Introduction to logic and argumentation2012 with narration

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Introduction to logic and argumentation2012 with narration

  1. 1. Introduction to Logic and Argumentation        “ I argue very well. Ask any of my remaining friends. I can win an argument on any topic, against any opponent. People know this, and steer clear of me at parties. Often, as a sign of their great respect, they don't even invite me. ” Dave Barry
  2. 2. Objectives: <ul><li>Understand the components of an academic argument </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how appeals are used for persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the logic of the syllogism </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the elements of the enthymeme </li></ul>
  3. 3. Argumentation and persuasion <ul><li>According to Aristotle, rhetoric is &quot;the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>We are persuaded by a variety of stimuli— </li></ul><ul><li>What we see, what we feel, what we believe, what we hear </li></ul><ul><li>in academic persuasion, we focus on the emotional, logical, and credibility of the speaker. </li></ul>
  4. 4. How does this relate to me and my future? <ul><li>Logic is one type of critical thinking that spans different disciplines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy, etc… </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Theories of Analyzing Argumentation <ul><li>There are many theories/models about logical argumentation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toulmin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rogerian, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s really important is the idea that LOGICALLY sound, EVIDENCED, WELL-WRITTEN arguments are most effective. Likewise, we want to be able to evaluate the logic and the methods of arguments. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Remember: There were originally three major purposes for rhetoric: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to praise/blame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to argue a judicial case (argue guilt or innocence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to deliberate on legislative issues (argue policies and procedures of government -- early democracy) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Aristotle described the appeals a person would use to persuade his or her audience as logos/ethos/pathos. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle took issue with the tendency for people to rely on pathos as their method of persuasion. In his time, there was even a name for people who manipulated and thus negatively controlled others’ emotions with pathos: sophists. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle hoped that all arguments would be grounded in sound logical principles rather than just pathetic appeals… </li></ul><ul><li>therefore, the syllogism was born. </li></ul><ul><li>While Aristotle recognized the need for, and importance of, emotional appeals, he claimed that the affairs of mankind should be handled through logic since emotions are fickle – they change constantly! </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle hoped that mankind would embrace the logic of the syllogisms for making arguments. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Using the Syllogism to Test Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Syllogism : a schematic device for analyzing and testing the reasoning of deductive arguments (usually thesis statements) or ones that move from reason to conclusion. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><ul><li>The syllogism moves from statements to propositions or premises. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The general “formula” of a syllogism is as follows: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if A is true (or accepted as valid), and B is true (or accepted is valid), then C must be true (or accepted as valid). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To use the syllogism to test the validity of a line of reasoning, we may use a simplified form: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The major premise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The minor premise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The major premise =A generally accepted assumption or </li></ul><ul><li>proposition </li></ul><ul><li>The minor premise = An application of the accepted assumption </li></ul><ul><li>to a particular case </li></ul><ul><li>T he conclusion = A reasonable deduction </li></ul><ul><li>* Important: to consider an idea a major premise, it has to be universally accepted (generally accepted) by most rational, logical people. There could be exceptions, but the general principle holds true. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Syllogism Example: </li></ul><ul><li>All men are mortal  the major premise </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is a man  the minor premise </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, Socrates is mortal  the conclusion </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Example as a “Math Problem”: </li></ul><ul><li>A  B </li></ul><ul><li>All men are mortal </li></ul><ul><li>C  A </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is a man </li></ul><ul><li>----------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>C  B </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is mortal </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Inverted Syllogism: (Conclusion + Reasons) </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates is mortal because he is a man. </li></ul><ul><li>More Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>All cats are mammals. Fluffy is a cat. Therefore, Fluffy is a mammal.  Fluffy is a mammal because she’s a cat. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>College education promotes critical thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking is important for democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, college education is important for democracy.  College education is important for democracy because college education promotes critical thinking. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Activity: <ul><li>With a partner, generate a list of five general assumptions (major premises). Here are a couple to get you started: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteer workers are good people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People want the best for their children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College diplomas lead to higher paying jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With your partner, turn two of your major premises into syllogisms. Major Premise (universal assumption/statement): </li></ul><ul><li>______A____is/are ____B_____ </li></ul><ul><li>Minor Premise (specific case): </li></ul><ul><li>______B____is/are ____C_____ </li></ul><ul><li>THEREFORE: (conclusion): </li></ul><ul><li>______A_____is/are ____C_____ </li></ul><ul><li>Activity: On your own, create a syllogism. Use the formula below to help you. Good Luck!  </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Major Premise (universal assumption/statement): </li></ul><ul><li>______A____is/are ____B_____ </li></ul><ul><li>Minor Premise (specific case): </li></ul><ul><li>______B_____is/are ____C____ </li></ul><ul><li>THEREFORE: (conclusion): </li></ul><ul><li>______A____is/are ____C____ </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Susan speaks eloquently because she studies rhetoric. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I wanted to serve as President because I love this country and because I love the people of this nation.”—Jimmy Carter, 1980 concession speech </li></ul><ul><li>“ The gloves didn’t fit. If it doesn’t fit, you must acquit” Johnny Cochran (O.J. Simpson’s attorney) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ads <ul><li>In your group, receive an ad. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what the argument is. </li></ul><ul><li>Put the argument in the formula of the syllogism. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Enthymeme <ul><li>Conclusion and minor premise of an argument (Major premise is unstated) </li></ul><ul><li>Enthymeme is an argument that includes a position on a question at issue and reasons for accepting the position. The enthymeme connects the position and reasons by identifying assumptions or values shared by the writer and the audience. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ad Example <ul><li>Levis Jeans are best </li></ul><ul><li>B/C Levis Jeans come in a variety of styles. </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>Any jeans that come in a variety of styles are better. </li></ul><ul><li>B/C a variety of styles allows for choice </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing for choice is better </li></ul><ul><li>B/C people need choices to find what looks best which will improve their self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Anything which allows choices to further self-esteem is best. </li></ul>

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