Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Knowledge Management 2009 (4)


Published on

Course 04 - First Draft

Published in: Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Knowledge Management 2009 (4)

  1. 1. Knowledge Management 2009 Course 4 Tim Hoogenboom & Bolke de Bruin
  2. 2. Contents of Today <ul><li>Recapitulating last week </li></ul><ul><li>Something on Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice, Boundaries and Locality </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance of Practice Based Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Wrapping it up
  4. 4. Design in a nutshell <ul><li>Design organizations as architectures for learning </li></ul><ul><li>We have four design interventions (areas of influence) we need to balance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning, Time, Space, Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As to learning, organizations consist of 3 infrastructures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement, Imagination, Alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructures are specific interventions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Difficulties Design <ul><li>Design as a craft (ask any artisan) </li></ul><ul><li>Design by drawing (ask any engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Design as a process (ask program manager) </li></ul><ul><li>Design without a product (who should we ask… You?) </li></ul><ul><li>Hindsight: If we had known at the start what we know now we’d never designed it like this (p.xxv) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Design Interventions
  7. 7. Designing for Participation Learning can’t be designed – it can only be frustrated or facilitated
  8. 8. A Design Framework Standards, shared infrastructures, centers of authority Models, maps, representations, visits, tours Multi-membership, brokering, peripherality, conversations LOCAL/ GLOBAL Inspirations, fields of influence, reciprocity of power relations New trajectories, empathy, stereotypes, explanations Mutuality through shared action, situated negotiation, marginalization IDENTIFICATION/ NEGOTIABILITY Communication, feedback, coordination, renegotiation, realignment Scenarios, possible worlds, simulations, perceiving new broad patterns Situated improvisation within a regime of mutual accountability DESIGNED/ EMERGENT Styles and discourses Stories, playing with forms, recombinations, assumptions Combining them meaningfully in actions, interactions and creation of shared histories PARTICIPATION/ REIFICATION ALIGNMENT IMAGINATION ENGAGEMENT
  9. 9. Practice
  10. 10. Community of Practice <ul><li>Communities of practice are social configurations that support learning, by facilitating practices that reflect the pursuit of a shared enterprise and social relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Practices have no agency on their own, yet practices connote doing, and by this doing members’ practices help them in ordering their social context </li></ul><ul><li>Communities are a new mode of organizing between the market and the hierarchy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Practice <ul><li>Practice is the source of coherence for a community (of practice), thereby it differs from interest groups, belief groups, cultures etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice is about the negotiation of meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation is the process of taking part and also to the relation with others that reflect this process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reification is treating an abstraction as substantially existing or as a concrete object. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Community <ul><li>In order to structure a practice a social configuration is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice are constituted under the force of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutuality of engagement: Constructing and reproducing the relationships (often called memberships) for doing things together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint enterprise: shared objective negotiated by its participants to deal with a situation as they experience it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared repertoire: Resources for negotiation of meaning that a community has adopted during its existence, and which have become part of its practice </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Practice creates learning <ul><li>For communities of practice to be durable, learning is required </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate peripheral participation: To learn trajectories are necessary, trajectories created openings within communities that foster member’s learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is a constant flux; neither inherently stable, nor randomly changeable </li></ul>
  14. 14. Practice creates boundaries <ul><li>Inherent to practice is emergence of boundaries, creating discontinuities in learning </li></ul><ul><li>To overcome learning blockades boundary trajectories are vital </li></ul><ul><li>To deal with boundaries our identities have to incorporate situated or partial identities and multimemberships </li></ul><ul><li>Reification can also serve continuity across community of practices by brokering via boundary objects (the sprout of object-centered sociality) </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations try to design boundary practices, overlaps and peripheries to bridge isolations, yet it is up to the community to appropriate them </li></ul>
  15. 15. Practice creates locality <ul><li>Practice, and thus communities of practice, is always local. </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of practice always are part of broader constellations. </li></ul><ul><li>These constellations are institutionalized structures </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding local and global and their interplay is vital in realistic organizational design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naïve associations hoaxing ‘a living togetherness’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KPI steering as way of understanding the practice </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Relevancy PBA <ul><li>Practice Based Approach (PBA) </li></ul><ul><li>Practice situated in middle of structure and agency extremes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure (Objectivism, functionalism, positivism) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency (Subjectivism, symbolic interactionism, pragmatism) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In search for middle way: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giddens’ structuration theory, Latour’s actor-network theory, Wenger’s practice based approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of organizational reconstitutions </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Assignment