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  1. 1. If they don’t learn the way Unlock you teach, teach the way they learn. potentialIf you teach the same curriculum, to all the students, at the same time, at thesame rate, using the same materials, with the same instructional methods, with thesame expectations for performance, and grade on a curve, you have fertile groundfor growing special education. -Gary German, 2003 Learning Styles and RtIResponse to Intervention (RtI) is an educational initiative designed to help allstudents be successful in the classroom. Through RtI, schools will act ascommunities of learning to effectively address the needs of the strugglingstudents by using research-/evidence-based best practices.One best practice based on research that we know works with struggling studentsis to teach to the child’s particular learning style. Learning styles are simplydifferent ways to approach learning. A person’s specific learning style is the waythat individual learns best. As a classroom teacher, knowing your students’ learningstyles will greatly help you to ensure that all students are successful. Students’learning styles should be considered when planning instruction, arranging flexiblegroups, designing cooperative groups, and implementing differentiation ofinstruction.There are several theories related to learning styles with the most commonapproach addressing three types of learners: visual, auditory, and tactile-kinesthetic. Children often have a preferred learning style in which to receive andprocess information. Some children may have two preferred learning styles, butone is usually a primary choice for instruction with the other being a secondarychoice. Children also have one learning style that is the most ineffective for them. 1
  2. 2. If classroom instruction does not match a child’s primary, or even secondarylearning style, the child will have difficulty learning and retaining information.Having students complete a learning style inventory will give you information aboutyour students’ preferred learning styles. You will be provided with a basic learningstyle inventory that can be used with students at all grade levels. Interest surveysare another tool to use in determining the most effective means of instruction forstudents. Many more in-depth learning style inventories and interest surveys areavailable online. You will be provided with links to several suggested websites withinformation about learning styles and inventories.All information, materials, and handouts are posted on the learning styles websitefound at: http://www.liberty.k12.ga.us/jwalts 2
  3. 3. The Need for Addressing DifferencesMake a picture in your mind of a high school football team. It is the week beforethe big game. Jot down some things you know a good coach will do with his playersto get them ready to win. Strategy the coach will use How it will help players win 3
  4. 4. The Need for Addressing Differences Did you think of these?Strategy the coach will use How it will help players win Discuss / describe Players will hear from the coach and strategies that will work other team members as they describe against the opposing the plays. They will run the plays in team. their mind. ~ Auditory approach ~ Players will look at and Players will see the big picture of the study diagrams of the play and will also see clearly where they various plays they will fit into the play. They can visualize use. their movement through the play. ~ Visual approach ~ Players will practice Players will be able to quickly identify their individual moves. the moves they have mastered and They will get hands on those they still need to practice. the ball. ~Tactile approach ~ Players will have a full Players will not only see what they have blown scrimmage. They to do, but what others have to do. They will actually get fully will need to communicate with others involved in the game. and be totally involved. ~Kinesthetic approach~ 4
  5. 5. Learning Styles Inventory1. If I have to learn how to do something, I learn best when I: a. Watch someone show me how. b. Hear someone tell me how. c. Try to do it myself.2. When I read, I often find that I: a. Visualize what I am reading in my mind’s eye. b. Read out loud or hear the words in my head. c. Fidget and try to “feel” content.3. When asked to give directions, I: a. See actual places in my mind as I say them, OR prefer to draw them. b. Have no difficulty in giving them verbally. c. Have to point or move my body as I give them.4. If I am unsure how to spell a word, I: a. Write it in order to determine if it looks right. b. Spell it out loud in order to determine if it sounds right. c. Write it in the air with my finger to see if it feels right.5. When I write, I: a. Am concerned about how neat and well-spaced my letters and words appear. b. Often say the letters and words to myself. c. Push hard on my pen or pencil so I can feel the flow of the words or letters as I form them.6. If I have to remember a list of items, I remember it best if I: a. Write them down. b. Say them over and over to myself. c. Move around and use my fingers to name each one.7. I prefer teachers who: a. Use the board or overhead projector while they lecture. b. Talk with a lot of expression. c. Use hands-on activities or manipulatives. 5
  6. 6. 8. When trying to concentrate, I have a difficult time when: a. There is a lot of clutter or movement in the room. b. There is a lot of noise in the room. c. I have to sit still for any length of time.9. When solving a problem, I: a. Write or draw diagrams to see it. b. Talk myself through it. c. Use my entire body or move objects to help me think.10. When given written instructions on how to build something, I: a. Read them silently and try to visualize how the parts will fit together. b. Read them out loud and talk to myself as I put the parts together. c. Try to put the parts together first and read later.11. To stay occupied while waiting, I: a. Look around, stare, or read. b. Talk or listen to others. c. Walk around, manipulate things with my hands, fidget, move/shake my feet as I sit.12. If I have to verbally describe something to another person, I: a. Be brief because I do not like to talk at length. b. Go into great detail because I like to talk. c. Gesture and move around while talking.13. If someone is verbally describing something to me, I: a. Try to visualize what she is saying. b. Enjoy listening, but would want to interrupt and talk myself. c. Become bored if her description got too long and detailed.14. When trying to recall names, I remember: a. Faces, but forget names. b. Names, but forget faces. c. The situation that I was in when I met the other person (rather than the person’s name or face.) 6
  7. 7. Scoring Instructions: a. = Visual learner b. = Auditory learner c. = Tactile/kinesthetic learnerAdd the number of responses for each letter and enter the total below. The areawith the highest number of responses is probably your primary mode or style oflearning. a) Visual learner = _____________________ b) Auditory learner = ___________________ c) Tactile/kinesthetic learner = ___________Websites for learning styles inventories:http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.htmlhttp://www.learning-styles-online.com/inventory/http://www.rrcc-online.com/~psych/LSInventory.htmlhttp://www.ldpride.net/learning-style-test.htmlhttp://english.glendale.cc.ca.us/learn.styles.htmlhttp://ttc.coe.uga.edu/surveys/LearningStyleInv.htmlReview these quick and easy learning styles inventories. Which one do you thinksuits your students best? 7
  8. 8. Learning Styles Classroom ApplicationOnce you know your students’ learning styles, you can meet their academic needswith more focus. You can diagnose and prescribe instruction with greaterspecificity. Let’s look at the individual pieces of the puzzle. Auditory Visual Kinesthetic Tactile 8
  9. 9. The Visual Learner Visual learners need to see, watch, and observe. Their eyes are the keys to learning.Characteristics of the Visual Learner: Teaching the Visual Learner:*Prefers to see written word. *Provide written rather than verbal instructions. *Seat students where they can see and hear the teacher.*Enjoys decorating their learning areas and *Permit student to “doodle” as long as it ismaterials. related to the content.*Enjoys visual arts activities. *Allow students to show what they have learned in visual ways (diagrams, models, dioramas, etc.)*Prefers to have a visual depiction of the *Include pictures, timelines, diagrams,content along with a description. charts, graphs, maps, models ~ these will bring learning to life for the visual student.*Prefers photographs and illustrationsrather than printed content. *Offer video/film clips when available.*Remembers and understands through theuse of diagrams, charts, maps.*Carefully organizes learning materials. *Offer outlines, highlight key phrases, give student detailed directions and a timeline for completion. *Use sentence strips.*Appreciates presentations using *Utilize technology when applicable.interactive whiteboard, transparencies,handouts. *Flash cards are a simple tool to use.*Studies materials by reading notes and *Provide note-taking guides duringorganizing information. instruction. *Use color coding when appropriate. *Organize visual patterns (word families, number families. 9
  10. 10. Activities for the Visual Learner * Make it visual *Create ♥ diagrams, ♥ graphs, ♥ books, ♥ posters, ♥ collages, ♥ newspapers, ♥ brochures, ♥ cartoons, ♥ dioramas, ♥ webpages.Develop ♥ PowerPoint presentations, ♥ movies, ♥ TV shows. ♥ Photo StoryAllow students toLearn utilizing ♥ pictures, ♥ recipes, ♥ magazines, ♥ maps, ♥ charts, ♥ videos, ♥ games, ♥ bulletin boards 10
  11. 11. The Auditory Learner Auditory learners need to hear new information in order to process it. Their ears are the keys to learning.Characteristics of the Auditory Teaching the Auditory Learner:Learner:*Remembers what they say. *Permit them to repeat or restate new learning in their own words.*Remembers what others say to them. *Read out loud - echo reading activities*Remembers best through verbal repetition. - choral reading activities - books on tape/listening center*Needs to hear things said out loud. *Use flash cards or other graphic representations along with a verbal restatement; say information out loud.*Prefers to discuss ideas they do not *Allow the auditory learner to study with aimmediately understand. friend so they can hear it again.*Enjoys class and group discussions. *Allow group work.*Finds it difficult to work quietly for long *Combine lecture with class discussion.periods of time.*Remembers verbal directions well. *Give verbal instructions.*Enjoys dramatic presentations of *Allow students to submit work via oralinformation, including the use of music. presentations *Reader’s Theatre*Verbally expresses interest and *Be proactive.enthusiasm. ♥ Use grip paper when doing math calculations.*Often does not verbalize struggles. ♥ Use different colors and pictures in notes. ♥ Highlight key points and vocabulary. 11
  12. 12. Activities for the Auditory Learner * Show it * * Model it *Create ♥ Teams ♥ Partners ♥ Oral response activities (retelling)Develop opportunities to share orally: ♥ PowerPoint presentations, ♥ Reader’s Theatre ♥ Creative dramatics ♥ Photo story ♥ Plays ♥ Radio shows ♥ TV showsAllow students toLearn utilizing ♥ Books on tape ♥ Listening centers ♥ Videos ♥ Each other - learning partners or team learning ♥ Offer students chances to hear new information before moving to independent activities. ♥ Tape recorders ♥ PVC pipe “phones” 12
  13. 13. The Tactile/Kinesthetic Learner Tactile/kinesthetic learners need to experience new information in order to process it. Their hands and bodies are the keys to learning.Characteristics of the Teaching the Tactile/KinestheticTactile/Kinesthetic Learner: Learner:*Remember what they do very well. *Allow students to transfer new information to the computer.*Remember best by getting physicallyinvolved in what is being taught. *Allow them to use computer games for reinforcement.*Enjoy acting out a situation relevant to the *Offer opportunities to present dramaticlearning topic. retellings of information. *Use Reader’s Theatre.*Enjoy physically handling the learning *Encourage the use of manipulativematerials. materials.* Does best when involved in hands-on *Encourage student to “doodle” by drawingactivities. visual representations of material. *Cover desk with colored paper to permit instructional doodling.* Physically expresses interest and *Give instructions first, then pass outenthusiasm by getting active and excited. materials.(claps, jumps up and down, runs to workarea) *Cut a long worksheet in segments and give one segment at a time.*Has trouble staying still or in one place for *Allow students to be class messengers,very long. pass out materials - move about the class for acceptable reasons. *Start with short work periods and gradually lengthen. 13
  14. 14. *Has trouble staying still or in one place for *Vary daily activities to offset long periodsvery long. of sitting; this student learns best when he/she is active. *Permit students to move throughout the room quietly; may have more than one learning area (desk, floor, table, pillows)*Frequently want to eat snacks while *Permit healthful snacks or drinks duringstudying. the day.*Enjoy sports, PE. *Alternate quiet and active periods during the instructional day.*Often struggle in the traditionallinguistic/logical classroom setting. *Take frequent breaks.*Often fidget during forced periods of *Allow students to quietly fidget with astillness. squeeze ball.*Has trouble attending, staying on task. *Close eyes when trying to memorize. *Write information in the air. *Sometimes allowing these students to read through colored transparencies helps them focus. *When reading, use the whole-to-part approach-try to get a feel for the book, story, or passage (SQ3R): ♥ Scan picture first ♥ Read headings ♥ Read first and last paragraph 14
  15. 15. Activities for the Tactile/Kinesthetic Learner * Hold it * * Do it * * Be it *Create ♥ Teams ♥ Partners ♥ Performance/acting out experiencesDevelop opportunities to: ♥ Do projects ♥ Have laboratory experiences ♥ Craft ♥ Draw ♥ ConstructAllow students toLearn utilizing ♥ Hands-on activities ♥ Manipulatives ♥ Number lines ♥ Tap/clap syllables 15
  16. 16. Ideas for Differentiating Instruction Based on Learning Styles Type Description SuggestionsContent Group students based on Small group instruction(What knowledge/skills the similar readiness levels Pairsstudents will learn) determined by pretests and Collaborative groups accessing prior knowledge Jigsaw groups activities. Center work Appropriate text based on reading level Visual Graphic organizers Provide notes Visuals/pictures Maps/diagrams Written directions/ assignments Drawings Story maps Cartoons AuditoryProcess Group students based on Tapes(how the student will learn learning styles/interests Lecturesthe knowledge/skills) determined by inventories, Discussions observations, student Group work choice. Repeat directions/ assignments Debates Oral reports Drama Literature circles Tactile-Kinesthetic Manipulatives Artifacts Models Hands-on projects Physical movement DramaProduct Group students based on Oral presentations(how the students will show interest/learning style Written assignmentsyou what they have learned) determined by inventories, Projects observations, student Models choice. Drama Tests Technology Presentations 16
  17. 17. Lesson Planning Template for Learning Styles VisualAuditory Tactile/Kinesthetic 17
  18. 18. Primary MathAnimal Mathematics 1. Use Animals Colors and Shapes to introduce common colors and shapes in the animal world. After watching the program, ask students to share examples shapes they have seen. What body part of most animals is circular? What animals have triangles? What animals have rhomboids? 2. Talk about the students favorite animals. What colors can be found on them? Discuss some of the purposes of color in the animal world. Why are the feathers on most male birds bright colors, while female birds have gray or brown? How do some animals use color to stay hidden? Why are some snakes brightly colored? 3. Share print images of animals. Talk about the different colors and shapes of these animals. Tell students that they are going to create pictures of animals with different shapes. They will also draw a picture of the animals habitat. 4. Demonstrate using a print image as an example. Talk about the animal. What kind of environment would you expect to find this animal in? Have students describe where this animal might live. Does it live in a desert or a forest? Using crayons, quickly draw the environment on a piece of white construction paper. Next, talk about the different shapes students might see on the animal. What shape are its ears? What shape is its body? Use different size construction-paper shapes to create the animal. Arrange the shapes on the background habitat, being sure to tell students that you will not use glue until it looks the way you want it to. Finally, glue the shapes on the background habitat. Demonstrate using crayons to make additional lines that should appear (such as whiskers) on the animal. 5. Making sure that students understand what they are supposed to do, give them print images of animals and tell them to choose one to copy for their picture. Have them first draw the background habitat and then use the paper shapes to make their animal. Check student work before allowing them to glue their animal shapes to the background. 6. Once students have finished their pictures, ask volunteers to share them. Talk about the shapes they used. Discuss the colors of the animals. Ask about the animals habitats. Does the color of the animal help it blend into its habitat? Display the finished pictures in the classroom. VISUAL GROUPING AUDITORY TACTILE/KINESTHETIC 18
  19. 19. Intermediate Social StudiesThe Civil WarObjectives1. The student will be able to describe the reason for the start and end of the Civil War.2. The student will be able to name and discuss the Civil War Generals.3. The student will be able to compare the views of the North and South and discuss what wouldhave happened if the South won.4. The student will be able to discuss the Emancipation Proclamation and what they would havedone the same/different.Learning Experiences1. Using the textbook and class notes, the students will complete worksheets on the Civil War2. In groups the students will complete essay answers on Generals Grant and Lee.3. In groups students using the computer program “The Civil War: Two Views” will be given anassigned side (North or South) and build arguments for their side and then decide what wouldhave happened if the South had won.4. Using materials from the class or library the students will write a three page research paper ona battle or person from the Civil War with topic approval from the instructor.5. After watching the video on the Emancipation Proclamation students will fill out a worksheeton the video.Teaching Learning Mode1. To meet objectives one and four, the students will work individually, objective four willrequire student presentations and class discussion.2. To meet objective two, students will work with partners and share answers with the class.3. To meet objective three, students will work in groups of four with a debate (North againstSouth).VISUAL GROUPINGAUDITORYTACTILE/KINESTHETIC 19
  20. 20. MIDDLE SCHOOL SCIENCE: LIFE SCIENCEEcosystems1. Begin the lesson by reviewing the topics covered under the term "life science." To spur conversation, remind students that this area of science relates to all the organisms on Earth, what they look like, where they live, their characteristics, and how some organisms relate to each other. After this brief introduction, students may suggest the following topics: o Plants o Animals and the habitats in which they live o The human body o Microorganisms o Advances in medicine2. Tell students they will focus on one life science topic—the relationship between plants and animals in the ecosystem of Serengeti, in Tanzania, Africa. Ecosystem is the term used to describe an ecological community of living things interacting with their environment.3. Ask students to watch the segments entitled "Predator and Prey" and "Grasslands" in The Basics: Life Science and to pay close attention to information about the food chain, which is the relationship of plants and animals based on what animals eat.4. After viewing, have students work in groups of three to illustrate the elements of the food chain on the Serengeti. Each group will draw a picture of the food chain and write a description that includes the following details: o A definition of a food chain o A summary of the organisms in the food chain, clearly describing who eats whom o Definitions of the terms "herbivore," "carnivore," and "scavenger" and how these terms help explain a food chain5. Give students time in class to work on their projects or let them finish the assignment as homework.6. During the next class period, ask each group to share its poster and description. Then discuss what students have learned from this project. How does describing an ecosystem in terms of the food chain help clarify the roles its organisms? How does it make the behavior of animals easier to understand?VISUAL GROUPINGAUDITORYTACTILE/KINESTHETIC 20
  21. 21. High School Language ArtsDon Quixote1. Ask students to defend Quixote’s perception that the windmills are an enemy force. That is, ask them to explain what in the appearance of the windmills and in Quixote’s self- image causes the error in perception. Explain that because of an illness Quixote’s imagination is distorted, but go on to suggest that sometimes even the sanest of people see an everyday object as something else entirely. Often, the people who perceive one object and describe it as something else are poets. In this activity, you will help students write quixotic, or imaginative, descriptions of ordinary objects. Other students will try to figure out what real-world object the writer had in mind.2. Share with students a few examples of highly metaphoric poetry. Examples include • Emily Dickinson’s “I Like to See It Lap the Miles”—a train described as a horse • Robert Francis’s “The Base Stealer”—a baseball player described as a tightrope- walker among other things • Carl Sandburg’s “Fog”—fog described as a cat • May Swenson’s “Southbound on the Freeway”—automobiles described (by a tourist from Orbitville) as living objects Read the poems listed or other poems without telling students the titles, and then lead a discussion of what the poet seems to be describing and what he or she really is describing. You might consider the question of why the poet took this indirect approach to description.3. Ask students to think (to themselves) of objects that might be seen—especially, by someone (such as the tourist from Orbitville) who has never seen them before—as something else. Here are some suggestions to stimulate students’ thinking: • a movie projected on a free-standing screen thought to be ______________ • a toaster without any bread in it thought to be ___________________ • a lampshade thrown out with the trash thought to be ________________ • a fire extinguisher thought to be _____________4. With the prewriting notes that the students have prepared in the preceding step, they should now be ready to draft a metaphoric description of their objects in prose or poetry.5. Give each student a chance to read his prose or poem to one or more other students in the class. Can the listeners figure out what the reader, below the surface of the prose or poem, is describing? Do the listeners find the description apt and entertaining or obvious and boring? Encourage classmates to give revising and editing advice to one another.VISUAL GROUPINGAUDITORYTACTILE/KINESTHETIC 21
  22. 22. Coat Rack Sink Area S S S S S P P S P P G Workshop/Centers Area Bulletin Board G P PWindows G G S Teacher Desk S Whole Group Area Bookcase Teacher chair Door Dry Erase Board Interactive White Board Sample Classroom Arrangement 22
  23. 23. Snack Ideas for Healthy Learners And Balanced Nutrition ♥ Foods need to be healthful. ♥ Best if not artificially sweetened or colored. ♥ Nothing should be fried or greasy.WaterJuiceGranola or cereal barsGrapesBananasApple slicesCheese cubesString cheeseCrackers with peanut butterPretzelsFoods to Avoid:Potato chipsSodaPop tarts Bright Ideas!Oranges (too messy) ♥ Foods need to be fingerFruit roll ups (too sticky) foods that require no prep.Raisins (just like gum in your ♥ Keep wet wipes on hand. carpet) ♥ Allow students to useCookies antiseptic hand sanitizer. ♥ Have paper towels handy. 23
  24. 24. Instructional Resources 24
  25. 25. Glossary1. Auditory Learner – learns best through listening, conversation, discussion, hearing.2. Choral reading – everyone reads together at the same time.3. Echo reading – teacher reads and then students echo or repeat.4. Jigsaw activity – a small group activity that breaks large assignments into smaller, more manageable segments. Each group becomes the “expert” on a section of the material and then shares their knowledge with the whole group.5. Kinesthetic Learner – wants to be fully engaged in the learning process; all senses are involved.6. Literature Circles – a small group activity based on a book club model. Students read, discuss, share stories while learning reading strategies.7. Photo Story – a technology driven production that seams together photographs to tell a story.8. POI – Pyramid of Intervention. a. Tier I – standards-based classroom learning and universal interventions that are available to all students. b. Tier II – More intensive services and targeted interventions are provided in addition to instruction in the general curriculum. c. Tier III – SST: Targeted students participate in learning that is in addition to Tier I and Tier II and includes interventions tailored to individual needs. d. Tier IV – Eligibility for special education services would be considered. 25
  26. 26. 9. Reader’s Theatre – Students take parts and act out a story. This brings a story to life.10. RTI – Response to Intervention: an educational initiative designed to help all students be successful in the classroom.11. SQ3R – Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review: a whole-to-part approach to making long passages easier to manage.12. Tactile Learner – learns best through hands-on manipulation of learning.13. Visual Learner – learns best through reading, viewing, looking at, observing. 26
  27. 27. Unlocking Potential Student Interest Survey (sample)Name_____________________________ Date______________ Grade_____Directions: Please complete this survey and answer the questions to the best ofyour ability. This will help your teacher have a better understanding of how youlearn and what type of classroom environment you prefer. 1. What is your favorite subject in school? __________________________ 2. What is your least favorite subject in school? ______________________ 3. When working on a project, do you like working alone, with a partner, or in a group? Explain. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. When you are working or learning, where are you most comfortable? ___at your desk ____on the floor ____at a table ____other (________) 5. What are your favorite ways to learn? (Choose as many as you like.) Listening to a Working with Working in a Listening to a lecture. a friend. group. book on tape. Figuring it out Doing Doing research Watching an myself; doing research in a on the educational homework. library. internet. video.Other: 6. What two words best describe you as a learner? _________________________ __________________________ 7. When you are not at school and you have free time, what are your three favorite activities? 27
  28. 28. Find Out More About Learning Styles and Cheer Your Team On!http://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htmhttp://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/http://www.funderstanding.com/learning_styles.cfmhttp://agelesslearner.com/assess/learningstyle.htmlhttp://www.usd.edu/trio/tut/ts/style.htmlhttp://www.trcc.commnet.edu/Ed_Resources/TASC/Training/Learning_Styles.htmhttp://www.personal.psu.edu/bxb11/LSI/LSI.htm 28