GPB LIVE-STREAMING PROFESSIONAL LEARNING GRADE 3 FEBRUARY 29, 2012 ADDENDUM TO RESOURCE PACKET: SMARTBOARD MATERIAL
+Text example for teaching figurative language.TREESI THINK that I shall never seeA poem lovely as a tree.A tree whose hungry mouth is prestAgainst the earths sweet flowing breast;A tree that looks at God all day,And lifts her leafy arms to pray;A tree that may in summer wearA nest of robins in her hair;Upon whose bosom snow has lain;Who intimately lives with rain.Poems are made by fools like me,But only God can make a tree. - Joyce Kilmer
Example of an inadequate, DOK Level 1 set of questions on that poem.1. This is a line from Joyce Kilmer’s poem “Trees”: And lifts her leafy arms to prayThis line seems to be saying that trees have arms. What kind offigurative language is this?a) metaphor b) simile c) personification d) verb2. Which of these lines from the poem is “literal,” (means exactlywhat it says):a) Poems are made by fools like meb) a nest of robins in her hairc) a tree whose hungry mouth is prest3. Identify 3 descriptive words in the poem:___________________ ___________________________________________
Additional texts that could be added to the poem to increase the rigor of thelesson.Winnie the Pooh thought he looked like a little black cloud floating upinto the blue. “Every little cloud always sings aloud!” sang Pooh, ashe floated among the welcoming branches of the leafy oak tree. Upabove he could hear the buzzing of the bees. Pooh thought he lookedvery much indeed like a cloud, but the bees were buzzing assuspiciously as ever.(Note that this one is an informational text.)The Mandolin Trail in northern California winds peacefully through thetrees which bend and rise toward Mount Tamalpais. Boys and girlsfrom local scout troops had volunteered to help clean up the litterfrom the trail. As they worked, they listened to the songs in the leavesand on the breeze as they picked up the bottles, cans, and wrappersleft behind by littering visitors. The scouts were tired but happy asthey left the mountainside at dusk, and the Mandolin Trail showed herthanks with a golden sunset and a leafy goodbye.
Rigorous, CCGPS-appropriate writing prompts that represent a betterassessment on these texts.Prompt 1We have read a poem, a paragraph from Winnie the Pooh, and anarticle about boys and girls who helped clean up a hiking trail. Allthree of the texts talked about trees. Using words from the texts,show how each author used figures of speech (non-literal words) todescribe the trees, and tell why you think the author decided to usefigures of speech instead of just saying what he or she meant directly.Prompt 2We have read a poem, a paragraph from Winnie the Pooh, and anarticle about boys and girls who helped clean up a hiking trail. Allthree of the texts talked about trees using figures of speech (non-literal words). Authors usually use figures of speech to help describethings in a way that is more powerful than just using adjectives. Forexample, if you really like ice cream, you might say ice cream is like aparty in your stomach! That is a little more interesting than justsaying you like it, isn’t it? It lets your reader know that you like icecream because it is like a party: festive, sweet, special, delicious, andfun. Find the figures of speech describing trees in two of the threepieces of text above (any two you choose), and explain how you thinkthe author wanted you to feel about those trees.
Student work sample in response to the second prompt on the previous page. In the Winnie the Pooh story, the author saidthe tree had “welcoming branches.” When someoneis welcoming to you, it means they want you to bethere. I think in this story the author must havewanted to make me feel like Winnie the Pooh wasin a friendly place where he belonged when he wasin the Hundred Acre Wood. In the poem abouttrees, the author said that the tree was like a poem.Poems are pretty and they are fancy and sometimesthey are complicated. I think the author probablywanted me to think that a tree was beautiful likethat. She also made the tree do things, like wear ahat made of a bird’s nest and lift its arms. Thatmade me think that tree was like a person, so itmade me feel like a tree could be my friend. Shemust want me to like trees more.
Science-content text (This is not meant to represent grade3 text or to have a connection to grade 3 sciencestandards. It is simply provided as an example of how touse disciplinary lenses to consider the purpose of a textand how to better analyze informationaltext. Please see the corresponding PPT slide to see thegraphic organizer that accompanies this text.)Everything is made of chemicals, and chemicals can be sorted into variouscategories. Some chemicals are acids. Some chemicals are bases. Somechemicals are in between acids and bases and are called neutral.Acids have a sour taste and can create certain reactions in addition to thecolor change in the next paragraph. Acids can react with limestone toproduce carbon dioxide or react with various bases to form salts and water.Bases have a bitter taste and sometimes a soapy or slippery feel. Theyreact with oils and grease, as well as reacting with acids to form salts andwater. Acids produce protons (H+) and bases produce hydroxide ions(OH-)Red cabbage juice has an interesting property; it changes colors dependingupon whether it is exposed to an acid or a base (cabbage juice is known asan acid/base indicator). Cabbage juice is naturally neutral. When it isneutral, it is a purplish color. If an acid is poured into it, it will turn reddish. Ifa base is added, it turns blue or greenish. Vinegarmakes your juice turn red, so vinegar is an acid.Baking-soda makes it turn blue or greenish, sobaking-soda is a base.By mixing an acid to a base (like when you addedvinegar to your baking-soda and juice mixture), youmade your solution become more an acidic. As you add acid, your solutionchanges from a base (blue/greenish) to a neutral solution (purple) andfinally to an acidic solution (reddish). The opposite is true when you add abase to an acid solution.
ELA graphic organizer illustrating the inadequacy of using an ELA lens in consideringtext from other domains. FIVE W’S AND AN H COMPREHENSION CHARTWho StudentsWhat Experiment about acids and basesWhen I don’t know when they did the experimentWhere The kitchenWhy To prove that they change color in cabbage juiceHow By putting acids and bases in cabbage juice and seeing what color they change to
Grade 3-appropriate content science text used to illustrate the principle of disciplinarylenses for considering domain-specific text. Fossils are rock prints of plants and animals.These prints were made millions of years ago.Plants and animals got buried under layers of dirtand mud. Pressure turned the layers into rock. Some of the best fossils are prints of things thatwere hard, like bones and seashells. There wereprobably lots of organisms that existed that werenever fossilized because they only had soft parts.There are also “trace” fossils, which are made frommarks left by animals, like footprints or teeth marks. Sometimes fossils can tell us things about theenvironment that existed when the organism wasalive. For example, some fossils show evidence ofthe chemicals that were in the air because ofmeteorite or volcanic activity, such as iridium. Fossils are often found far from where they wereformed. As time passed, the Earth’s crust moved.Fossils of ancient sea animals are even found onmountainsides! - Nancy Jameson, “All About Fossils”
Two graphic organizers illustrating the superiority of using the appropriate disciplinaryfocus in reading. FIVE W’S AND AN H COMPREHENSION CHARTWho Nancy JamesonWhat FossilsWhen Millions of years agoWhere Everywhere, even on a mountainsideWhy PressureHow Pressed mud into rockScience Note-Taking with Disciplinary LiteracyProcess Product Properties Results/FactsOrganisms dying Skeletons, teeth, Hard and durable Hard artifacts left in bones mud and dirtMud layers turn to Fossils Outlines and A “picture” record ofrock imprints of the what organisms organism looked likeChemicals trapped Chemical record of Chemicals such as Evidence ofin fossils environment iridium volcanic or meteoric activity, help in dating fossils
Texts representing informational choices that are thematically connected to the literary choiceson the previous page.
Instructions illustrating the use of a model (informational text) to teach steps of a process andtemporal words.ELACC3RI8: Describe the logical connection between particular sentences andparagraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in asequence).ELACC3W3c. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
Example of a DOK Level 1 reading comprehension quiz.1. What was the date of Paul Revere’s famous ride through Lexington and Concord?2. Paul Revere had to get a message to Patriot leaders John ____________ and Samuel _____________.3. What was the signal Paul Revere had been waiting for?4. What job did Paul Revere go back to doing after the Revolutionary War?5. About how many farmers were gathered and ready to fight the British?
Example of an appropriately rigorous CCGPS assessment on the same readingmaterial, with student response sample.Our unit is about Americans in history who showed courage inhelping to shape our country. What kinds of facts did the authorchoose to put in this text that helped to prove that Paul Reverewas courageous? Choose 3 facts to discuss and explain how theyshow Paul Revere’s courage. For extra points, give 3 detailsabout Paul Revere that are interesting but do not have anything todo with bravery. The author of this story told us many thingsabout Paul Revere. She told us that he made falseteeth and church bells and that he lived in Bostonand that he liked to draw, but none of those thingsprove that he was brave. One thing that does proveit is that Paul Revere was a spy against the Britishgovernment. Paul Revere had to be brave to be aspy because spies can get killed or put in jail if theyget caught, so he was taking a big chance with hislife. Also, when he was on his ride, he wasoutnumbered by the British policemen by 6 to 1, buthe still fought them and won so he could keepriding to warn people. I don’t think I would wantto fight against six people, so I think this proves hewas pretty brave. Finally, I think that when PaulRevere heard the British might be coming, he couldhave gone far away out of town with his familyand stayed safe. But instead he volunteered to beright in the middle of the danger so that he couldencourage and lead other people to be strong andto fight. To go into danger on purpose to do a goodthing proves you are very brave.
Illustration of expanded vocabulary study (words from text, words thematically related totext from other domains, and academic vocabulary. Based on Charlotte’s Web.) VOCABULARY STUDY TEXTDelectable Versatile Salutation DOMAIN-SPECIFICArachnid Mammal Agriculture ACADEMICAbstract Excerpt CompileIdentify Format