual self is an illusion & detach from desire
  17. 17. HINDU SCRIPTURES• Earliest are the Vedas - meaning knowledge• There are four Vedas - Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda & Atharva Veda. Each of these is divided into four parts; The Manthras (verses or hymns), Brahmanas (explanation of verses), Aran -yakas (reflections on their meaning) & the Upanishads (mystical interpretation of verses). These are equivalent to revealed scriptures• Besides these primary scriptures, there are secondary ones including the popular epics Ramayana (Rama’s way); Mahabharata (the great story) within this is the most popular Bhagavad-Gita, the main character is Krishna• Other secondary scriptures include the Vedangas (codes of laq eg Laws of Manu), the Puranas (genealogies & legends of gods), the Darshanas (philosophical writings), Sutras (rules of rituals & social conduct and the Tantras (writings on attaining occultic power)
  18. 18. KARMA & SIN COMPARED KARMA SIN Involve moral issues Involve moral issues Consequences for actions Consequences for actionsRelationship with Brahman notaffected by karma. Whether Sin affects relationship withones karma is good or bad God. We become alienated(makes no difference)one is from God. Sin is rebellionunconditionally extended from against His moral authorityBrahman Law of karma makes morality God is personal & therefore haslike law of nature. No possibility
  19. 19. CHRISTIANITY & HINDUISM CONTRASTED HINDUISM CHRISTIANITY GOD Impersonal Personal Continuous - being extended Discontinuous.HUMANITY from the Being of God Separate from God HUMAN Ignorance Moral RebellionPROBLEM Forgiveness of sin & THE Liberation from illusion & Reconciliation withSOLUTION ignorance God Self effort in separation from Repenting of sin & THE ego & become aware of one’s trusting in work of MEANS unity with divine Christ at the cross THE Merge into oneness. Eternal, loving
  20. 20. JESUS & VISHNU INCARNATIONS JESUS VISHNU At least 10 incarnations in bothOne incarnation as a human animal & human formsHistoricity of Jesus’ life & death Stories of avatars may haveimportant. If Christ did not die some truth but historicitythere is no Gospel unimportantPurpose of incarnation “to save Vishnu’s incarnation is tothe lost” & reconcile to God destroy evil-doersJesus pointed to Himself as the Avatars point to a way to attainway to receive eternal life enlightenment Vishnu incarnates periodically.Jesus’ incarnation unique - “once Avatar incarnates as neededfor all. Same identity maintained then dies & re-absorbed intobefore & after incarnation
  21. 21. ISLAM
  22. 22. THE FOUNDING OF ISLAM• Muhammed born in AD 570 in Mecca; important place for caravans• Ka’bah is located in Mecca. At that time, it was a structure with 360 deities. Each Arabian tribe had a deity & would come for pilgrimage• In AD 610, Muhammed received first revelation from angel Gabriel. He initially doubted the revelations & thought he was possessed by jinn but wife convinced him that they were divine & encouraged him• His message was strictly monotheistic & leaders of his own tribe discouraged him viewing it as a threat to their polytheistic religion & to their economy (from pilgrimage to Ka’bah)• Muhammed refused & continued to preach. Persecution against followers resulted in about 100 families fleeing to Mecca, 200 miles away. In 622 Muhammed also fled there - beginning of Muslim Calendar year. Event known as Hijrah (“series of migrations”)• Muhammed, after several sieges & making treaties took Mecca without a struggle• He personally destroyed the Ka’bah & unified all the tribes in the Arabian Peninsula. Muhammed died on 8 June 632 AD
  23. 23. ISLAM AMONG THE NATIONS• 20% of world population. 2nd largest religion next to Christianity. Began in Saudi Arabia but now non-Arab Muslims outnumber Arab Muslims by almost 3 to 1.• Indonesia 166 m., 88% of population; Pakistan 111 m., 97%; Bangladesh 97 m., 85%; India 93 m., 11%• Most Muslim nations have minimal Christian 0-2% of population. These countries have closed the boarders to missionaries & most have outlawed evangelism•Two major sects, Sunni & Shi’ite. Division over should serve as first caliph as successor to Muhammed who left no will. Shi’ite insisted on Muhammed’s blood line - Ali his Cousin & son-in-law. The did not get their way. They now also differ in other ways• Sunnis emphasize written tradition - Qur’an & Sunna (“custom”). Sunna includes the Hadith - sayings of Mohammed & friends• Shi’ites authoritative rather than consensus. Central figure of Imam Religious authority exercise both political & religious power• Sufism is mystical wing of Islam - renounces worldly attachments & attain assimilation with vast Being of God
  24. 24. MAJOR BELIEFS OF ISLAM• God is one - central doctrine. To associate a partner with God is sin for which there is no forgiveness (Surah 4:48)• Angels - between God & man exists a hierarchy of angels, Gabriel holding the highest rank. At bottom are the jinn (get word “genie”) who are usually bad & can possess people. Each person has 2 angels assigned to record good & bad•The Prophets of God - sent to preach message. In tradition 124000 has been sent many unknown; prophets include Biblical characters Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, Jonah, John the Baptist & also Jesus. Each prophet given for an age but Mohammed (Seal of Prophets) or is for all time• The Holy Books - 4 of the highest prophets given revelation. Moses - Tawrat (Torah), David- Zabur (Psalms), Jesus - Injil (Gospel), Mohamed (Qur’an) which is the only one preserved uncorrupted• Day of Judgement - Good deeds & bad deeds will be weighed. Excess good deeds go to paradise & those with bad to hell. Good & bad subjective only known by God. No assurance of acceptance by God
  25. 25. OBLIGATIONS OF ISLAM• To Recite the Shahadah (meaning “to bear witness”) - “I bear witness that there is no God but Allah & Muhammed is his messenger” . This recited with sincerity is all it takes to be a Muslim• To Pray (Salat) - Required to say 17 cycles of prayer each day, spread over 5 times of prayer (dawn,noon, midafternoon, dusk & 2 hours after sundown). Must wash in prescribed manner before prayer & face towards Mecca. Noon on Friday only time to get together in Mosque• The Fast (Sawm) - In commemoration of receiving Qur’an during 9th month. Total fast during daylight hours• To Give Alms (Zakat) - Muslims are commanded to give 2.5% (1/5th) to the poor & needy• To Make the Pilgrimage (Hajj) - Make trip at least once in lifetime provided that he is able to with respect to health & finances. All must wear white, eliminating all status. Visiting several sacred sites usually takes a week. After pilgrimage, entitled to be called Hajj
  26. 26. CHRISTIANITY & ISLAM (1) ISLAM CHRISTIANITY Complex unity - one in GOD A singular unity essence, three in personHUMANITY Good by nature Sinful by nature Sin is serious & causes Sin is thought as rejecting spiritual death. Moral right guidance. Forgiven SIN rebellion against God. through repentance. No Atonement necessary for atonement necessary reconciliation Standard for salvation is Standard is the absolute to have good deeds holiness of God. Hence itSALVATION
  27. 27. CHRISTIANITY & ISLAM (2) ISLAM CHRISTIANITY One of major prophets. To One & only Son of God. associate Him with God is JESUS blasphemy. Born of virgin &Eternal & co-equal with performed miracles God Traditionally Jesus did not Jesus was crucified, buried die on cross; ascended into & rose on 3rd day. WasDEATH OF heaven & Judas crucified in seen by witnesses. He JESUS His place. Unthinkable that came to earth to die. God would allow His Received highest honor prophet to be crucified Divinely inspired. Final Corrupted. Abrogated byTHE BIBLE authority on matters of
  28. 28. JUDAISM
  29. 29. THREE BRANCHES OF JUDAISM (1) ORTHODOX CONSERVATIVE REFORM Dates back to Arose as a reaction to Sought to modernizeHISTORY Talmud. Seeks to tendencies to reform in to maintain Jewish preserve traditional Germany, yet adept identity Personal Spirit. Wide variety of GOD Compassionate Impersonal & Ineffable concepts Basically good. Morally neutral. Basically good. Partners w/HUMANI Potential within. Perfect by observing God. Perfection by TY Thro’ education & Law enlightenment evolution No original. No original. Sin by moral & No original. Sin is ills SIN Breaking Command social actions of society God’s mercy, Maintaining Jewish identity.SOLUTI prayer obedience. Betterment of self & Betterment of self & ON Presume a standing society society w/ God
  30. 30. THREE BRANCHES OF JUDAISM (11) ORTHODOX CONSERVATIVE REFORM BIBLE/ Torah (five books Both Torah & other Scripture human of Moses).SCRIPTU Secondary Hebrew inspired books. Revelation document preserving RE on going history & culture Bible OTHER Traditional Judaism Historical Judaism Liberal Judaism LIFE No concept of Resurrection. Life Tend towards Reform personal life. As in E AFTER with God or view but less influenced by mysticism, merge into LIFE suffering Eastern mysticism impersonal Synagogue place of Service modernized. worship. Synagogue place ofWORSHI English & Hebrew Conducted in worship. Lesser degree P used. Men & women Hebrew. Women the changes in Reform sit together sit separate Not divine. He will Not a person. UtopianVIEW OF restore Jewish Much the same views as
  31. 31. JEWISH HOLIDAYS• Rosh ha-Shanah - September/October. The Jewish New Year. Marks 1st day of a ten day “High Holidays”• Yom Kippur - 10 days after Rosh ha-Shanah. Day of Atonement. Most solemn day of calendar. Recite prayers, some fast• Sukkot - Also called Tabernacles/Booth. 5 days after Yom Kippur. Booths in backyard, waving branches• Hanukkah - November/December. Lasts 8 days. Festival commemorating the victory of the Maccabees ocer Syrian armies (175 BC). Lighting “menorah”, (lampstand); eating special foods• Purim - February/March. Recalls story of Esther• Passover - March/April. Lasts a week but ceremonial meal “seder” only on first two nights• Shavuot - Also called Festival of Weeks. May/June. Law given to
  32. 32. PRACTICES OF JUDAISM• The annual holiday cycle• Circumcision of sons on eighth day• Bar mitzvah (for boys) & bat mitzvah (for girls). Coming of age ceremony at thirteen• Observing the Sabbath. Many who do not observe still prepare a special family meal for the Sabbath on Friday evening• Wearing phylacteries - small black boxes containing Scriptures that must be wrapped around arm & forehead, according to set time & pattern. Practiced only traditional Jews• Placing “mezuzah” - small box containing various Scriptures, on door posts of home.• Keeping “kosher” (dietary laws). eg prohibition of milk & meat at one meal. Strictly observed by Orthodox Jews, loosely by others• Scripture - Old Testament. Other books include Talmud containing “Mishnah & Gemara”
  33. 33. SELECTED PROPHECIES FULFILLED IN JESUS (1) PROPHECY FULFILLMENTMessiah will be seed of Abraham Gen “Jesus .. the son of David...son of18:18; Isaac 21:12; Jacob Num 24:17,19; Judah..son of Jacob...son of Isaac, theJudah Gen 49:10; Jesse Isa 11:1-2, 10: son of Abraham Luke 3:31-33David Jer 23:5-6 So Joseph also went up from the townBorn in Bethlehem of Nazareth ... to Bethlehem the townMicah 5:2 also John 7:42 of David Luke 2:4He was despised and rejected by men Those who passed by [the cross] hurledIsa 53:3 insults at him .. Matt 27:39-44 The [Jesus] said to them,’My soul isA man of sorrows Isaiah 53;3 overwhelmed with sorrow to the point of death” Matt 26:38 ...... the Son of man must suffer manyFamiliar with suffering Isa 53:3 things Mk 8:31; Luke 24:26 Go back & report to John..The blindThen will the eyes of the blind be receive sight, the lame walk, those whoopened & the ears of the deaf have leprosy are cured,the deaf hear,
  34. 34. SELECTED PROPHECIES FULFILLED IN JESUS (11) PROPHECY FULFILLMENTthe lord has anointed me to preach the good news is preached to the poorgood news to the poor Isa 61:1 Mat 11:4-5; Luke 4:18Surely he took up our infirmities & [Jesus] drove out the spirit with a wordcarried our sorrows Isa 53:4 & healed all the sick mat 8: 16-17 ..when they came to Jesus & found thatThey must not ...break any of [the he was already dead, they did not breakPassover lamb’s] bones Num 9:12; He his legs. Instead, one of the soldierswas pierced Isa 53:5. They have pierced pierced Jesus’ side with a spear Johnmy hands & feet Psa 22:16; Zech 12:10 19:33-37He was pierced for our transgressions, The Son of Man [came] to give his life ashe was crushed for our iniquities ... the a ransom for many mat 20:28 GodLord has laid on him the iniquity of us made him who had no sin to be sin forall Isa 53:5-6 us 2 Cor 5:21 John 11:49-51 1 Cor 15:3He was oppressed & afflicted, yet he Bot Jesus remained silent mat 26: 63
  35. 35. SELECTED PROPHECIES FULFILLED IN JESUS (111) PROPHECY FULFILLMENT [Jesus] garment was seamless woven inThey divided my garments among them one piece.. Let’s decide by lot who will& cast lots for my clothing Psa 22:18 get it Joh 19:23-24 Judas: I have sinned for I have betrayedHe had done no violence, nor was any innocent blood Mat 27:4; Luke 23:41; 2deceit in his mouth Isa 53:9 Cor 5:21He was numbered with the Two robbers were crucified with himtransgressors Isa 53:12 mat 27:38; Luke 22:37 There came a rich man ... took the bodyHe was assigned a grave .. with the rich & placed it in his own new tomb Matin his death Isa 53:9 27: 57-60He made intercession for the Father forgive them for they do nottransgressors Isa 53:12 know what they are doing Luke 23:34You will not abandoned me to the Why do you look for the living amonggrave nor let your Holy One see decay the dead? He is not here; he has risen
  36. 36. TAOISM
  37. 37. TAOISM & CHRISTIANITY TAOISM CHRISTIANITY The Tao -an impersonal force; Personal God. Knowable in aULTIMATE unknowable in a personal way personal way Ying/Yang duality flows from Goodness comes from character GOOD- Tao Good & evil co-equal of God. Unlike Taoism evil not NESS mutually dependent necessary for existence Has always existed, not created; Moral laws like laws of Creation of God. MorallyNATURE nature. Cause/effect neutral; persons are moral consequences Life is in disorder as we do not Life is in chaos because we havePROBLEM align with flow of nature rebelled against God Use own ability to align self Repent of sin & trust in Jesus. LetSOLUTION with Tao & ‘go with the flow’ Holy Sprit transform our lives
  39. 39. ASPECTS OF “JEN” - CONFUCIANISM “Jen” is goal for ideal humanity. Actualizes full potential inTHE GOAL manifesting moral perfection Process in achieving ideal includes self -reflection, self PROCESS -cultivation & moral responsibilityFOUNDAT- “Jen” is the true nature that resides within each person. ION This true nature is good EARLY WORLDVIEW OF CONFUCIANISTS TRUE Jen is basic humanity & is good. Provides source for allHUMANITY virtues & ritesMANDATE Jen is a moral heavenly mandate. Heaven refers to natural FROM law & moral order of things HEAVENBASIS FOR Harmonious living based on person’s realization &HARMONY actualization of Jen
  40. 40. CONFUCIANISTS WORLDVIEW Before Confucius God spoken as personal. Confucius GOD spoke of Ultimate Reality with less personal meaning MANDATE The moral order of things within nature. HarmonyFROM HEAVEN results when humanity strives to abide by this order CENTRAL Affirm humanity’s inherent goodness & look for a CONCERN way to actualize it Basically good & potentially perfect. Evil comes when HUMAN we are forced to act in that way or let our minds fall NATURE into evil inclination WAY TO Includes education, self-reflection, self-cultivation & ACTUALIZE behaving within accepted norms in our culture World is a place where one practices goodness, loveTHE WORLD one another & work hard to nourish the earth A creative mortal power & an impersonal principle.
  41. 41. THE NEW AGE
  42. 42. NEW AGE & CHRISTIANITY (1) NEW AGE CHRISTIANITY Impersonal. Without moral Personal distinction. Life force that Morally holyGOD underlies nature; existential Creator. Transcendent substance beneath all things Distinct from creation Divine. UnconditionallyHUMA- extended from the oneness, Made in God’s image NITY but we are ignorant of our true divine nature Gaining new perspective by Reconciled to God thro’ theSALVA- self effort of inter atoning work of Jesus Christ & TION -connectedness of all things given new life by the power of with the divine oneness the Holy Spirit Spiritual progression for Spent in either heaven or hell, LIFE attaining enlightenment. in fellowship or separation fromAFTER Expanding consciousness into the personal God Universal mind
  43. 43. NEW AGE & CHRISTIANITY (11) NEW AGE CHRISTIANITY Basis Based on God’s grace. cannot Based on human effortSalvation merit salvationMeaning Individual to merge with Individual to be reconciled withSalvation impersonal oneness the Person of God Not only our example but our“Jesus” Our example substitute for death penaltyProgress Salvation is gradual process as Salvation immediate & receivedsalvation we strive for perfection by faith in ChristPath to Many paths to God Only one way God