Knowledge Management 2009 (3)


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Knowledge Management 2009 (3)

  1. 1. Knowledge Management 2009 Course 3 Tim Hoogenboom & Bolke de Bruin
  2. 2. Contents of Today <ul><li>Recapitulating last week </li></ul><ul><li>What is design </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Design </li></ul><ul><li>Design for participative learning </li></ul><ul><li>The nuts and bolds of the Design framework </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Wrapping it up
  4. 4. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Four presmises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We humans are social beings; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing is a participating in pursuing an enterprise; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge then is a matter of competence accomplished in pursuing these enterprises; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning is what learning is to produce. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory Learning in a fundamental social phenomenon, rooted in doing, by being active participants in practices while constructing identities. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Components of (social) learning Learning is an individual process – no , it’s social too Learning has a beginning and an end – no , it’s continuous and life-long Learning is best done in separate environments – no , in social practices Learning is the result of teaching – no , learning is part of everyday life
  6. 6. Design Thinking
  7. 7. Engineering Method <ul><li>Linear approach </li></ul><ul><li>Two distinct phases: problem definition and problem solution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem definition: analytic sequence determining elements of problem, while specifying the requirements of successful design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solution: synthetic sequence combining and balancing various elements into production-ready plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critiques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reality, and thus social learning, is indeterminate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Method, instead of Design Theory  which way to go? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Traditional Organizational Design <ul><li>Value Chain Management – Porter </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Configuration – Mintzberg </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise Architecture – Zachmann </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Scorecard – Kaplan and Norton </li></ul><ul><li>Core Competencies – Pralahad and Hamel </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Management – Taylor </li></ul><ul><li>7S Model – Peters and Waterman </li></ul><ul><li>Structuralists and determinists </li></ul><ul><li>are radiating joy now! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Design in a nutshell <ul><li>Design organizations as architectures for learning </li></ul><ul><li>We have four design interventions (areas of influence) we need to balance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning, Time, Space, Power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As to learning, organizations consist of 3 infrastructures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement, Imagination, Alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructures are specific interventions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Defining Design <ul><li>Design is the conception and planning of the artificial (Buchanan, 1992, p.14) </li></ul><ul><li>Design is to initiate change in man-made things (Jones, 1992, p.4) </li></ul><ul><li>Design a purposeful activity to transform human thinking and behavior (MIW, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Design is about “producing affordances for the negotiation of meaning, but not the meaning itself” (Wenger, 1998, p.228) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Difficulties Design <ul><li>Design as a craft (ask any artisan) </li></ul><ul><li>Design by drawing (ask any engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Design as a process (ask program manager) </li></ul><ul><li>Design without a product (who should we ask… You?) </li></ul><ul><li>Hindsight: If we had known at the start what we know now we’d never designed it like this (p.xxv) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Design Interventions
  13. 13. Duality? <ul><li>A single conceptual unit that is formed by </li></ul><ul><li>two inseparable and mutually constitutive elements whose </li></ul><ul><li>inherent tension and complimentarity give </li></ul><ul><li>the concept richness and dynamism </li></ul>
  14. 14. Designing for Participation Learning can’t be designed – it can only be frustrated or facilitated
  15. 15. A Design Framework Standards, shared infrastructures, centers of authority Models, maps, representations, visits, tours Multi-membership, brokering, peripherality, conversations LOCAL/ GLOBAL Inspirations, fields of influence, reciprocity of power relations New trajectories, empathy, stereotypes, explanations Mutuality through shared action, situated negotiation, marginalization IDENTIFICATION/ NEGOTIABILITY Communication, feedback, coordination, renegotiation, realignment Scenarios, possible worlds, simulations, perceiving new broad patterns Situated improvisation within a regime of mutual accountability DESIGNED/ EMERGENT Styles and discourses Stories, playing with forms, recombinations, assumptions Combining them meaningfully in actions, interactions and creation of shared histories PARTICIPATION/ REIFICATION ALIGNMENT IMAGINATION ENGAGEMENT
  16. 16. Social Software <ul><li>From bonobo monkeys to posthumanistic monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>In order for social sofware to trigger sociality: </li></ul><ul><li>Objects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>should be question generating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offer relational opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have a structure of lacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social software is thus all about object-centered sociality </li></ul>
  17. 17. Assignment