Seminar Nyenrode 20 juni 2012

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Slides (mix of Dutch and English) I used for the seminar "Rules, ludic spaces, and experiential learning" at Nyenrode Business Universiteit on June 20, 2012.

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Seminar Nyenrode 20 juni 2012

  1. 1. Rules, ludic spaces, and experiential learning Jeroen van Bree Annemieke Roobeek Breukelen, 20 juni 2012
  2. 2. Wat kun je met deze kennis?Waar wil je meer over weten?Waarover heb je andere inzichten?
  3. 3. Augustus 2006_
  4. 4. The managerial relevance of virtual worlds
  5. 5. nieuwe vormen van samenwerken
  6. 6. nieuwe vormen van kennisdelen
  7. 7. CSCW
  8. 8. Computer SupportedCooperative Work
  9. 9. The social-technical gap: “thegreat divide between what weknow we must support sociallyand what we can supporttechnically” -- Mark S. Ackerman, 2000
  10. 10. Don’t capture, but connect!
  11. 11. CSCW virtual worlds work playextrinsic motivation intrinsic motivation
  12. 12. Motivating factor Sources Autonomy: a sense of control or Lepper & Malone 1987, Ryan, Rigby volition & Przybylski 2006Competence: mastery, a feeling of Lepper & Malone 1987, Ryan, Rigbyeffectiveness, a balance between & Przybylski 2006, Koster 2005 skills and challengesRelatedness: purpose, the feeling of Ryan, Rigby & Przybyiski 2006, belonging and being part of Jakobsson & Taylor 2003, something bigger than yourself Steinkuehler 2005, McGonigal 2011
  13. 13. april 2007_
  14. 14. MMOG
  15. 15. MassivelyMultiplayer Online Games
  16. 16. Average age: 31_ 3132% women_ womenHours played per week: 21_ source: Yee, 2010
  17. 17. 25
  18. 18. Desirable organizationalOrganizing principle in MMO attribute Network forms of organizing AgilityComplementarities between players CollaborationReliable signals about player abilities Sensitivity Meritocracy Talent and diversity management
  19. 19. Desirable organizationalOrganizing principle in MMO attribute Network forms of organizing AgilityComplementarities between players CollaborationReliable signals about player abilities Sensitivity Meritocracy Talent and diversity management
  20. 20. Any claim to the effect that the studied environmentfosters collaborative skills in general (...) runs a seriousrisk of becoming hyperbolic -- Bennerstedt, Ivarsson & Linderoth, 2012The ‘transfer’ of a design element from a ‘play’ contextinto another usage context likely does not necessarilylead to the same motivational affordances -- Sebastian Deterding, 2011
  21. 21. December 2007_
  22. 22. virtual worlds gamesgame design
  23. 23. WORKSHOPLEARNINGFROM GAMESCall for ParticipationOrganizers:Jeroen van Bree (Nyenrode Business Universiteit)Marinka Copier (Universiteit Utrecht, Hogeschool voor de Kunsten Utrecht)Proposed dates: 6 december, 11 december or 19 decemberIn recent years, digital games have received serious academic attention. One of the aspectsof games that has gained interest is the use of games as a learning environment, in educa-tion as well as in corporate or institutional settings. This field has been labeled as seriousgames.
  24. 24. Een interventie leidt via een of meerdere mechanismen naar een uitkomst. In een bepaalde context. interventie mechanisme(n) uitkomst context De ontwerper van de interventie dient deze keten te begrijpen. Deze keten vormt een voorschrift: ook wel technological rule genoemd (Van Aken, 2004)
  25. 25. design principle design process design attitude
  26. 26. organizational design
  27. 27. A primary danger in designing is overdesign. Designersfail because they don’t know when to stop. The trick indesigning is to stop while the design still has life. -- Weick, 2004Minimally-structured organizations are those that havebeen able to reach a paradoxical state where amplefreedom and strong control coexist. -- Pina e Cunha & Vieira da Cunha, 2006
  28. 28. Juli 2008_
  29. 29. THE POWER OF PLAY HOW GAME DESIGN CAN UPSET ORGANIZATIONS JEROEN VAN BREE Nyenrode Business Universiteit THE POWER OF PLAY THE POWER OF PLAY HOW GAME DESIGN CAN UPSET ORGANIZATIONS HOW GAME DESIGN CAN UPSET ORGANIZATIONS COPIER MARINKA Utrecht University JEROEN VAN BREE JEROEN VAN BREE Nyenrode Business Universiteit Nyenrode Business Universiteit ABSTRACT MARINKA COPIER MARINKA COPIER To generate true innovation in organization design, there is a need to shift our view towards Utrecht University the future. Utrecht University this by studying game environments on the internet, and We propose to do especially the way they are designed. In this paper, we describe what sets game design apart ABSTRACT ABSTRACT from other design disciplines and argue why it is a useful source of inspiration for organizations. We present an approach for applying the lessons from game design toTo generate true innovation in organization design, there is aaneed to shift our view towards To generate true innovation in organization design, there is need toprinciples, social mechanisms and an adapted organization design, which involves design shift our view towardsthe future. We propose to do this by studying game environments on the internet, and the future. We propose togame design process. do this by studying game environments on the internet, andespecially the way they are designed. In this paper, we describe what sets game design apart especially the way they are designed. In this paper, we describe what sets game design apartfrom other design disciplines and argue why ititis aauseful source of inspiration for from other design disciplines and argue why is useful source of inspiration for INTRODUCTIONorganizations. We present an approach for applying the lessons from game design to organizations. We present an approach for applying the lessons from game design toorganization design, which involves design principles, social mechanisms and an adapted organization design, which involves design principles, social mechanisms and an adapted The Need for New Organizational Designsgame design process. game design process. Currently we are experiencing circumstances that are unique in the history of organizational INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION life. Conditions such as the rapid introduction of new technologies, globalization and shifts in demographics have been described in terms of a knowledge-based economy and theThe Need for New Organizational Designs The Need for New Organizational Designs (Castells, 2000; Child, 2005). Many organizations are facing these conditions network society
  30. 30. rule set source: Van Mastrigt, Salen & Zimmerman
  31. 31. declarative contentrule set
  32. 32. game playdeclarative contentrule set
  33. 33. Game Design game play rule set
  34. 34. Game Design game play rule set
  35. 35. Second-order Design game playtest minimal structure adjust rule set
  36. 36. To what extent can we apply thegame design process as a methodfor organizational design?
  37. 37. Game DesignProcess1.  Setting experience goals set experience goals2.  Designing the core mechanism design refinement core3.  Building a representation of mechanism the core mechanism (paper prototype)4.  Testing the prototype and adding rules test build paper prototype prototype & add rules5.  Refinement
  38. 38. testing ground
  39. 39. September 2008_
  40. 40. Electief Behandel Centrum - blank slate - veel stakeholders - vaststellen uitgangspunten
  41. 41. Explore the playing field
  42. 42. Explore the playing fieldBrainstorm with the players
  43. 43. HUISWERKDe tweede workshop duurt 3 uur en kan plaatsvinden op 21 EBCWORKSHOPoktober in de ochtend of 23 oktober in de middag. We hebbenhiervoor een ruimte nodig met een warme uitstraling, geschikt voor20 personen, met een beamer en de mogelijkheid om iets aan demuur te plakken. We nodigen je uit om deel te nemen aan de EBC workshop.★Nodig 1-2 vertegenwoordigers van de door jou geselecteerde Met deze workshop willen we een stap zetten in het ontwerp vanspelers uit voor de workshop. Dit moeten mensen zijn waarvan het het EBC. Dat willen we doen door een aantal belangrijke spelerste verwachten is dat ze een rol gaan spelen in het EBC. Maak hierbij aan tafel uit te nodigen.gebruik van de vooraf opgestelde uitnodiging. De workshop zal worden begeleid door Marinka Copier van de★Bedenk of achterhaal per speler 5 doelen en schrijf deze op de Universiteit Utrecht en Jeroen van Bree van de Nyenrode Business doelstellingskaarten. Het gaat niet om de doelen van de Universiteit en is onderdeel van een onderzoeksproject over nieuwe genodigde als persoon, maar om de doelen van de genodigde als manieren om organisaties te ontwerpen. vertegenwoordiger van deze groep spelers. Voorbereiding is niet noodzakelijk. Spelregels Verboden woorden tijdens de gesprekken met de genodigden: doel, computer, game en design. Ook gerelateerde woorden zijn verboden!★Maak als kernteam 1 presentatie van 5 minuten met als onderwerp: hoe ziet het EBC er over vijf jaar uit? Deze presentatie vormt de aftrap van de tweede workshop. Spelregels Maximaal 15 slides Maximaal 15 woorden per slide Onbeperkte hoeveelheid beeldmateraalVragen kun je stellen aan de spelleider: klaaswillemruis@gmail.com
  44. 44. Explore the playing fieldBrainstorms with the playersAdd rulesBuild a paper prototypePlaytest behavior
  45. 45. Explore the playing fieldBrainstorms with the playersAdd rulesBuild a paper prototypePlaytest behaviorRefine rule set
  46. 46. Het meta-ontwerp voor hetElectief Behandel Centrum JEROEN VAN BREE MARINKA COPIER 8 DECEMBER 2008
  47. 47. “De kunst is om het verfrissende van het spelelementniet te veel leidend te maken en af te laten leiden vanhet gericht aan de inhoud werken.Maar het omgekeerde geldt net zo goed.Eigenlijk zie je het gebeuren dat mensen zich inderdaadniet meer druk maken over: wat zal de achterbandaarvan vinden als ik zoiets zeg? Nee, men isgecommitteerd aan wat er op die tafel gebeurt enlevert daar frank en vrij een bijdrage aan.”
  48. 48. December 2008_
  49. 49. 13 October 2009What can workplaceexecutives learn fromcomputer games? Jeroen van Bree
  50. 50. Int. J. Organisational Design and Engineering, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, 2010 29 First International Workshop on Designing an organisational rule set: experiences of using second-order organisational design in Organizational Design and Engineering healthcare Call for Papers Jeroen van Bree*Dates and Venue Strategy Centre, Nyenrode Business Universiteit,11 and 12 December 2009. P.O. Box 130, 3620 AC Breukelen, The Netherlands E-mail: jeroen.van.bree@mac.comHolliday Inn, Av. Antonio Jose d’Almeida, 28 A, Lisbon, Portugal *Corresponding authorExecutive Chairs Marinka CopierRodrigo Magalhães, Kuwait Maastricht Business School and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical Universityof Lisbon, Portugal Faculty of Art, Media and Technology, HKU Utrecht School of the Arts, P.O. Box 2471, 1200 CL Hilversum, The NetherlandsAntónio Rito Silva, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal E-mail: marinka.copier@kmt.hku.nlProgram Committee Thijs Gaanderse Ademar Aguiar (Portugal) Ann Majchrzak (USA) YNNO, Steve Alter (USA) Mary Lynn Manns (USA) Orteliuslaan 9, 3528 BA Utrecht, The Netherlands Kent Beck (USA) Piero Migliarese (Italy) E-mail: thijs.gaanderse@ynno.com Lucio Biggiero (Italy) Brian Pentland (USA) Martin Cloutier (Canada) Jan Pries Heje (Denmark) Abstract: One of the biggest challenges of organisational design is moving Joao Vieira da Cunha (Portugal) Isabelle Reijmen (Netherlands) toward a less formal organisational structure as the artefact to be designed. We find inspiration in computer game design for a way to address this problem: Michel Delorme (Kuwait) Dirk Riehle (USA) second-order design. Second-order design means designing rules that give rise Haluk Demirkan (USA) Linda Rising (USA) to certain behaviour. In this article we present our study of an organisational Jan Dietz (Netherlands) Peter Rittgen (Belgium) intervention in a hospital using second-order design principles. The study Henrique Duarte (Portugal) highlights the role of rules and game structures, the inclusion of stakeholders in Matti Rossi (Finland) the design process and the importance of prototyping organisational designs. Omar El Sawy (USA) Susan Scott (UK) The implications for future empirical work are discussed. Raghu Garud (USA) Antonio Lucas Soares (Portugal) Anna Grandori (Italy) Jose Tribolet (Portugal) Keywords: organisational design; rules; healthcare; second-order design; game Cecilia Haskins (Norway) design; computer games; minimal structure; emergent behaviour; action Philip Turtscher (Austria) research; prototyping; design method. Jan Hoogervorst (Netherlands) Youngjin Yoo (USA) Mariann Jelinek (USA) Robert Winter (Switzerland) Reference to this paper should be made as follows: van Bree, J., Copier, M. John Paul Kawalek (UK) and Gaanderse, T. (2010) ‘Designing an organisational rule set: experiences of using second-order organisational design in healthcare’, Int. J. Organisational Design and Engineering, Vol. 1, Nos. 1/2, pp.29–54.Keynotes Biographical notes: Jeroen van Bree is a Management Consultant andRichard Boland, Case Western Reserve University Researcher. He currently works for YNNO, a consultancy firm based inLarry Constantine, Laboratory for Usage Centered Software Engineering and University of Madeira, Utrecht, The Netherlands. His consulting work is informed by the research hePortugal does at Nyenrode Business Universiteit, where he is a PhD candidate. He received his MSc in Information Management from Tilburg University and hisBackgroundOrganization design theory as we know today was invented more than 100 years ago. Many of the classical Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.principles put forward early in the 20th century are still the same ones that govern the structuring oforganizations. In the meanwhile Information Technology (IT) has changed the functioning of organizationsbeyond recognition. Loosely coupled, networked or virtual organizational forms have been discussed in the
  51. 51. Juli 2010_
  52. 52. Augustus 2010_
  53. 53. Explore the playing field Establish theBrainstorms with the players framework first Involve theAdd rules experts in theBuild a paper prototype prototyping stagePlaytest behaviorRefine rule set
  54. 54. “Misschien is het proces in die zin nog waardevoller dande exacte outcome.Dan bedoel ik meer het bewust nadenken over: hoe gaik om met mijn omgeving, met de spelers?Dat vind ik misschien de grotere les voor het heleteam. Hoe weeg ik mijn individuele belangen af tegenhet groepsbelang?”
  55. 55. Similarities Differences The effect of limited information Switching perspectives The effect of game elements Manipulating the rulesFinding the boundaries of the rules Dealing with ambiguity Process versus end product
  56. 56. Maart 2011_
  57. 57. NYENRODE RESEARCH PAPER ACADEMIC THEORY COMPLEX SYSTEMS AND EMERGENT BEHAVIOR:ENGAGING WITH COMPUTER GAMES TO ENRICH ORGANIZATION STUDIES Jeroen van Bree Steije de Lat November 2011 ~ no. 11-05
  58. 58. Oktober 2011_
  59. 59. gamification
  60. 60. Gamification Games Extrinsic motivation (ego Intrinsic motivationenhancement & external regulation) Points & badges Meaningful play Copy, disregarding context Second-order design
  61. 61. Juni 2012_
  62. 62. wat heb ik geleerd?
  63. 63. 1. De rol van spel bij het bevorderenvan creativiteit en een openuitwisseling van ideeën2. Het belang van het actief verkennenvan een organisatie en zijn omgevingals systeem om te komen tot nieuwestrategieën3. De rol van regels als een raamwerkvan organisatieprincipes
  64. 64. 1. Spel bevordert creativiteit en een open uitwisseling van ideeën Veldwerk Literatuur Play as a way to overcome blocks to group learning and creativityTransparency and openness (Mainemelis & Ronson 2006, Kark 2011) “Programs that encourage managers to play and behave playfully (...) can help Abductive reasoning managers to develop and draw on an alternative way of thinking” (Kark, 2011)
  65. 65. 2. Het actief verkennen van een organisatie en zijn omgeving als systeem Veldwerk LiteratuurAwareness and reflection A “ludic learning space” that engages theabout the dynamics of an experiential learning cycle: feeling,organizational system by reflection, thinking and action (Kolb & Kolb 2010) active engagement Bringing design from the domain of thinking to the domain of acting (Van Aken 2007)Progressive understanding Systems thinking as an iterative, progressive process of holistic enquiry (Gharajedaghi 2011)
  66. 66. 3. De rol van regels als een raamwerk van organisatieprincipes Veldwerk Literatuur “For many players, playing games is, in Attempts to circumvent or some measure, a playing with rules and manipulate the rules their boundaries” (Consalvo 2007) Rules as descriptions rather ... than prescriptions
  67. 67. The strategy of simple rules: rules can constitute a strategy in that they “specifyactions for addressing opportunities” (Davis, Eisenhardt & Bingham 2009) Organization as a nexus of rules: “rulesembody basic principles (...) while routines define specific ways and methods for conducting exchanges that are consistent with the principles embodied in a set of rules” (Boisot & Sanchez 2010)
  68. 68. rules prescribe a framework oforganizing principles play allows for active exploration of this possibility space routines emerge that collectively form the basis for a strategy
  69. 69. toekomstig onderzoek
  70. 70. 1. Bredere toepassing van deontwerpmethodiek2. De verbreding van “ludic environments”naar “playful organizations”3. Gedachtegoed over dit ontwikkelprocescontrasteren met stromingen in strategydevelopment
  71. 71. Wat kun je met deze kennis?Waar wil je meer over weten?Waarover heb je andere inzichten?
  72. 72. Jeroen van Breejeroen.vanbree@novay.nlmobile: +31 (0)653 187 512twitter: @jeroenvanbreeStationsstraat 79F, AmersfoortP.O. Box 5897500 AN EnschedeThe Netherlandswww.novay.nl+31 (0)53 485 04 85
  73. 73. You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work under the following conditions:AttributionYou must attribute the work to the presenter and to Novay by mentioning our website,http://www.novay.nl (but not in any way that suggests that Novay endorses you or youruse of the work).NoncommercialYou may not use this work for commercial purposes.No derivative worksYou may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.

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