FIU Online Conference – March 30 2012                     Florida International University      CUSTOMIZING AS QUALITY    ...
Why Promote Customized Learning?                          Increases learning quality, rigor                               ...
SEQUENCE OF TOPICS                                      Getting a handle on quality                                       ...
ONE CHALLENGE – WHAT ARE STUDENTS LEARNING AND HOW DO WE MEASURE IT?                                “A Lack of Rigor Leave...
CHALLENGE — GRADUATION RATES AS A            MEASURE  “The Rise and Fall of the     Graduation Rate”              March 2,...
DEBATE IS HEATING UP AS          IMPLEMENTATION BEGINS      “Completion and Quality at CUNY”              March 22, 2012  ...
KEEPING TRACK OF THE ISSUE                Association of Colleges                                                         ...
A PRIMARY CATALYST FOR ONLINE LEARNING WAS   ACCESS; NOW OUR CATALYST FOR CHANGE IS   QUALITY AND STUDENT         SUCCESSM...
DEFINING QUALITY       When you hear someone talk about a      high quality online course, what images       or descriptor...
DEFINING QUALITY – DO THESE WORK?                Exciting — I pondered deep questions          Energizing – I created some...
A QUICK LOOK AT “RIGOR”                Understanding and Reporting on Academic Rigor (2009)                http://www.lrdc...
DEFINING “RIGOR” …      • When we talk about a ‘rigorous course’ in        something, it’s a course that examines        d...
DEFINING “RIGOR” …      • “To me, this is the heart of academic rigor. One        must take a given set of facts and deriv...
RIGOR FROM NEUROSCIENCE PERSPECTIVE                • “If we always stick to what is easy, we                  diminish the...
EXAMPLES OF “RIGOR” IN DISCIPLINES     • In literature, a focus on the text, its       ambiguities, and possible interpret...
REFLECTION/THOUGHT QUESTIONS FOR                YOU    1. What does quality mean to you?    2. How do you define "rigor" i...
HOW DO WE CUSTOMIZE FOR                 QUALITY?March 30 2012                       17
THREE CUSTOMIZING DESIGN PRACTICES                          1. Design for                        core, structured         ...
CUSTOMIZING DESIGN PRACTICE #1       KNOWLEDGE        RESOURCES       AND INPUT                         1. Design   for   ...
PRINCIPLE           REMINDER   Learning Principle Supporting Content Choices   ALL LEARNERS DO NOT NEED TO LEARN ALL   COU...
STEP 1: ALIGN GOALS, ASSESSMENT AND ACTIVITIES    EXAMPLE — DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING      Learning outcome (1)   ...
STEP 1: ALIGN GOALS, ASSESSMENT AND ACTIVITIES    EXAMPLE — DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING      Learning outcome (1)   ...
STEP 2: IDENTIFY AND CATEGORIZE                  COURSE CONTENT                       Core Concepts                       ...
STEP 2 (PLUS) ANOTHER DIMENSION OF   CONTENT WHEN CATEGORIZING…                • Prepackaged authoritative content        ...
STEP 3: PROVIDE CHOICES IN CORE AND      STRUCTURED CHOICE CONTENT     • Develop core assignments           – Core assignm...
EXAMPLES OF CONTENT CHOICES    • Global leadership course          – Core readings on leadership concepts          – Set o...
SUMMARIZING WORK OF FACULTY   • Requires content analysis for aligning learning     outcomes, activities and assessments  ...
CUSTOMIZING DESIGN PRACTICE #2       APPLICATION,       OUTPUT, PRA          CTICE                2. Design in flexibility...
PRINCIPLE                REMINDER  No matter the design… with shared elements and  creating as they learn… EACH LEARNER EX...
“BUT, OF COURSE, EVERYONE WILL REMEMBER WHAT     HAPPENED, SOMEWHAT DIFFERENTLY, YOU SEE..."        Inspector Craddock to ...
Process                thinking…  Immersion and practice…  THINKING LIKE A HISTORIAN…LIKE A  SCIENTIST…LIKE AN ENTREPRENEU...
Who was         READING LIKE A HISTORIANresponsible for the Battle of              • Shift to investigating historicalLitt...
THINKING LIKE AN HISTORIAN       “The key was to construct every history        course around two core skills of their    ...
Learners                                 Patient, pharmacist, resea                “take on”                              ...
CLINICAL REASONING STEPS AND ROLES     • Scan/Apprehend        – Identify features, boundaries, patterns of a scenario, si...
CUSTOMIZING DESIGN PRACTICE #3        Community       collaboration       and practice        and review                  ...
PRINCIPLE           REMINDER   Learning Principle Supporting Assessment Choices   LEARNERS DO NOT HAVE TO DO IDENTICAL   T...
Learners want to develop               expertise…   Defining roles and responsibilities of licensed   professionals. The j...
LEVELS OF EXPERTISE (1)  • Novice        – Person with minimal exposure to field   M. T. H. Chi 2006  • Apprentice        ...
LEVELS OF EXPERTISE (2)• Expert                                       M. T. H. Chi 2006    – Person whose judgments are un...
HOW DO EXPERTS EXCEL?              • Generate the best solutions faster and more                accurately              • ...
CREATIVE WORK SHARING: PEER CONSULTING IN “PIN-UP REVIEWS”                                                     Interactive...
CREATIVE WORK DOING ANDSHARING: PROJECTS AND “INWORLD”         PRESENTATIONS   • Teams complete a project that requires   ...
Moving towards   curiosity, questioning, analyzing  Customizing engages and touches learners   WHY CUSTOMIZING WORKSMarch ...
CUSTOMIZING LEARNING                     ENGAGES AND TOUCHES                          LEARNERS        Content and experien...
WHAT CAN LEAVE LEARNERS                        DISINTERESTED…     • Abstract, formal, uncontextualized content; not       ...
ALL LEARNERS …    • Are most engaged when their learning      experiences enable them to experience feelings      of auton...
ERIC KANDEL – OUR                                BRAIN CHANGES WITH                                   EXPERIENCES…        ...
CUSTOMIZING TO THE LEARNERMarch 30 2012                          49
CONCLUSION“I really enjoyed the         VERY IMPORTANTproject and how myteacher supported mein doing what was             ...
THANKS & QUESTIONSMarch 30 2012                        51
SELECTED REFERENCES      •    Brookfield, S. (2000). Clinical reasoning and generic thinking skills. In J. J.           Hi...
The Online Teaching                         Survival Guide: Simple and                         Practical Pedagogical Tips ...
INSPIRATIONS FOR TEN LEARNING PRINCIPLES              Zone of Proximal                           Constructivism           ...
WHERE DID THE BEST PRACTICES COME                              FROM?                   Community of Inquiry model         ...
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Presentation on Costuming for Quality in courses from the Florida International University's Online Conference, Miami, March 30 2012. Don't miss the three customizing design practices

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    1. 1. FIU Online Conference – March 30 2012 Florida International University CUSTOMIZING AS QUALITY “CODDLING” — A PATH TO QUALITY LEARNING AND EXPERTISE Challenging Energizing Judith V. Boettcher, Ph.D. Satisfying Designing for Learning University of Florida judith@designingforlearning.orgMarch 30 2012 1
    2. 2. Why Promote Customized Learning? Increases learning quality, rigor and satisfaction Is easy, doable, and exciting At the heart of how we learn – we are all constructivistsMartinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Randy Buckner, Ph.D and the Laboratory of Neuro Imagingwww.humanconnectomeproject.org 2
    3. 3. SEQUENCE OF TOPICS Getting a handle on quality and rigor Three Customizing Design Strategies — What, how and why Why customizing brings quality and why it deepens the student-centered movement Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Randy Buckner, Ph.D and the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging www.humanconnectomeproject.orgMarch 30 2012 3
    4. 4. ONE CHALLENGE – WHAT ARE STUDENTS LEARNING AND HOW DO WE MEASURE IT? “A Lack of Rigor Leaves Students Adrift In College” “No measurable improvement in critical thinking skills through four years of education.” February 9 2011 NPR Interview with Richard Arum, one of coauthors of Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses. Richard Arum is a professor of sociology at New York University http://www.npr.org/2011/02/09/133310978/in-college-a-lack-of-rigor-leaves-students-adriftMarch 30 2012 4
    5. 5. CHALLENGE — GRADUATION RATES AS A MEASURE “The Rise and Fall of the Graduation Rate” March 2, 2012 chronicle.com/article/The-RiseFall-of- the/131036/ “Do College-Completion Rates Really Measure Quality?” March 2, 2012 http://chronicle.com/article/Do-College-Completion-Rates/131029/ Based on 2004 data from 30 public 4 year institutions in FloridaMarch 30 2012 collegecompletion.chronicle.com/ 5
    6. 6. DEBATE IS HEATING UP AS IMPLEMENTATION BEGINS “Completion and Quality at CUNY” March 22, 2012 • A slimmer, standardized core curriculum of 30 credits for CUNY‟s 23 campuses” • Laudable goal - facilitate transfer and promote curricular alignment • Feud over speeding up of graduation rates vs. sacrificing quality of a CUNY degree http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/03/22/cuny-faculty-sue-March 30 2012 block-new-core-curriculum 6
    7. 7. KEEPING TRACK OF THE ISSUE Association of Colleges What is and Universities Quality? (AACU) – “Completion and Quality News Watch” http://www.aacu.org/leap/newswatch.cfmMarch 30 2012 7
    8. 8. A PRIMARY CATALYST FOR ONLINE LEARNING WAS ACCESS; NOW OUR CATALYST FOR CHANGE IS QUALITY AND STUDENT SUCCESSMarch 30 2012 8
    9. 9. DEFINING QUALITY When you hear someone talk about a high quality online course, what images or descriptors “pop” into your head? Growing connections, data What is links, synapse Quality? s Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Randy Buckner, Ph.D andMarch 30 2012the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging www.humanconnectomeproject.org9
    10. 10. DEFINING QUALITY – DO THESE WORK? Exciting — I pondered deep questions Energizing – I created something useful and meaningful to me and for othersI struggled thinking about serious problems and ideas My teacher really “dialogued” and was involved Analytical – I made choices on challenging questions so that I know now what I think and why I think what I do…. I got to know some great people… I developed confidence in my own thinkingMarch 30 2012 10
    11. 11. A QUICK LOOK AT “RIGOR” Understanding and Reporting on Academic Rigor (2009) http://www.lrdc.pitt.edu/pubs/Abstracts/FiezRigorous.pdfMarch 30 2012 11
    12. 12. DEFINING “RIGOR” … • When we talk about a ‘rigorous course’ in something, it’s a course that examines details, insists on diligent and scrupulous study and performance, and doesn’t settle for a mild or informal contact with the key ideas.” Robert Talbert, Mathematics and computing science, Franklin College, Franklin, IN Understanding and Reporting on Academic Rigor (2009) http://www.lrdc.pitt.edu/pubs/Abstracts/FiezRigorous.pdfMarch 30 2012 12
    13. 13. DEFINING “RIGOR” … • “To me, this is the heart of academic rigor. One must take a given set of facts and derive conclusions based on the rules of logical reasoning, with each step logical, transparent, and well-documented.” Richard, Scharr, VP of math and science education at Texas Instruments Understanding and Reporting on Academic Rigor (2009) http://www.lrdc.pitt.edu/pubs/Abstracts/FiezRigorous.pdfMarch 30 2012 13
    14. 14. RIGOR FROM NEUROSCIENCE PERSPECTIVE • “If we always stick to what is easy, we diminish the amount of neuroplasticity (changes in brain organization) that occurs, because we can rely on already- established neural connections…Generally, „demanding‟ is good because it recruits the high-level areas that we most associate with intelligence, creative problem- solving, executive control, deep reflection, and so forth… There are also time limits on our ability to sustain high Julie Fiez, cognitive scientist fromeffort without taking Institute degrees of cognitive U of Pittsburgh in Hechinger aMarch 30 2012 break.” (p. 11) Report on Academic Rigor (2009) 14
    15. 15. EXAMPLES OF “RIGOR” IN DISCIPLINES • In literature, a focus on the text, its ambiguities, and possible interpretations based on what is actually in the text. • In chemistry, a focus on the “why”, stimulating curiosity about how the world works and its complexity, what we know, what we don’t • In professional programs, assessment by outside experts, expand the “audiences” for projects • In general, much more dialogue, coaching, mentoring between faculty and students and between students March 30 2012 15
    16. 16. REFLECTION/THOUGHT QUESTIONS FOR YOU 1. What does quality mean to you? 2. How do you define "rigor" in your course, in your discipline? 3. What is your top quality strategy?March 30 2012 16
    17. 17. HOW DO WE CUSTOMIZE FOR QUALITY?March 30 2012 17
    18. 18. THREE CUSTOMIZING DESIGN PRACTICES 1. Design for core, structured choice and optional learning experiences 3. Design in sharing choice activities to 2. Design in flexibility develop a body of and choice — in experience and roles, collaborations, expertise in the “evidences” of community learningMarch 30 2012 18
    19. 19. CUSTOMIZING DESIGN PRACTICE #1 KNOWLEDGE RESOURCES AND INPUT 1. Design for core, structured choice and optional learning activities How do you go about this?March 30 2012 19
    20. 20. PRINCIPLE REMINDER Learning Principle Supporting Content Choices ALL LEARNERS DO NOT NEED TO LEARN ALL COURSE CONTENT /KNOWLEDGE; ALL LEARNERS DO NEED TO LEARN THE CORE CONCEPTS… AND DEVELOP USEFUL KNOWLEDGEMarch 30 2012 20
    21. 21. STEP 1: ALIGN GOALS, ASSESSMENT AND ACTIVITIES EXAMPLE — DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING Learning outcome (1) Articulate how my personal leadership practice informs my approach to problem- solving and decision-makingLearning experiences Feedback & Assessment 1. Complete self-assessment instruments to 1. Coach & provide feedback on leadership determine my leadership practice journal entries and what is shared in2. Evaluate PSDM approaches and select one that community is a good match for me and my work 2. Assess project with rubric and small environment team review 3. Share the process and results in a leadership journal and project March 30 2012 21
    22. 22. STEP 1: ALIGN GOALS, ASSESSMENT AND ACTIVITIES EXAMPLE — DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING Learning outcome (1) Articulate how my personal leadership Note Personalizing… practice informs my approach to problem- solving and decision-makingLearning experiences Feedback & Assessment 1. Complete self-assessment instruments to 1. Coach & provide feedback on leadership determine my leadership practice journal entries and what is shared in2. Evaluate PSDM approaches and select one that community is a good match for me and my work 2. Assess project with rubric and small environment team review 3. Share the process and results in a leadership journal and project March 30 2012 22
    23. 23. STEP 2: IDENTIFY AND CATEGORIZE COURSE CONTENT Core Concepts Core Concepts and Principles and Principles Applying Core Concepts Problem Analysis and Solving Customized and PersonalizedMarch 30 2012 23
    24. 24. STEP 2 (PLUS) ANOTHER DIMENSION OF CONTENT WHEN CATEGORIZING… • Prepackaged authoritative content – Textbooks and other expert, reviewed content – NOT blogs, comments, vendor materials • Guided learning materials (Teaching Presence) – Faculty prepared • Interactive and spontaneous performance content Increasingly – Learner-generated important content, blogs, journals, wikis, projects Boettcher, J. www.campus- technology.com/print.asp?ID=18004March 30 2012 24
    25. 25. STEP 3: PROVIDE CHOICES IN CORE AND STRUCTURED CHOICE CONTENT • Develop core assignments – Core assignment builds community with “shared experience” with differential focus • Structured choice in content resources – Provide personalization, focus and fodder for discussion – Lessen stress and encourage responsibility for learning – Encourage local and personal application of core contentMarch 30 2012 25
    26. 26. EXAMPLES OF CONTENT CHOICES • Global leadership course – Core readings on leadership concepts – Set of 3-4 articles, of which two are required, one closest to world area of interest • Education, pedagogy and learning theories – Core reading on key theorist such as Dewey, Vygotsky, Bruner – Set of 2-3 articles by other theorists, one of which is required – Link to a key learning theory website where learners choose a learning theory that best fits content and style of interest • Public health – Core readings and practice on measuring water quality – Assignment to report on water quality in a body of water local to learnerMarch 30 2012 26
    27. 27. SUMMARIZING WORK OF FACULTY • Requires content analysis for aligning learning outcomes, activities and assessments • Analysis (decoding) of just what the core concepts, skills, and processes of a discipline – More focus on process — the how of a discipline, not just the what … • Requires broadening perspective of content and bringing in more media resources + openness to “whatever” • Requires shifting to modeling, coaching, mentoring use of concepts and processes within the disciplineMarch 30 2012 27
    28. 28. CUSTOMIZING DESIGN PRACTICE #2 APPLICATION, OUTPUT, PRA CTICE 2. Design in flexibility and choice in course roles, in collaborations, in “evidences” of learningMarch 30 2012 28
    29. 29. PRINCIPLE REMINDER No matter the design… with shared elements and creating as they learn… EACH LEARNER EXPERIENCES THE COURSE DIFFERENTLY ... AND CAN HAVE DIFFERENT RESPONSIBILITIESMarch 30 2012 29
    30. 30. “BUT, OF COURSE, EVERYONE WILL REMEMBER WHAT HAPPENED, SOMEWHAT DIFFERENTLY, YOU SEE..." Inspector Craddock to Miss Marple in Agatha Christie’s mystery “A Murder is Announced”March 30 2012 30
    31. 31. Process thinking… Immersion and practice… THINKING LIKE A HISTORIAN…LIKE A SCIENTIST…LIKE AN ENTREPRENEUR… DIFFERENT ROLES IN AD HOC TEAMS, GROUPS AND DISCUSSION FORUMSMarch 30 2012 31
    32. 32. Who was READING LIKE A HISTORIANresponsible for the Battle of • Shift to investigating historicalLittle Bighorn? questions using finding, contextualizing, corroborating , and close reading. • Shift from memorizing facts to evaluating the trustworthiness of multiple perspectives – Montgomery bus boycott • Learners argue their historical claims using documentary evidence Teaching Strategy: Scaffolding - Cognitive modeling to guided practice to independent practice Stanford History Education Group March 30 2012 32 sheg.stanford.edu/?q=node/45
    33. 33. THINKING LIKE AN HISTORIAN “The key was to construct every history course around two core skills of their discipline: assembling evidence and interpreting it.” History faculty group at Indiana University at Bloomington Chronicle of Higher Education 11-15-09 chronicle.com/article/Teaching-Experiment-Decodes-a/49140/March 30 2012 33
    34. 34. Learners Patient, pharmacist, resea “take on” rcher, diagnostician roles “Thinking like a Clinician” CLINICAL REASONING STEPS AND ROLESMarch 30 2012 34
    35. 35. CLINICAL REASONING STEPS AND ROLES • Scan/Apprehend – Identify features, boundaries, patterns of a scenario, situation that need “attending to” – Familiar from past experience and noting unusual patterns, configurations • Gather – Collect information such as resources and protocols to aid understanding the scenarios – Clarify the known and the unknown from our experience and that of colleagues • Appraise – Sort, organize, theorize as detectives to determine best interpretation of facts – Analyze our own judgment for bias, accuracy – Determine accuracy and validity of assumptionsMarch 30 2012 35 Brookfield, S. (2000)
    36. 36. CUSTOMIZING DESIGN PRACTICE #3 Community collaboration and practice and review 3. Design for sharing “choice” experiences as a way of building a body of experience and thus developing confidence and expertiseMarch 30 2012 36
    37. 37. PRINCIPLE REMINDER Learning Principle Supporting Assessment Choices LEARNERS DO NOT HAVE TO DO IDENTICAL TASKS; TASKS ONLY NEED TO BE SIMILAR ENOUGH FOR ASSESSMENT AND OUTCOME PURPOSES. REMEMBER VYGOTSKY AND JUNGLE AND TUNDRA BRAINSMarch 30 2012 37
    38. 38. Learners want to develop expertise… Defining roles and responsibilities of licensed professionals. The journey from novice to expert … LEVELS OF EXPERTISE2011 30 2012 March 38
    39. 39. LEVELS OF EXPERTISE (1) • Novice – Person with minimal exposure to field M. T. H. Chi 2006 • Apprentice – Person working in a domain under supervision who has completed an introductory period of study • Journeyman or Assistant – Person who can perform routine work unsupervisedMarch 30 201239
    40. 40. LEVELS OF EXPERTISE (2)• Expert M. T. H. Chi 2006 – Person whose judgments are uncommonly accurate and reliable; is highly regarded by peers; performance shows skill, economy of effort; can handle difficult and unusual cases• Master – Can teach others; member of an elite group of experts whose judgments set regulations, standards or ideals.March 30 201240
    41. 41. HOW DO EXPERTS EXCEL? • Generate the best solutions faster and more accurately • See and detect features that novices do not “see”To becomeexperts, we • Analyze a problem qualitatively including domain-need a specific and general constraintswide, broad • More successful at choosing appropriateand deep strategiesexperiences • Are more opportunistic in using resourcesin our chosen • Retrieve relevant domain knowledge andfield. strategies with less cognitive effort March 30 2012 From M.T.H. Chi, 2006 41
    42. 42. CREATIVE WORK SHARING: PEER CONSULTING IN “PIN-UP REVIEWS” Interactive plasma screens make it easy and affordable for architecture students to review and consult on each other’s work. College of Architecture and Planning at Ball State University (IN)March 30 2012 42
    43. 43. CREATIVE WORK DOING ANDSHARING: PROJECTS AND “INWORLD” PRESENTATIONS • Teams complete a project that requires integrating knowledge across courses • A virtual scientific conference is open to the Second Life public • Sample projects: Menieres Disease, Scoliosis, Traumatic Brain Injury College of Health and Human Performance /University of Houston - http://grants.hhp.uh.edu/secondlife/vital-spring-12.htmMarch 30 2012 43
    44. 44. Moving towards curiosity, questioning, analyzing Customizing engages and touches learners WHY CUSTOMIZING WORKSMarch 30 2012 44
    45. 45. CUSTOMIZING LEARNING ENGAGES AND TOUCHES LEARNERS Content and experiences “make sense” to the learner – Content “touches on” and links to learner’s existing knowledge base – Content is contextualized and situated in meaningful, understandable experiences – “Look forward experiences” focus on building skills and competencies “I can see how /why this is important.” “Wow, I wish I had had this tool/knowledge/understanding back when…March 30 2012 45
    46. 46. WHAT CAN LEAVE LEARNERS DISINTERESTED… • Abstract, formal, uncontextualized content; not situated in a time & place & purpose – Experiences are not part of learners’ zones of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1978) – “Invisible” authors & writers (Clark & Mayer, 2006) • Course requirements are not perceived as learning experiences – Papers, postings & tests do not include community or opportunity for revision & growthMarch 30 2012 46
    47. 47. ALL LEARNERS … • Are most engaged when their learning experiences enable them to experience feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Hayles, 2008) • Enjoy being a part of the generation and analysis of shared, spontaneous content. Learners instinctively embrace learning experiences that challenge & stimulateMarch 30 2012 47
    48. 48. ERIC KANDEL – OUR BRAIN CHANGES WITH EXPERIENCES… • Long-term memory involves enduring changes that result from the growth of new synaptic Dr. Eric R. Kandel connections. • This means that …”the brain can change because of experience. It gives you a different feeling about how nature and nurture interact.” http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/06/science/a-quest-to-understand-how-memory- works.html?scp=1&sq=kandel&st=cseMarch 30 2012 48
    49. 49. CUSTOMIZING TO THE LEARNERMarch 30 2012 49
    50. 50. CONCLUSION“I really enjoyed the VERY IMPORTANTproject and how myteacher supported mein doing what was GUIDELINEimportant for mepersonally.” In course design, we design for the probable, expected learner; in course delivery, we flex, we customize to the specific, particular learners within a course. March 30 2012 50
    51. 51. THANKS & QUESTIONSMarch 30 2012 51
    52. 52. SELECTED REFERENCES • Brookfield, S. (2000). Clinical reasoning and generic thinking skills. In J. J. Higgs, Mark (Ed.), Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions (pp. 62- 67). New York Butterworth-Heinemann; 2nd Ed. • Boettcher, Judith (2006, March) The rise of student performance content, Campus Technology. Retrieved March 25, 2012 from http://campustechnology.com/articles/2006/02/the-rise-of-student-performance- content.aspx?sc_lang=en • Chi, M. T. H. (2006). Two approaches to the study of experts characteristics. In K. A. Ericsson, Charness, N., Feltovich, P. J., & Hoffman, R. R. (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (Ericsson, K. A., Charness, N., Feltovich, P. J., & Hoffman, R. R. ed., pp. 21 - 30). Cambridge Cambridge University Press. • Hayles, K. N. (2007 ). Hyper and Deep Attention: The Generational Divide in Cognitive Modes. Profession, pp. 187-199. Retrieved 3/26/2012 from http://www.english.ufl.edu/da/hayles/hayles_hyper-deep.pdf • Hechinger Institute on Education and the Media at Teachers College, Columbia University. (2009) Understanding and Reporting on Academic Rigor. Retrieved February 28 2012 from http://www.lrdc.pitt.edu/pubs/Abstracts/FiezRigorous.pdf • Middendorf, J., & Pace, D. (2004). Decoding the disciplines: A model for helping students learn disciplinary ways of thinking. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2004(98), 1-12. • Quality Matters Program (2012). MarylandOnline. Retrieved January 12, 2012 from http://www.qmprogram.org/about • Sloan C Quality Scorecard. (2011) Sloan C Consortium, Retrieved Jan 16 2012 from http://sloanconsortium.org/quality_scorecard_online_program.March 30 2012 52
    53. 53. The Online Teaching Survival Guide: Simple and Practical Pedagogical Tips Judith V Boettcher Author, Consultant, Speakerby Judith V. Boettcher Designing for Learningand Rita-Marie Conrad University of Florida judith@designingforlearning.org jboettcher@comcast.net www.designingforlearning.infoMarch 30 2012 53
    54. 54. INSPIRATIONS FOR TEN LEARNING PRINCIPLES Zone of Proximal Constructivism Development and active learning Lev Vygotsky Daniel Schacter Jerome Bruner Memory Experiential personalized learning Cognitive John Dewey apprenticeship John Seely Brown www.innovateonline.info/pdf/vol3_issue3/Ten_Core_Principles_for_Designing_Effective_ Learning_Environments-__Insights_from_Brain_Research_and_Pedagogical_Theory.pdfMarch 30 2012 54
    55. 55. WHERE DID THE BEST PRACTICES COME FROM? Community of Inquiry model Community of Social, Teaching and Cognitive learners Presence Idea of a Garrison, Anderson, A University rcher, Swan, others John Henry Newman Instructional design and learning theory How People Learn reports Research on Bransford, Brown and dialogue and Cocking communication Discussion as a way of teaching Learner-centered Teaching… Brookfield and Preskill Maryellen WeimerMarch 30 2012 55 www.designingforlearning.info/services/writing/ecoach/tenbest.html

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