2facil skillsfeb17 19

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Skills to help any group achieve their goals.

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2facil skillsfeb17 19

  1. 1. Skills for Facilitators= Benchmarks for Groups Dr. J. V. Worstell Presentation to TSATU February 2010 www.deltanetwok.org
  2. 2. Goal: creating lasting (sustainable) rural development One indicator of success: creation of new locally-owned enterprises So, How?
  3. 3. Generating Alternatives Two approaches 1. Determine/promote best bets. •Agroecosystem fit •Market windows 2. Build teams around commitment of champions. •Commitment, passion •Tiered assistance and enterprise self-selection
  4. 4. ―We get involved with hundreds of projects, whereas they paint themselves into a corner trying to pick ―winners‖, and restricting therefore the numbers of those at the starting blocks.‖ Sirolli, 1995:124
  5. 5. ―The greatest need in agriculture today is for people who can facilitate business planning with groups of farmers.‖ Many agents have Our goal: the ability to do this. catalyze agents to catalyze Some are already facilitating new enterprises, but don‘t enterprise. see it as ―Extension.‖
  6. 6. Coalitions of Institutions Southern Illinois University Southeast Missouri Murray State State University University University of Arkansas Tennessee- State Martin University University of Arkansas-Pine Bluff Alcorn State University Challenge: field staff with ag and enterprise facilitation expertise
  7. 7. Delta Vision 1. Enterprise facilitation units 2. Marketing skills development 3. Adaptive research (e.g. product development) 4. Entrepreneurial Agriculture curriculum
  8. 8. DELTA OPPORTUNITY DAY 3rd Annual Entrepreneurial Agricultural Conference November 5, 1999 7:30 A.M. STATE OF THE DELTA BREAKFAST with U.S. Representative Jay Dickey NEW INDUSTRIES FOR THE DELTA Moderator: Chris Dionigi, Technology Transfer, USDA/ARS, New Orleans 9:00 Emerging Aquaculture Industries Fresh water shrimp Steve Fratesi, Stoneville, Mississippi, Grower Hybrid striped bass Sam Plottel, Nature‘s Catch, Clarksdale, Mississippi 9:40 Emerging Row Crop Industries Sweet Potato Mike Cannon, Louisiana State University Aromatic Rice Chuck Gibson, Specialty Rice Marketing, Brinkley, AR Ed Rister, Texas A&M University, College Station 10:40 New Technologies for New Delta Industries Healthy Home Insulation Nozar Sachinvala, USDA/ARS/SRRC 11:00 Lt. Governor Winthrop Rockefeller: Financing innovative agri-businesses 11:15 New Technologies for New Delta Industries Retrofitting Gins for Recyling Stanley Anthony, USDA/ARS 11:35 Alternate Futures for Traditional Grains Identity-Preserved Grains Pete Moss and Rod Frazier & Ethanol/Cattle Feed Frazier, Barnes and Associates, Memphis 12:30 DELTA FUTURES LUNCHEON with Senator Blanche Lincoln and USDA Undersecretary Jill Long Thompson.
  9. 9. First three years •An organic export business which reached $12 million in exports last year. • New shrimp, sweet potato, crawfish, watermelon and blueberry enterprises. • Four new agribusinesses: epoxy from sugar, building materials from cotton, kenaf and bagasse, compost from gin trash and hybrid rice seed. • Union of dozens of Delta agencies, businesses, universities and non-profits in the Delta Compact. • Delta Caucus: A joint public policy education effort joined by over 150 elected officials from the Delta. • A Delta Export Center funded at $1 million a year (joint UA, ASU project). • Delta Opportunity Days: yearly event in each state for farmers and elected officials to inspire new industries in the Delta. •Passed responsibility to individual states.
  10. 10. Kentucky‘s statewide strategy to increase marketing alternatives Identify individuals with specific value- Extension added diversification interests facilitates Link individuals and form teams to pursue common vad Joint effort of interests state and farmer groups to develop marketing Organize new alternatives cooperatives, associations, and networks State institutions are transformed with far more staff Go to legislature working to develop for more funding value-added alternatives
  11. 11. Building teams of skills •Marketing •Feasibility Analysis •Raising capital •Business structures •Securities & patent law Our technological and intellectual potential is at its greatest level ever, yet our ability to work collaboratively lags far behind. Peter Drucker et al.
  12. 12. Stages of group development Tuckman Gyr forming exploring storming systematizing norming venturing performing integrating
  13. 13. Think about teams you’ve been a part of which generated lots of innovations, made lots of progress. What did those teams have in common?
  14. 14. Someone had faith. ―My faith was in people, and in their universal characteristics of wanting to become something, of enjoying good work, of achieving respect and self-respect, by performing beautifully and being human...I had faith that in Esperance, like anywhere else in the world, there would be individuals that at that very moment were dreaming, discussing even sketching on their kitchen table, their ideas for that special something they wanted to do. I knew, not only with my head but with my heart as well, that the only thing I had to do was to become available to those people and facilitate the transformation of their dreams into good work. faith trust commitment
  15. 15. STONE SOUP (Construct the story around the room We are constructing something new here You do it everytime you facilitate a group.) Three soldiers trudged down a road in a strange country. they were on their way home from the wars. Besides being tired, they were hungry. In fact, they had eaten nothing for two days. "How I would like a good dinner tonight," said the first. "And a bed to sleep in," added the second. "But that is impossible," said the third. On they marched, until suddenly, ahead of them, they saw the lights of a village. "Maybe we'll find a bite to eat and a bed to sleep in," they thought.
  16. 16. Now the peasants of the place feared strangers. When they heard that three soldiers were coming down the road, they talked among themselves. "Here come three soldiers," they said. "Soldiers are always hungry. But we have so little for ourselves." And they hurried to hide their food. They hid the barley in hay lofts, carrots under quilts, and buckets of milk down the wells. They hid all they had to eat. Then they waited. The soldiers stopped at the first house. "Good evening to you," they said. "Could you spare a bit of food for three hungry soldiers?" "We have no food for ourselves," the residents lied. "It has been a poor harvest." The soldiers went to the next house. "Could you spare a bit of food?" they asked. "And do you have a corner where we could sleep for the night?" "Oh, no," the man said. "We gave all we could spare to the soldiers who came before you." "And our beds are full," lied the woman.
  17. 17. At each house, the response was the same -- no one had food or a place for the soldiers to stay. The peasants had very good reasons, like feeding the sick and children. The villagers stood in the street and sighed. They looked as hungry as they could. The soldiers talked together. The first soldier called out, "Good people! We are three hungry soldiers in a strange land. We have asked you for food and you have no food. Well, we will have to make stone soup." The peasants stared. The soldiers asked for a big iron pot, water to fill it, and a fire to heat it. "And now, if you please, three round smooth stones." The soldiers dropped the stones into the pot. "Any soup needs salt and pepper," the first soldier said, so children ran to fetch salt and pepper.
  18. 18. "Stones make good soup, but carrots would make it so much better," the second soldier added. One woman said, "Why, I think I have a carrot or two!" She ran to get the carrots. "A good stone soup should have some cabbage, but no use asking for what we don't have!" said the third soldier. Another woman said, "I think I can probably find some cabbage," and off she scurried. "If only we had a bit of beef and some potatoes, this soup would be fit for a rich man's table." The peasants thought it over, then ran to fetch what they had hidden in their cellars. A rich man's soup, and all from a few stones! It seemed like magic! The soldiers said, "If only we had a bit of barley and some milk, this soup would be fit for a king!" And so the peasants managed to retrieve some barley and milk. "The soup is ready," said the cooks, "and all will taste it, but first we need to set the tables."
  19. 19. Tables and torches were set up in the square, and all sat down to eat. Some of the peasants said, "Such a great soup would be better with bread and cider," so they brought forth the last two items and the banquet was enjoyed by all. Never had there been such a feast. Never had the peasants tasted such delicious soup, and all made from stones! They ate and drank and danced well into the night. The soldiers asked again if there was a loft where they might sleep for the night. "Oh, no!" said the townsfolk. "You wise men must have the best beds in the village!" So one soldier spent the night in the priest's house, one in the baker's house, and one in the mayor's house. In the morning, the villagers gathered to say goodbye. "Many thanks to you," the people said, "for we shall never go hungry now that you have taught us how to make soup from stones!"
  20. 20. Why such a story?  Illustrates system facilitation  Organizing a group of people to accomplish an objective
  21. 21. New Generation Organizers Community Development Entrepreneurial Training (NxLevel, etc) NGOs Classic organizing (e.g. Alinsky) Classic facilitation (e.g. Senge)
  22. 22. Think about teams you’ve been a part of which generated lots of innovations, made lots of progress. What occurred as those teams developed?
  23. 23. Benchmarks of successful group facilitation Open stance (Conceptual pluralism) Synthesize Systems new paths thinking Common Integrators assumptions emerge and are valued Adopt outcome frame instead of problem-directed
  24. 24. Skills of successful facilitators Open stance; conceptual Learning pluralism systems; systems Holistic learner feasibility Successful analysis enterprise facilitation Motivating Synthesis teams Integration Innovation Creativity Communicating beyond words
  25. 25. Facilitator: what are they? What do they do?  History  Formal facilitation arose in US and Europe following change in business management style from authoritarian to more democratic  Bosses realized: if workers have input into their jobs and help decide how they‘ll do their jobs,  Workers work harder  Workers are more committed  Workers stay with the company.
  26. 26. Facilitator: what are they? What do they do?  To get worker input into decision-making, most efficient to gather all in a group and do ―strategic planning‖  If boss leads effort, everyone will try to please him and won‘t get creativity and freedom to come up with the best ideas.  So bring in an unbiased outsider who knows how to work with groups.
  27. 27. Facilitator: what are they? What do they do?  Traditional facilitator‘s role  Help a group (i.e., employees) develop a plan for improving their organization  Paid well ($2500/day)  But paid by boss and have to do what he says.  Often boss knows how he wants process to come out  And your job is to manipulate the group to achieve that end.
  28. 28. Facilitator: what are they? What do they do?  Example: University of Missouri  President decides to merge several departments. Agronomy, plant pathology, range science, weed science all become ―plant sciences‖  But wants faculty to think its their idea.  Facilitator hired by president to get all faculty to come up with this plan.  Manipulation
  29. 29. Systems facilitator is different  Goal is to help a group develop without manipulation.  Decide what best goals are  Decide what best path is to those goals.  Start them on the path to accommplishing their goals  Help group become a powerful organization which doesn‘t need the facilitator any more.
  30. 30. System facilitator: What does he or she do?  Everything traditional facilitator does and more.  Helps new qualities emerge in the group.  Helps the group get organized by discovering new qualities in itself.
  31. 31. Emergent phenomena. What is water? Can you predict what water is from its components? Hydrogen oxygenwater Whole is greater than sum of parts. The magic of self- organizing groups. Ever been in a group which was communicating so quickly you have no idea were the ideas are coming from? How do you do it?
  32. 32. Basic attitude: open stance Synthesis, integration, innovation Holistic feasibility Learning analysis Effective systems; (HRM, Facilitation systems PMP) learner Communicating Motivating beyond words teams Carte et. al., 1996 Clawson and Bostrom, 1995
  33. 33. Stance shows in nonverbal behavior What do you see? Closed stance
  34. 34. STANCE: Common stances  "I'm the expert, you listen."  "You can learn something from everyone."  “It’s not my field.”  "We're all in this together."  "It's us versus them."  "If you can't measure it, it doesn't exist."  "Circle the wagons."
  35. 35. Open stance: nonverbal behavior  squared-up  lean toward the group,  eye contact  relaxed  no arms or legs crossed
  36. 36. It‘s an attitude not specific behaviors. The understanding that lets one take things lightly. When you‘re certain of your skill you face situations with a relaxed confidence. (Ta in . Chinese)
  37. 37. ―The good leader talks little, And when his work is done, the people say, ‗Amazing, we did it, all by ourselves.‘‖ If any one of you thinks he is wise, he should become a 'fool' so that he may become wise. The letter of the law kills, the spirit of the law gives life.
  38. 38. Open stance qualities  Humble, not all-knowing expert  Open to new ideas  fruits of spirit: hope peace love  Mu: thinking without words, without categories, without distinctions. (Japanese)
  39. 39.  Best advice:  Find a mentor  you don‘t learn this solely from books or lectures.  A good mentor will set you free to create your own style.  If you are the mentor, the teachable moment:  tried to do it and isn‘t working  then the mentor is invaluable.
  40. 40. It‘s something you coach not something you teach. Robert Greenleaf Servant Leadership
  41. 41. Questions about stance?  Write your questions here!
  42. 42. learned helplessnes s, attribution one trial depression cognitive learning, fear, dissonance punishment, self-esteem motivating empowerment learning teams communities hierarchy of needs curiosity & altruism Group dynamics, drives team-building
  43. 43. Selfish motivation  We all enter this world selfish. We cry as loud as we can when we are hungry. We demand whatever will satisfy our desires. Sometimes, in every culture, people never get out of this mode. They are called gangsters, oligarchs.  Sometimes an entire culture can become entranced with the value and glory of the individual. Then, everyone wants to be the star. The one who conquers all. The individual is glorified. Chiefs run the show, slapping down anyone who might challenge them.  In fact, for most of our species existence, we followed these basic survival instincts and our lives were short and brutal.  Being selfish, our first use of language is to get things for ourselves. Language is a tool we use for our own natural, selfish ends. So we lie. So, just as selfishness is natural, so is lying natural to young children.  We have to learn to use language to express truth and not just to use it to get what we want. However, higher motivation is also natural if the society permits.
  44. 44. Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs  One of few things US MBA students remember:  1.Physiological. Survival needs. Examples: Food, drink, health.  2.Safety. Physical and emotional security. Such as clothing, shelter, protection against attack (unemployment benefits, old age pension).  3.Affection needs. Affection and the need to belong. Examples: Family unit, other small groups such as work groups.  4.Esteem needs. For self-respect, for accomplishment, for achievement. The achievement must be recognised and appreciated by someone else.  5.Self-fulfilment needs. To utilise one's potential to the maximum working with and for one's fellow beings  Once primary needs are satisfied they cease to act as drives and are replaced by needs of a higher order. So that higher order needs are predominant when primary needs are satisfied.
  45. 45. Curiosity, Altruism and Cooperation alter Maslow  Hierarchy mostly true, partially not.  Curiosity. If bored enough, you‘ll do anything for stimulation. Give up food.  Altruism. You‘ll give up food to save a neighbor pain.  Cooperation. Children naturally cooperate without reward.
  46. 46. Altruism is an innate instinct  Rhesus monkeys were given a lever which dispensed food but at the same time as dispensing food, it gave the monkey in the next cage an electrical shock.  The monkeys with access to the 'shocking' food levers would not pull the lever, foregoing food for many days, rather than give the monkey next door a shock.
  47. 47. Helping is innate  Experiment 1. Experimenters performed simple tasks like dropping a clothes peg out of reach while hanging clothes on a line, or mis-stacking a pile of books.  Nearly all of the group of 24 18-month- olds helped by picking up the peg or the book, usually in the first 10 seconds of the experiment.  They only did this if they believed the researcher needed the object to complete the task - if it was thrown on the ground deliberately, they didn't pick it up.  Experiment 2. A box with a flap on it. Children shown the flap. When the scientists accidentally dropped a spoon inside, and pretended they did not know about the flap, the children helped retrieve it. They only did this if they believed the spoon had not been dropped deliberately.  Chimpanzees helped in finding lost object but not in the more complex box experiment.
  48. 48. From ape cooperation to human cooperation  —Leavens et al. (e.g. Leavens & Hopkins 1998) documented that for a human, many captive chimpanzees point reliably to food they cannot reach, so that humans will retrieve it for them, even though they never point for conspecifics.  —Warneken & Tomasello (2006) found that young chimpanzees help human adults to retrieve out of reach objects—but not as often or in as many situations as 1 year old human infants.  These findings suggest that when they are interacting with especially tolerant and helpful partners chimpanzees are able to behave in more cooperative ways, but normal human children are all cooperative by 1 year old.
  49. 49. Object choice task  Adult shows child something desireable (food or toy) is under a box.  Then second situation, adult points to box.  Child always picks right box.  Chimp only by chance.  But if adult starts to grab box, chimp picks it.  Chimp doesn‘t assume cooperation, child does.
  50. 50.  Natural for children to cooperate if domineering and aggressive children are removed.
  51. 51. Cooperative play  Situations were set up in which an adult did things like hold out a basket in which the infant was asked to place a toy.  After the infant complied, in the test for role reversal, the adult placed the basket within the infant‘s reach and held up the toy herself.  All 18 month olds and even some of the 12-month-olds spontaneously held out the basket for the adult while at the same time looking to her face, presumably in anticipation of her placing the toy inside.  Chimps never do this.
  52. 52. Motivation from within The agent/facilitator has: No rigid programs or structure (to select against the entrepreneur, the innovator) •Starts with a stance, not a plan •Help them create a vision •The vision attracts the group •The group creates the plan.
  53. 53. Developing a motivated team: what does the agent do? •First, do nothing •except look for commitment to an idea •then help build a group around the idea •and fan that flame
  54. 54. The agent/facilitator is: As passive as a loaded spring no programs
  55. 55. Motivating teams  Depressed, fearful people seldom accomplish much.  Depression: learned helplessness. People learn they will be punished no matter what they do, so they do nothing.  Out of the frying pan into the fire.  To eliminate this attitude:  no criticism  Do something silly  Make the group laugh  Make a mistake and don‘t worry about it  Elicit other motivations than fear: curiosity, altruism, cooperation.
  56. 56. Skills of successful facilitators Open stance; conceptual Learning pluralism systems; systems Holistic learner feasibility Successful analysis enterprise facilitation Motivating Synthesis teams Integration Innovation Creativity Communicating beyond words
  57. 57. Goal: creating lasting (sustainable) rural development One indicator of success: creation of new locally-owned enterprises So, How?
  58. 58. learned helplessnes s, attribution one trial depression cognitive learning, fear, dissonance punishment, self-esteem motivating empowerment learning teams communities hierarchy of needs curiosity & altruism Group dynamics, drives team-building
  59. 59.  You are fanning their motivation.  Finding the spark is key.  You find what they are interested in and encourage it.  Enthusiasm is infectious.
  60. 60. Motivating groups to create new enterprises  Must use both selfish and non- selfish drives  Selfish: get money or won‘t be successful enterprise  Non-selfish:  Curiosity  Altruism  Cooperation  If don‘t develop these impulses, group never becomes solid.
  61. 61. Motivating group success: labor unions
  62. 62. Obama‘s method for organizing groups Hillary Clinton‘s Senior Thesis •Alinsky's Thirteen Rules for Radicals •Very successful with labor organizing, civil rights •Power is not only what you have but what the enemy thinks you have. •Never go outside the experience of your people. It may result in confusion, fear and retreat. •Wherever possible go outside the experience of the enemy. Here you want to cause confusion, fear and retreat. •Make the enemy live up to his/her own book of rules. •Ridicule is man's most potent weapon. •A good tactic is one that your people enjoy. •A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag. •Keep the pressure on, with different tactics and actions and utilize all events of the period for your purpose. •The threat is usually more terrifying than the thing itself. •The major premise for tactics is the development of operations that will maintain a constant pressure upon the opposition. •If you push a negative hard and deep enough it will break through into its counterside. •The price of a successful attack is a constructive alternative. •Pick the target, freeze it, personalize it and polarize it.
  63. 63. Make the enemy live up to his/her own book of rules.  All men should have equal rights.  Civil Rights movement.  Women should not be second class citizens:  Women‘s Right to Vote  All men should be brothers.  Anti-apartheid movement  Doesn‘t work if enemy is flexible and has allegiance to natural law deeper than rules.
  64. 64. New Generation Rules for Organizing •A community of interest (central business proposition) can be found that is not based on an external enemy, but on an economic opportunity. • This community of interest can be so powerful as to engender sacrifice, commitment, and loyalty to the business cooperative, and help it survive. • The only fear needed in organizational efforts is the fear of missing the opportunity to invest. • The character of leadership counts greatly in evaluating potential for successful cooperative development and equity commitments. The organizing board must consist of individuals who are also trusted by colleagues. • Competitors are not enemies and need not be defeated. Alliances are possible with competitors. • Customers are natural allies and worthy of products that are safe, wholesome, and fairly priced. • Government is neither an enemy nor a friend, but a tool in the conduct of business that is necessary to ensure fair play. It is not responsible for "saving us.‖ • People make investments for more than economic reasons-they want to be part of a cause.
  65. 65. Having a common enemy can motivate Power is not only what you have but what the enemy thinks you have. •Wherever possible go outside the experience of the enemy. Here you want to cause confusion, fear and retreat. •Make the enemy live up to his/her own book of rules. •Ridicule is man's most potent weapon. Curiosity and altruism are stronger •A community of interest (central business proposition) can be found that is not based on an external enemy, but on an economic opportunity. • This community of interest can be so powerful as to engender sacrifice, commitment, and loyalty to the business cooperative, and help it survive. •Competitors are not enemies and need not be defeated. Alliances are possible with competitors. •People make investments for more than economic reasons-they want to be part of a cause.
  66. 66. Competitors are not always enemies.  We often use metaphor of war in business. But competitors may be your future partners.  Competition can produce a very strong incentive for cooperation, as certain players forge alliances and symbiotic relationships with each other for mutual support. It happens at every level of, and in every kind of, complex adaptive system, from biology, to economics, to politics.
  67. 67. Testing competitive strategies using computer simulations  Testing strategies of cooperation and competition against all possible options. Simple “Tit for Tat” strategy won every time.  “Tit-for-Tat” program started out by cooperating on the first move, and then simply did exactly what the other program had done on the move before.  The program was “nice” in the sense that it would never defect first. It was “tough” in the sense that it would punish uncooperative behavior by competing on the next move.  It was “forgiving” in that it returned to cooperation once the other party demonstrated cooperation. And it was “clear” in the sense that it was very easy for the opposing programs to figure out exactly what it would do next.  Not “nice guys finish last”  Instead “nice, tough, forgiving and clear guys finish first.”
  68. 68. Chaotic systems  Weather  All our computers, we can‘t predict.  Managed Chaos  Brain waves:  normal is irregular firing of neurons  Epilepsy: all fire at once  Sleep  Brain waves chaotic unless coma  Heart beat on cardiogram  Healthy: irregular, wrinkly appearance – not a smooth, regular tracing.  Heart attack coming: consistency and regularity  All resilient systems are chaotic.
  69. 69. You are a mass of competing impulses  One part wants to listen to this lecture  Another part wants to go out for a walk with that beautiful girl  Another is mad at enemy and wants to punch him  Another wants to help your friend understand English and this lecture
  70. 70. Let each motivation be expressed at proper time  What won in cooperation/competition simulation?  Cooperate if other cooperate, selfish if other selfish.  But very clear about what doing. And don‘t hold a grudge. If other becomes cooperative, you do too.
  71. 71. Managed Chaos = Complex adaptive system (CAS) ―кас‖
  72. 72. Managed Chaos = Complex adaptive system (CAS) ―кас‖  Chaos is not absence of energy, its energy pushing in lots of different directions.  Chaotic system of 15-16 yr old:  Hormones go wild.  Lots of different competing impulses.  Lots of potential if can control  Key CAS quality:  Multiple competing impulses  Let each out in response to appropriate stimulus.
  73. 73. Facilitator‘s фасилитатор: Coordinate group impulses  In traditional facilitation, might explicitly tell group, let‘s let specific impulses take over  In facilitation of enterprise groups: have to be more subtle.  Basic idea:  Bring right attitude to bear when needed  Maintain all possible responses
  74. 74.  GO Green --creativity, alternatives, proposals, what is interesting, and changes.  GO Black -- is the cold-hearted, logical judge. It is a crucial impulse to employ at the right time, but often over-used.  GO White --Ignore arguments and proposals. Just look at the facts, figures and information.‖  GO Red --feelings, hunches, intuition. Put forward an intuition without any need to justify it  GO Yellow --logical optimism. How can we make this work?  GO Blue --process control. It looks not at the subject itself but at the 'thinking' about the subject.
  75. 75. Chaos is good, if managed  Resilient systems are chaotic.  Facilitator maintains all motivations for use at the proper time.  Until, eventually, the group knows to use the right motivation themselves.  All living systems have this principle carved into their being.
  76. 76. Great facilitators First humble, open stance Second, motivate teams What Else?
  77. 77. Skills of successful facilitators Open stance; conceptual Learning pluralism systems; systems Holistic learner feasibility Successful analysis enterprise facilitation Motivating Synthesis teams Integration Innovation Creativity Communicating beyond words
  78. 78. Skills for facilitators V: communication beyond words Body language/ Mehrabian kinesics/eye contact Birdwhistle Proxemics/ personal space Hall Touch Morris Social intelligence Gardner Emotional intelligence Goleman Dominance/power Lorenz Innate releasing Wilson mechanisms Tickbergen
  79. 79. We‘ve gone beyond instinctual response to stimuli. Haven‘t we gotten away from the reaction to steatopygia (which stimulated our cousin the Bushmen) and similar innate releasing simuli? Or have we?
  80. 80. Our brain evolved in response to social stimuli. Competition and cooperation within our tribal bands, villages is the source of our human intelligence. One of first of these new brain areas: facial nucleus controls reaction to facial expression.
  81. 81. Genetic control of perception of facial expressions of emotion  Gene which helps produce a neurotransmitter ( serotonin) transporter and maps to chromosome 17, has two alleles (or gene variations) short (S) and a long (L) alleles  S results in increased amygdala and bodily response to facial expressions of emotion—especially anger. • Dannlowski et al., 2008. Neuropsychopharmacology  So a human gene responds specifically to facial expressions!  Maybe our instincts still control us. •Amygdala damage from another mutation results in an inability to recognize fear in people's facial expressions. •However, they are able to recognize fear if instructed to concentrate attention on a person's eyes. •People with normal brains always looked immediately at the eye region of a face— even more so when the face was fearful.
  82. 82. Single gene for social anxiety  People with S variant mentioned before are much more responsive to angry faces.  Psychologists diagnosis of social anxiety didn‘t predict response to angry faces, S allele did.  Dominance hierarchies hard to specify in humans, but rhesus monkeys with the short allele spent less time gazing at images of the face and eyes of other monkeys and less likely to want to view a picture of a high-status male.  Monkeys were observed while being shown images of high status faces or faces of familiar monkeys. In addition to spending less time looking at faces and eyes, the S/L monkeys also had larger pupil diameters when gazing at photos of high-status male macaques, indicating higher arousal.  S monkeys were less willing to take risks after they were primed with the faces of high-status males. Previous studies have found that inducing fear in human with S gene makes them more risk-averse. Faces of high-status males cause greater fear in the S monkey.  The S monkeys actually had to be paid juice to view the dominant males, while the L monkeys gave up juice for a look at these faces.  Platt et al., 2009 J Psychiatry Neurosci
  83. 83. Weeds vs Orchids  Such an allele would not survive if it only had bad effects—basic natural selection.  S allele makes more susceptible to social anxiety if have poor maternal attention  S allele makes less susceptible to social anxiety/depression if have good maternal attention as child.  Facilitator needs take nurturing role if group members shy, anxious.
  84. 84. Communication beyond words The words we use make up as little as 5% of what we communicate. When you say even the simplest word or statement, the meaning can be reversed depending on the tone of voice you use. I really love you. People trust the nonverbal over the verbal.
  85. 85. How much can we perceive from the nonverbal?  Dogs sense fear.  Know when someone staring at you.  Know when someone coming up behind you.  Know when danger is present?  Overactive response is possible  And see danger everywhere  Underactive response and not see danger.
  86. 86.  In America, eye contact signifies trust, confidence, and believability. But eye contact can also mean a challenge to dominating people.  Posture (submissive or dominant), a touch on the shoulder, getting up and standing next to a speaker, etc, can defuse power and dominance activities in groups.  Those who seek to dominate groups limit progress of the group. The group can only go as far as permitted by the dominant person's integrative skills.
  87. 87. Six basic nonverbal techniques for facilitators 1. Face people squarely. This says, "I'm available to you; I choose to be with you." 2. Adopt an open posture. Crossed arms and legs say, "I'm not interested." An open posture shows your group that you're open to them and what they have to say. 3. Maintain good eye contact. Have you ever talked to someone whose eyes seemed to be looking at everything in the room but you?
  88. 88.  4. Watch your group. Learn to read their nonverbal behavior: posture, body movements and gestures. Notice frowns, smiles, raised eyebrows and twisted lips.  5. Give nonverbal feedback. Nod. Smile. Raise your eyebrows. These small signals encourage your group to open up even more.  6. The last step in listening is speaking. Restate in your own words what your group members say. That proves you were listening and gives them the opportunity to correct or clarify.
  89. 89. Cross-cultural non-verbal clashes  A pre-meeting discussion between two members of an advisory board.  They need to unite in order to stop a typical bureaucratic blunder an agency is about to commit. Each is trying to indicate an interest in the issue and be friendly.  As they talk, the Latino, following his/her cultural rules, moves closer and closer to his/her potential ally.  The Anglo, following his/her class and cultural norms, interprets this as pushiness or even aggression and not only backs away from the close contact, but also shifts his/her eyes away from the Latino's open yet direct eye contact.  The retreating movements of the Anglo shout loudly in a silent language to the Latino and an atmosphere of mistrust evolves.
  90. 90. Gemutlich Ishin Deshin: wordless, yet deep understanding between two people. (Japanese)
  91. 91. Skills of successful facilitators Open stance; conceptual Learning pluralism systems; systems Holistic learner feasibility Successful analysis enterprise facilitation Motivating Synthesis teams Integration Innovation Creativity Communicating beyond words
  92. 92. TQM, creative destructio n Thesis-antithesis -->synthesis, complementarity Futures studies integration synthesis innovation Rapid Creativity prototyping cycle, narrative analysis Soft sytsems, critical systems
  93. 93. Benchmarks of successful group facilitation Open stance (Conceptual pluralism) Synthesize Systems new paths thinking Common Integrators assumptions emerge and are valued Adopt outcome frame instead of problem-directed
  94. 94. Some assumptions are easy to change Others are impossible Mokita: Truth everyone knows, but no one admits . (Kiriwina, New Guinea)
  95. 95.  The true believer thinks he‘s got all the answers  But he‘s not even on the right track.  He can help in dealing with certain closed systems  but the open systems characterizing biology and social groups?  No way. He‘s lost and just can‘t admit it to himself.  Rural people can‘t accomplish anything  Psychology is just rats running in a maze.  Groups are worthless.  Camel is horse made by committee  What are your assumptions?  They show your basic values.
  96. 96. Planning Projects  People plan and implement projects on the basis of their change models - their implicit theories about how the world works  What about assumption—more detailed plan is better?  Sometimes complex plans are unnecessary and just get in the way.  Especially if you are looking for emergent ideas
  97. 97. No complex plans, just few basic rules  Birds flying in a flock. Amazing!  How is it done?  Computer simulation called “Boids,” The simulation consists of a collection of autonomous agents – the boids – in a environment with obstacles.  In addition to the basic laws of physics, each agent follows three simple rules: (1) try to maintain a minimum distance from all other boids and objects; (2) try to match speed with neighboring boids; and, (3) try to move toward the center of mass of the boids in your neighborhood.  When the simulation is run, the boids exhibit the very lifelike behavior of flying in flocks around the objects on the screen.  They fly in a flock just like birds, a complex behavior pattern, even though there is no rule explicitly telling them to do so.
  98. 98. Visa International  $1 trillion annual sales volume and roughly half- billion clients, but few people could tell you where it is headquartered or how it is governed.  It’s founding chief executive officer, Dee Hock describes it as a non-stock, for-profit membership corporation in which members (typically, banks that issue the Visa cards) cooperate intensely  “in a narrow band of activity essential to the success of the whole” (for example, the graphic layout of the card and common clearinghouse operations),  while competing fiercely and innovatively in all else (including going after each other’s customers!).  This blend of minimum specifications in the essential areas of cooperation, and complete freedom for creative energy in all else, has allowed Visa to grow 10,000 percent since 1970, despite the incredibly complex worldwide system of different currencies, customs, legal systems and the like.
  99. 99. Session Four  Джим Урстел  Консультант з питань агробізнесу  jim@deltanetwork.org  If you want copies of these powerpoint slides, email me.  I‘m looking for someone to translate these into a Russian book.
  100. 100. Goal: creating lasting (sustainable) rural development One indicator of success: creation of new locally-owned enterprises So, How?
  101. 101. казацкая пища Creating a new Ukrainian business Produce and sell all naturally-raised traditonal food products from Southeast Ukraine Business Model: organize production using natural methods and sell in Казацкий рынок First in Eastern Ukraine, then all Ukraine and Russia, then world.
  102. 102. Skills of successful facilitators Open stance; conceptual Learning pluralism systems; systems Holistic learner feasibility Successful analysis enterprise facilitation Motivating Synthesis teams Integration Innovation Creativity Communicating beyond words
  103. 103. Transformation of Australian Ag Policy 1981: systems agriculture facilitation training begins at University of Western Sydney-Hawkesbury Other Australian universities see successful graduates and create facilitation training programs and graduates spread through government, non-profits and industry 1988-1990: commodity supports eliminated. Replacement programs created with group facilitation as key component National Research and Landcare Development Centres Property Management Planning Marketing Skills Program (DPIE) Environment, Extension, Economic Development, Research
  104. 104. TQM, creative destructio n Thesis-antithesis -->synthesis, complementarity Futures studies integration synthesis innovation Rapid Creativity prototyping cycle, narrative analysis Soft sytsems, critical systems
  105. 105. wicked messes ―Wickedness occurs when people are totally sure their values and ideology are right and unchangeable.‖ "Messes" arise when dynamic complexity is high. Messes cannot be solved by solving component problems in isolation from one another because there are significant couplings between isolated problem symptoms. System may even adapt and change when intervention occurs. So a wicked mess arises when polarization on assumptions occurs in extremely dynamic situations. What's the way out of any wicked mess? It begins with identifying and questioning your assumptions. Of course if you are totally sure that you are right, then you're stuck in your wicked mess for awhile.
  106. 106. One of the ―wicked messes‖ facing agriculture is that farmers see themselves as producers of raw commodities and raw commodities are rapidly losing value except as part of vertically integrated value chains. Meanwhile, many extension agents see their role as being experts in production of particular commodities.
  107. 107. When •The science is uncertain • the truth is unknown • polarization is everywhere Assume Any solution is blocked by restricting assumptions Look for A more basic stabilizing assumption which permits innovation Roe, 1994
  108. 108. Polarized narratives Farmers can‘t Farms produce afford expensive most non-point water quality source pollution renovations Farmers must change their practices Environmental regulations will Farmers must increase costs and insure they are sink huge numbers not polluting of farms Require three test wells on each farm Farmers must unite to defeat environmental regulations.
  109. 109. Converging narratives Family farms and clean water are Farms produce both valuable Farmers can‘t afford most non-point resources expensive water source pollution Farmers who quality renovations willfully pollute, and Farmers must will not change their change, do not practices deserve the Farmers can support of help design Environmental other farmers. more practical regulations will ways of increase costs and Farmers must sink huge numbers insure they are increasing of farms not polluting water quality State authority established where Require three test farmers and Farmers must wells on each farm environmentalists unite to defeat jointly establish environmental regulations. water quality regs
  110. 110. Limiting assumption: Bioethanol is the wave of the future. Only Goal: Develop Bioethanol business. More basic assumption permitting innovation. Bioethanol should be alternative for farmers. Goal: Government support for ethanol. Then: develop ethanol business. Limiting assumption: There‘s nothing wrong with GMOs, barriers to GMOs should be broken down More basic assumption permitting innovation: Just sell ‗em what they want.
  111. 111. Diverging narratives Assumption: farmers are Consultants producers of raw provide more commodities Extension personal and assumes it specialized should production provide support technical assistance in Raw commodities production lose value farmers Conflicting need more responsibilities personal attention of Extension rely more on limits level of consultants personal attention Extension Larger farmers staff in see less value Can‘t in Extension provide assistance needed help
  112. 112. ―The test of a first-rate intelligence is the ability to hold two opposed ideas in the mind at the same time and still retain the ability to function.‖
  113. 113. TQM, creative destructio n Thesis-antithesis -->synthesis, complementarity Futures studies integration synthesis innovation Rapid Creativity prototyping cycle, narrative analysis Soft sytsems, critical systems
  114. 114. Genetics of stress tells us: maternal supportrelaxed confidence  Almost every cell in body has same genes and chromosomes.  As humans and animals grow some genes are activated and others deactivated. So we get fingers where fingers should be and eyes where eyes should be.  If an infant gets the right sort of attention and support (being near mother and licking in rats) in early life, genes causing anxiety in fearful situations are deactivated. Genes which help the infant better handle stress are activated.  Faced with challenges later in life, those receiving normal maternal attention tend to be more confident and less fearful.  In perilous times, mothers increase the stress reactivity of their offspring by licking less. Offspring are less confident and more fearful later in life.
  115. 115. Genetics of stress tells us: maternal supportrelaxed confidence  This relaxed confidence is a quality of good facilitator. The opposite is concerned, anxious, purposive action.  Western culture since Socrates has valued this kind of attitude.  Often useful, but can be a mistake. It says: "You‘re wasting time playing"  One of best ways to defeat creativity.  Many quality ideas result from "play" time, since a person‘s mind is free of its natural defenses during that time and mental locks are less likely to occur.
  116. 116. Ways to stop creativity  1. You‘re wasting time playing.  2. Looking for the one right answer.  Why also find lost item in last place you looked?  3. That‘s not logical.  4. Be practical.  5. Avoid ambiguity.  6. That‘s not my area.  7. Don‘t be foolish.  8. Follow the rules.  9. I‘m not creative
  117. 117. Embrace paradox  A paradox makes no sense according to the prevailing mental models.  Stimulate creativity by asking paradoxical questions:  How can we give direction without giving directives?  How can we lead by serving?  How can we maintain authority without having control?  How can we set direction when we don‘t know the future?  How can we oppose change by accepting it? How can we accept change by opposing it?  How can we be both a system and many independent parts?  Can you think of others that are relevant to your context?
  118. 118. Successful groups are purpose-driven at times and playful and creative at other times  Groups need to take six different attitudes depending on what the group needs to accomplish.  Call these the six hats.  Some facilitators say: OK, let‘s put on the green hat now, we need to be creative. Or, let‘s put on the black hat now, we need to ruthlessly logical.
  119. 119. GO Green --creativity, alternatives, proposals, what is interesting, and changes. GO Black -- is the cold-hearted, logical judge. It is a crucial impulse to employ at the right time, but often over-used. GO White --Ignore arguments and proposals. Just look at the facts, figures and information.‖ GO Red --feelings, hunches, intuition. Put forward an intuition without any need to justify it GO Yellow --logical optimism. How can we make this work? GO Blue --process control. It looks not at the subject itself but at the 'thinking' about the subject.
  120. 120. Skills of successful facilitators Open stance; conceptual Learning pluralism systems; systems Holistic learner feasibility Successful analysis enterprise facilitation Motivating Synthesis teams Integration Innovation Creativity Communicating beyond words
  121. 121. Skills for facilitators III: learning systems, systems learning Learning styles Kolb cognitive styles Miller Personality, emotion Rogers, Schachter Attention, perception, cybernetics Weiner Game theory von Neumann Learning and organizing Friere, Horton Soft systems Checkland, Bawden Systems thinking Rapaport, Senge Self-organizing systems Prigogine, Jantsch Action research Zuber-Skerritt, Whyte Holistic thinking Mu
  122. 122. Communication beyond words The words we use make up as little as 5% of what we communicate. When you say even the simplest word or statement, the meaning can be reversed depending on the tone of voice you use. People trust the nonverbal over the verbal.
  123. 123. Members of your group will have different learning and thinking styles No one style is better than others; all are needed for the group to succeed.
  124. 124. Learning styles How do members of your team learn best? One dimension: Reflection------Action Another dimension: Concrete ---------------- Abstract Groups learn best through: Feeling, thinking, experiencing, creating, acting, designing or experimenting.
  125. 125.  Four stages of learning: the concrete experience, the reflective observation, the abstract conceptualization, and the active experimentation.  Example: concrete experience: burn hand on stove sometimes not others  Reflective obs: stove on--burn hand  Abstract concept: energy running through makes hot  Active experiment: turn on light, see if gets hot  Sometimes yes, sometimes no? Back to concrete experience
  126. 126.  Four stages of learning: the concrete experience, the reflective observation, the abstract conceptualization, and the active experimentation.  Over time individuals develop preferences for specific dimension based on their personal experiences, personality differences, environmental factors and prior educational factors.  There are also learning modality preferences such as auditory, visual, or tactile/kinesthetic.
  127. 127. Learning and personality  Attention, processing and acting are all influenced by our personality, some total of experiences and predispositions we were born with  Knowing your personality to make it work for you. Routes to business success, route you take depends on your personality  Most personality researchers agree personality can be described in 4 dimension or 16 types.
  128. 128.  Introvert-----Extrovert  Introverts think best by themselves by processing ideas in their own minds. They can be tired out by too much contact with other people. Extroverts, on the other hand, are usually energized by being with other people and often think best if they can discuss their ideas.  Sensing-----Intuition  Sensing thinkers take in information sequentially through their senses and are most interested in the concrete and the here-and-now. Intuitive thinkers are interested in theories and possibilities and often make good guesses without going through sequential steps.
  129. 129.  Thinking---Feeling  People with a Thinking preference tend to make decisions objectively in a logical and impartial way. People with a Feeling preference tend to make decisions subjectively on the basis of their feelings and perceived effects on other people.  Judging---Perceiving  People with a Judging preference like things to be clear and settled and strive for closure. People with a Perceiving preference like things to be open-ended as long as possible.
  130. 130. UCLA MBA: No 1 best way 4 perspectives on reality each requires and adopts a different management style
  131. 131. Linear cause-effect thinking Systems thinking
  132. 132. Managing a machine or managing chaos?  Complex adaptive systems. Systems which make changes in themselves to adapt to environment. All living systems.  Most scientific analytic techniques have us break a system into smaller bits, study the bits, and, when we believe that we understand the bits, put them all back together again and draw some conclusions about the whole.  Most traditional organizational theory leads us to view organizations as machine- like with replaceable parts, and if each part is doing its job, the organization will run smoothly. These theories assume that stability is the natural state of an organization,  If an organization consists of functions and roles that are carried out by people who are replaceable with little damage to operations and in which results are predicable and replicable, then we do have a machine.
  133. 133. Machine or Military metaphor or Complex Adaptive System  The basic problem with machine and military metaphors is that they ignore the individuality of agents and the effects of interaction among agents.  Or worse, they simply assume that all this can be tightly controlled through better (read: more) specification.  While there are many situations for which the machine and military metaphors might be useful – for example, routine surgical processes – there are also many situations for which these metaphors are grossly inadequate.
  134. 134. Skills for facilitators IV: holistic decision making Holistic Resource Management Savory Property Management Planning Dept of Primary Industries Futureprofit Queensland Farm$mart Victoria Farming for the Future New South Wales Farmwi$e Tasmania Managing chaos Ditto, Schaffer, Westman Fastthinking, narrative analysis Roe Agroecosystems analysis Conway Participatory rural appraisal Chambers Farming systems research Simmons Rapid Rural Appraisal Rhoades
  135. 135.  Most people don't spend a lot of time thinking about how they make decisions  they simply make their decisions the way humans have since the Stone Age:  based on expert opinion, past experience, research results, peer pressure, intuition, common sense, cost-effectiveness, profitability, laws and regulations, compromise, sustainability, etc.  And it is this process that is largely responsible for the state of the world in which we now live.  Some 20-odd past civilizations have failed, and the only thing these civilizations had in common was the way humans made decisions.
  136. 136. Disciplinary blinders  Disciplines are sets of solutions agreed to by people who have similar jobs. They received their positions because these solutions worked in some arena in the past.  These solutions have no necessary link to any crucial current problem.  Dedication to these solutions means members of disciplines redefine any problem so that their solutions can solve it.  To a boy with a hammer, every problem is a nail and he has the solution. For a boy with scissors, cutting solves all problems.  We have solutions in search of problems.
  137. 137.  Disciplinary Tribalism  I am an economist, I do economics.  I am an agronomist, I do agronomy  Much more effective: dedication to a region, a community.,  Master disciplines  Become transdisciplinary
  138. 138.  Lower left: logical decisions  Upper left: anarchy  Middle: edge of chaos need to adapt system
  139. 139.  Goal: get from 4 to 5  Recognize new patterns  Find non-limiting assumptions/beliefs  Discover deeper causes
  140. 140. Holistic Decision- Making  if you were to learn everything there is to know about oxygen and hydrogen, you would still have no idea of the properties of water  Likewise, we rarely think of a person as a mass of interconnecting parts (arms, legs, organs, etc.) but rather as a whole human being.  This same human can exist within another whole: a family; and this whole exists within another whole: a community; and so on.  Rarely would we refer to a community as a group of "interconnecting parts."
  141. 141.  To begin practicing holistic decision-making, however, we need to begin thinking holistically  recognizing that the world only functions in wholes, and that all our decisions impact the ecosystem upon which our very existence depends.  Since land and/or resources cannot be managed in isolation from the humans tied to (and dependent on) these resources,  in holistic management we only manage in "whole" situations (whole farms, whole firms, whole communities, etc.)  which includes the people, their values and desires, the resource base, and the wealth that can be generated from this resource base.
  142. 142.  In any group we see regularities  From these we see a pattern  Feedback to the group  Group adapts and becomes better.
  143. 143.  Zimbabwe farm given to drop-outs  My task, make it successful  I saw it was managed by people with good technical skills but no experience in managing a farm. Hired by non-farm people.  I recommended change to experienced managers  First response: very negative since people who I told this to had hired these bad ones.  Finally they did hire new ones and success.
  144. 144. •Bureaucrats and entrepreneurs mix like oil and water. •The entrepreneurial mindset: innovative, intuitive, quick decisions, accept damage (can‘t make an omelet without breaking eggs) •Bureaucratic minset: careful, logical, change slowly, make sure you protect your position, very worried about slight negative perceptions. •So negative response for Zimbabwe from bureaucrats.
  145. 145. Entrepreneurs, not government programs, are the heart of economic development.  But government or other bureaucracy often has resources or permits you need.  So facilitator must see both perspectives and help group see perspective of other.
  146. 146. Final proof: path synthesis or integration Open stance (Conceptual pluralism) Synthesize Systems new paths thinking Common Integrators assumptions emerge and are valued Adopt outcome frame instead of problem-directed
  147. 147. Transformation of Australian Ag Policy 1981: systems agriculture facilitation training begins at University of Western Sydney-Hawkesbury Other Australian universities see successful graduates and create facilitation training programs and graduates spread through government, non-profits and industry 1988-1990: commodity supports eliminated. Replacement programs created with group facilitation as key component National Research and Landcare Development Centres Property Management Planning Marketing Skills Program (DPIE) Environment, Extension, Economic Development, Research
  148. 148. www.deltanetwork.org
  149. 149. Marketing as part of Holistic Decision-Making for new Enterprises 1. Marketing Feasibility Analysis 2. Marketing Trends: Normal 3. Marketing Trends: Disruptive

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