Process of inheriting and disseminating norms, customs and ideologies. Manas biological being becomes a human being as result. Socializationensures the continuity of societies through successive generations Socialization is accomplished through a number of agents.
Internalization of norms When a social norm is accepted as a personal behavior, it is called internalization. It explains the individual tendency to behave in relatively predictable ways even in the absence of formal group pressures.
Group norms and individual behavior Individuals more or less follow norms accepted by a group
Selective Internalization The individual internalizes some norms from each of his reference groups but the influence of primary group – family and peers – is greater than that of more impersonal groups.
Roles – Part people play as members of social groups Rolesocialization – Groups can function smoothly only if participants learn their lines and perform as expected. Reallife role playing requires acquisition of required skills as well as supportive emotions, attitudes and values.
Anticipatory socialization – preparing for a role in expectation that you will be required to fulfill in future. General and segmental roles General roles are based on age, gender and occupation and largely shape a person’s behavior Segmental roles are played in certain situations e.g. a mother standing in line at the bank.
Adjusting to new roles Sometimes new roles require extensive resocialization. E.g a girl prepared for the role of wife takes on a career as a writer.
Group controls & internalized controls From a group perspective, positive and negative sanctions are used to encourage adherence to established norms and to check potential or actual deviations Sanctions are experienced very personally, causing pleasure or displeasure Positive gratification: Felt when a person is rewarded. Reinforces behavior Negative gratification: Felt when a person is punished or made to fell uncomfortable. Repeated behavior patterns tend to be firmly established. Most effective symbolic gestures are applied unintentionally.
Group Ranking System Group ranking systems have the effect of narrowing the range of contact among group members. People interact intimately with those closer to them, formally with those far to them in terms of family, class, education, responsibility etc.
PersonalOrganization of a person is shaped by the total pattern of his social experience. Agents of social experience include The Family The Peer Group The School Mass Media
Responsibility of the family includes Personality formation “Train” the new generation Guidance It depends on Rural or urban family Occupation of parents Social class Gender composition of the siblings Presence or absence of parent(s)
Most influential agent after the family Has a more recreational purpose Helps the child develop ideas about the norms, roles, systems of social control, differential ranking Teaches the child about His tolerance limits Cooperation Sharing Developing friendships He learns to predict other people’s behaviors
Peer groups create three kinds of personalities Tradition directed: looks to accepted ways of society for guidance in personal conduct Inner directed: found in societies going rapid normative change as there are no stable guides. Other directed: In modern societies, these people look to peers for ideas on how to behave. Great need for social approval and fear of social rejection. Generation Gap Importance of peer group results in wide disparity between norms of young people and their adults. This is due to peer group demands to think , act and feel in ways in a sharp contrast to the elders’ norms
Responsible to transmit to the child the skills, knowledge, values, attitudes to be a better member of the society. It might not always succeed in it’s task. School is potentially an arena for serious conflict of values. School can be perceived as a punishing activity with few successes and many failures School can even be seen as the enemy by the child, designed to hurt and embarrass them.
Media and cultural norms Media provides the “definition of the situation” on a variety of issues. It emphasizes certain topics, stresses certain interpretations, overuses specific themes, which results in a distorted set of norms which might not be reflective of the society. The media and incidental learning Incidental learning is the unplanned by product of the entertainment. It gives a glimpse of the adult world to the child, which fascinates him. He acquires concepts about people’s values, roles and other knowledge without really seeking the information. It might give an incorrect interpretation of the society.