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Introduction to GIS

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Introduction to GIS

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Introduction to GIS

  1. 1. Introducing GIS Dr. Hans van der Kwast OpenCourseWare ocw.unesco-ihe.org
  2. 2. Learning objectives After this lecture you will be able to: • understand what GIS is and what it can be used for • describe the difference between open source and proprietary software 2
  3. 3. What is GIS? • A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of spatial or geographical data GIS = Geographic + Information + System • Geographic = Spatially-referenced (geo-reference) data: acquisition, process, manipulation, analyses. • Information System = software + hardware + database integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information • GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations 3
  4. 4. What is GIS? 4
  5. 5. Examples 5
  6. 6. Examples 6 Berlin with its accessibility by car in 30min divided in 5min interval isochrones Source: http://www.digital-geography.com/how-far-can-you-travel-answers-in-qgis-with-osm-route/#more-13245
  7. 7. Examples 7 2.5D dynamic presentation of the Vesdre catchment, Belgium
  8. 8. History of GIS • 2010s: here we are! GIS is now a basic tool applied in almost all field of georeferenced analysis; your creativity and scientific approach reigns. • 2000s: starts the Open Source revolution, wide applications of geospatial analysis, graphic & computing power keep growing fast • 1990s: GIS becomes a widely used tool in many administrations, academic departments and private business (mining, oil & gas, etc); begin journal devoted to GIS (IJGIS) • 1980s: microcomputers (!) starts the computer revolution, graphic user interface, printing devices, commercial GIS begins (ESRI, PCI, MAPinfo) • 1970s: first attempt in Canada & USA to use data linked to parcels for environmental purposes 8
  9. 9. Use of GIS in the Water Sector IWRM Health Drinking water Sanitation Environment Economy Agriculture Population growth Climate change IWRM 9
  10. 10. GIS for Urban Water Systems • Urban planning of land use and infrastructure • Mapping of sewage systems, drainage systems and waste water treatment plants 10
  11. 11. GIS and Hydrological Modelling • GIS as a separate tool: • data preprocessing/postprocessing • model output visualization • Tightly integrated with modelling system: as an important component, e.g., ArcSWAT, MIKE SHE, HEC-RAS, HydroGeoAnalyst, etc. N-load [kg/year] at the outflow point of the Scheldt basin 11
  12. 12. Preprocessing data for use in tools • Import/convert to the format used by the GIS • Coordinates Transformation: Projection + Datum • Subsetting and resampling if needed. • Recondition and correction • Geoprocess if needed: e.g., catchment delineation, river network generation, time series extraction, join attributes • Interpolation (IDW, kriging, Thiessen polygons) • … • Export to the format required by tools (e.g. models, decision support systems) 12
  13. 13. Define study area • Administrative boundary (province, country, region, etc.) • Natural boundary: (sub)catchment • Other: • Delta • National park • … Boundary of the Vesdre catchment 13
  14. 14. Application Areas • Map Production • Visualization: Presenting your (geo)data in a nice way (2D, 2.5D, 3D, animation, web, report, screen) • Geoprocessing: data processing for use in tools (e.g. models) • Analysis: Geospatial analysis (GPS tracking, buffering, shortest route analysis, hydrological modelling, planning, future scenarios, etc.) 14
  15. 15. GIS Platforms • Server: GIS engine • Desktop: Processing • Web: Web services • Mobile devices: running on mobile devices, connecting to server for processing. 15
  16. 16. GIS desktop applications • Applications with a graphical user interface (GUI) • Menus • Toolbars • Map layers • Map view 16
  17. 17. GIS desktop applications • Command line applications: useful for testing and customizing GIS operations • Scripts: useful for batch processing and dynamic modelling 17 Source: NRC Next, June 23 2015
  18. 18. Open Source versus Proprietary • With proprietary software there is one point of contact, with open source software the support comes from the community • License cost versus capacity development: Potentially save enough money on software to save jobs! • Licenses on tools are hard to sell, more profits from participation in projects that need improvements on the tool or capacity development using the tool 18
  19. 19. Open Source versus Proprietary • Open source tools provide often optimal interoperability between internal and external components • Open source tools use more open standards • Proprietary tools tend to lock the user in: hard to make improvements, stuck with formats • Open Source can be peer reviewed • More confidence in the tool • Bugs are easier removed by the community • New developments are quicker implemented (state of the art) 19
  20. 20. Open Source versus Proprietary Proprietary GIS software: • ESRI ArcGIS • Clark Labs IDRISI • … 20 Open Source GIS software: • QGIS • SAGA • ILWIS • GDAL • …
  21. 21. Open Source Discussion • http://www.whitesourcesoftware.com/top-10- open-source-myths-busted/ 21
  22. 22. ArcMap Show toolboxes Available toolboxes Subject to licenses Dialog box UI Another face: command line and scripting 22
  23. 23. An Overview of ArcGIS desktop 23
  24. 24. ArcGIS Desktop Components • ArcMap: The core program of the whole GIS system and mapping (ArcToolbox) • ArcCatalog: geo-database management / metadata • ArcGlobe: 3D globe (true geodetic location) • ArcScene: 3D and 2.5D main tool (3D Analyst) • ArcReader: Map reader (free!) 24
  25. 25. ArcMap - extensions Most ESRI extensions are licensed separately (means more money). Fortunately for ArcSWAT that is not the case. 25
  26. 26. OSGeo • Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo) • Non Profit Umbrella for: • GeoSpatial Open Source Software • Education • Open Data http://osgeo.org 26
  27. 27. OSGeo.org 27
  28. 28. OSGeo4W A binary distribution of a broad set of open source geospatial software for Windows environments. Includes: • Quantum GIS: Desktop GIS • uDig: User-friendly Desktop Internet GIS • OpenEV: A high performance raster/vector desktop data viewer and analysis tool. • MapServer: A web mapping package. • GDAL/OGR: A library and set of commandline utility applications for reading and writing a variety of geospatial raster (GDAL) and vector (OGR) formats. • PROJ.4: A cartographic projections library with commandline utilities. • Python: a scripting language. • Over 150 other packages http://osgeo4w.osgeo.org 28
  29. 29. OSGeo Live • Self-contained bootable DVD, USB thumb drive or Virtual Machine based on Lubuntu, that allows you to try a wide variety of open source geospatial software without installing anything. • Provides pre-configured applications for a range of geospatial use cases, including storage, publishing, viewing, analysis and manipulation of data http://live.osgeo.org 29
  30. 30. QGIS • Formerly known as Quantum GIS • The QGIS project began in February, 2002. First release: July, 2002 • Produced by a Development team: Gary Sherman, Founder • Current version: 2.8.2 Wien (February 2015) • Open Source (GNU GPL license) • Runs on Windows, Macintosh and Linux 30
  31. 31. Why QGIS • It’s free, as in lunch. Installing and using the QGIS program costs you a grand total of zero money. No initial fee, no recurring fee, nothing. • It’s free, as in liberty. If you need extra functionality in QGIS, you can do more than just hope it will be included in the next release. You can sponsor the development of a feature, or add it yourself if you are familiar with programming. • It’s constantly developing. Because anyone can add new features and improve on existing ones, QGIS never stagnates. The development of a new tool can happen as quickly as you need it to. • Extensive help and documentation is available. If you’re stuck with anything, you can turn to the extensive documentation, your fellow QGIS users, or even the developers. • Cross-platform. QGIS can be installed on MacOS, Windows and Linux. 31 Source: http://docs.qgis.org
  32. 32. Installing QGIS http://qgis.org/en/site/forusers/download.html • Choose your operating system • 32 bit or 64 bit? • Standalone installer for new users • OSGeo4W Network installer for advanced users 32
  33. 33. Standalone windows installer • Installs one complete copy with Grass, Python, and the correct libraries. • Updates or "service packs" • Uninstall and reinstall the software and keep the settings 33
  34. 34. OSGeo4W network installer • Wizard to install different OSGeo applications, including their dependencies • Easy updating of applications and their dependencies 34
  35. 35. GDAL • A translator library to decode raster geospatial data format • Geodata Abstraction Layer • Supports a great number of formats: GeoTIFF, Erdas Imagine, SDTS, ECW, MrSID, JPEG2000, DTED, NITF, • Supports most language interfaces: C++/Java/Python… • Utilities program included • Widely used by many other GIS applications • OGR for vector • http://www.gdal.org 35
  36. 36. Python • Many geospatial analysis libraries exist for the Python programming language. • Integrated in GIS desktop software (commercial and non-commercial) • Scripting makes your (scientific) life more efficient 36
  37. 37. Lots of tools, let’s be practical! • Some things to remember: • Use a combination of tools. Each tool has its advantages and disadvantages • The way to learn a tool is to practice with it on a real case, reading books, manuals or lecture notes don’t help much • Use Google for your questions when you’re stuck, not your lecturer or a manual − Hits from Stack Overflow give the best results 37
  38. 38. Resources 38 Learning GIS • A gentle introduction to GIS by QGIS: http://www.qgis.org/en/docs/g entle_gis_introduction/index.ht ml • Principals of Geographical Information Systems (Burrough & McDonnell) • Learning QGIS 2.0, eBook from Packt publishing I’m stuck, what now? • QGIS documentation http://www.qgis.org/en/docs/in dex.html • Use Google for your questions when you’re stuck, not your lecturer or a manual. Hits from Stack Overflow give the best results

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