Dialectic From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dialectic (also called dialectics or thedialectical method) is a method of argument, which has been central to both Indic and
Western philosophy sinceancient times. Theword "dialectic" originates in Ancient Greece, and was made popular by Plato in his
Socratic dialogues. Dialectic is based on a dialogue between two or more peoplewho may hold differing views, yet wish to
pursuetruth by seeking agreement with one another. This is in contrast to debate, in which two or more peoplehold differing
views and wish to persuade or proveone another wrong (and thus a jury or judge is needed to decide thematter), or rhetoric,
which is a relatively long oration conducted by a single person, a method favored by the Sophists. Different forms of dialectical
reason have emerged in the Indosphere and in the West, as well as during different eras of history. Among themajor forms of
dialectic reason are Socratic, Hindu, Buddhist, Medieval, Hegelian, Marxist, and Talmudic.
Rhetoric From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
.Rhetoric is the art of using language to communicate effectively and persuasively. It involves three audience appeals: logos,
pathos, and ethos, as well as thefive canons of rhetoric: invention or discovery, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery. Along
with grammar and logic or dialectic, rhetoric is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. From ancient Greece to the late 19th
Century, it was a central part of Western education, filling theneed to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to
action with arguments.
The very act of defining itself has been a central part of rhetoric, appearing among Aristotle's Topics. Theword is derived from
the Greek ῥητορικός (rhētorikós), "oratorical", from ῥήτωρ (rhḗtōr), "public speaker", related to ῥημα (rhêma), "that which is
said or spoken, word, saying", and ultimately derived from theverb ἐρῶ (erô), "to speak, say". In its broadest sense, rhetoric
concerns human discourse.
Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. While classical
rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions like courtrooms and assemblies,
contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large. Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of
domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, religion, journalism, digital media, fiction, history, cartography, and
architecture, along with themore traditional domains of politics and thelaw. Public relations, lobbying, law, marketing,
professional and technical writing, and advertising are modern professions that employ rhetorical practitioners.
Poetics refers generallyto the theoryof literary discourse and specificallyto the theoryof poetry, althoughsome speakers use
the term so broadlyas to denote the concept of "theory" itself.