As mentioned above,link layer hardware requires a power input cable and a communication cable (antena). The input cable typically requires 120V AC or 240V ac. The communications cable port will operate in the frequency typically 915 MHz-2.4 GHz. Surge Protection Devices(SPDs) are available to protect both the power and communication lines of data link hardware.
SPDs can be characterised as high speed,voltage- triggered switches that closes during an overvoltage event. This diverts energy away from the protected devices and to electrical ground. The four major types of SPDs are the suppressor diode (also known as silicon avalanche diode or SAD), metal oxide varistor (MOV), gas tube (gas discharge tube or GDT), and the spark gap. . For a given application, they can be used either alone or in combination to provide the necessary protection and response time.
Zone DefinitionLPZ 0A Zone where a direct lightning flash and electromagnetic hit is possible. The internal equipment may be subjected to full lightning surge current.LPZ 0B Zone protected against direct hit, but unattenuated electromagnetic field is present. This zone is determined by an external lightning protection system consisting of air termination, down conductor and earth termination system. Current test pulse of first stroke 10/350 µs.LPZ 1 Zone where a direct hit is not possible and the currents in conductive components are lower than in LPZ 0A and LPZ 0B. Surge current is limited by current sharing and by SPDs at the boundary. Spatial shielding may attenuate the lightning electromagnetic field.LPZ 2 Zone where the surge current may be further limited by additional SPDs at the boundary and current sharing. Additional spatial shielding may be use to provide additional attenuation to the lightning electromagnetic field.
The first step is a nationwide, industry-wide demand response strategy to build our domestic energy savings as well as create a highly skilled tech industry. By making the most efficient use of our renewable energy sources, we’ll benefit from reduced carbon emissions.
For smart grid we are using certain soft wares it easily hack and struck the total systems which are connected to it. Installation cost is more.
Smart Grid is a term that is used to define several phases of activities within the utility industry: from providing communications, monitoring and control capabilities for the energy infrastructure at the macro scale to controlling the energy usage of home appliances at the micro scale. The paper has reviewed the definition of Lightning Protection Zones, discussed surge protection device performance parameter definitions, and provided selection criteria for SPDs.