Alarmed Alice <br />Alice is completely sure global warming is happening, she believes it is human caused, and she feels personally threatened by it. She also believes that people around the world are already being harmed by it, or will soon be.<br />Alice is only modestly more likely than average to be taking steps to reduce her energy use, but she is far more likely than average to use her purchasing power - and her voice as a citizen - to advocate for change. Alice supports a wide range of policy responses to address global warming.<br />
Concerned Claudia<br />Claudia is very sure global warming is happening, and she believes it is human causes, but she feels less personally threatened by it than Alice. She believes that global warming will begin to harm people around the world 10+ years from now. <br />Claudia is average in terms of taking measures to reduce her energy consumption, but well above average in terms of using her purchasing power to advocate for change. Claudia supports aggressive government policies, but is unlikely to contact her elected officials to say so.<br />
Cautious Carl <br />Carl is only somewhat sure that global warming is happening, and he is equally likely to see it as human caused or not. He sees global warming as a more distant threat – primarily a threat to other people – that won’t begin to hurt people around the world for another 25 - 50 years. <br />Carl is taking average steps to reduce his energy consumption, but isn’t involved in addressing global warming in other ways. He is, however, modestly supportive of a range of proposed policies.<br />
Disengaged Diane<br />Diane thinks global warming may be happening, but she’s not at all sure. She’s given it very little thought, doesn’t consider it personally important, and doesn’t feel she knows anything about it.<br />Diane has done relatively little to reduce her use of energy at home, but because she has lower than average income she is more likely than average not to rely on her own car.<br />Despite her low level of personal concern, Diane is more supportive than Carl of mounting a national response to global warming. <br />
Doubtful David<br />David says he doesn’t know if real or not, but if it is, he’s pretty sure it isn’t human-caused. David certainly isn’t worried about it; he sees global warming as a very distant threat that won’t harm people for at least another 100 years.<br />David isn’t in favor of a national response to global warming per se, but he is modestly in favor of a range of energy-saving policy measures, and is active in improving energy-efficiency in his home. <br />
Dismissive Dan<br />Dan simply does not believe that global warming is happening – or that it’s in God’s hands - and he believes that many scientists share his views. Needless to say, Dan doesn’t support any form of government action against global warming. <br />Although vigorously opposed to government action on global warming, he himself is quite active in making energy-efficient improvements to his home. <br /> <br />
“If you could ask an expert on global warming one question, <br />which question would you ask?”<br />What can the US do to reduce global warming?<br />How do you know that global warming is occurring?<br />What harm will global warming cause?<br />Source: Yale & George Mason, June 2010 <br />
Did you see the text?<br />… “Immediacy”<br />
percents%<br />words<br /><= logic<br />Analytic<br />system<br />Experiential<br />system<br />requires logic and evidence<br />“experiencing is believing”<br />Processing of risk<br />Source: Slovic, Finucane, Peters, & McGregor, 2004<br />
percents%<br />words<br />Analytic system<br /><= logic<br />requires logic and evidence<br />Experiential<br />system<br />“experiencing is believing”<br />Processing of risk<br />Source: Slovic, Finucane, Peters, & McGregor, 2004<br />
“I have personally experienced the effects of global warming.”<br />Source: Leiserowitz, A., Maibach, E., & Roser-Renouf, C. (2010) Global Warming’s Six Americas, January 2010. <br />Yale University and George Mason University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change.<br />
American Images of Global Warming<br />Ozone<br />Melting<br />Ice<br />Heat<br />Nature<br />Alarmed<br />Flood/<br />Sea Levels<br />Climate<br />Chg<br />Naysayer<br />Anthony.Leiserowitz@yale.edu<br />Source: Leiserowitz, 2003, 2010 <br />
Source: Leiserowitz, Maibach & Roser-Renouf (2009): Climate Change in the American Mind<br />
How important is the issue of global warming to you <br />personally?<br />“I have personally experienced the effects of global warming.”<br />2008 data<br />
Do you think that global warming is happening? <br />How sure are you that global warming is happening?<br />“I have personally experienced the effects of global warming.”<br />Leiserowitz, Maibach & Roser-Renouf. (2009). [Data]<br />Akerlof, Maibach & Leiserowitz .(In progress). [Secondary analysis]<br />2008 data<br />
How can we leverage experiential learning?<br />The experiential information processing system is activated (i.e., “personal experience” is gained) in many ways: <br />When the audience personally experiences an event.<br />When an abstract issue is framed in terms of personal life.<br />When the audience witnesses an event (live or in the media).<br />
Framing Climate Change as a Health Issue<br />
“In the next 20 years, it is likely that my jurisdiction will experience one or more series public health problems as a result of climate change”<br />Results from a national sample of local health department directors<br />Source: Maibach et al. (2008) PLoS ONE 3(7): e2838. doi:10.1371<br />
Key Health Messages<br />Increases in the risk of illness & death<br />related to extreme heat & heat waves are<br />very likely. Some reduction in the risk of<br />death related to extreme cold is<br />expected.<br />Warming is likely to make it more<br />challenging to meet air quality standards<br />necessary to protect public health.<br />Some diseases transmitted by food,<br />water& insects are likely to increase.<br />Certain groups, including children, the <br />elderly, and the poor are most vulnerable<br />to a wide range of climate-related health<br />effects.<br />Source: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States (2009)<br />
Framing climate change as a human health & wellbeing issue – rather than a plants, penguins & polar bears issue – can help publics more effectively engage with the issue.<br />
All 4C reports can be downloaded at:<br />Climatechangecommunication.org<br />
Central Point: Importance of knowing audience
But “audience” wrong word
Climate change will harm people in different ways in different places.WOULD ANYONE LIKE TO OFFER ME AN EXAMPLE OF HOW THEY THINK CLIMATE CHANGE MIGHT AFFECT US HERE IN (CITY, STATE, REGION)?
TO HIDE SLIDES: GO TO VIEW/ SLIDE SORTER. RIGHT CLICK ON THE SLIDES YOU WANT TO SKIP, CLICK “HIDE SLIDE” TO UNHIDE, JUST RIGHT CLICK AND UNCHECK “HIDE SLIDE. WOULD ANYONE CARE TO OFFER AN EXAMPLE OF HOW THEY THINK CLIMATE CHANGE MIGHT AFFECT US HERE IN (CITY, STATE, REGION)?Heavyrainfallmayleadtofloodingand overflowofsewagesystems,causing anincreaseinthespreadofdisease.
People with allergies could have a harder time as temperatures rise. Diseases carried by insects or animals—such as Lyme disease and West Nile virus—could extend their reach.And coastal communities will have to deal with the consequence of rising sea-levels. Unless the problem of climate change is solved, many coastal communities may have to be abandoned within the lifetimes of people alive in those communities today. WOULD ANYONE CARE TO OFFER AN EXAMPLE OF HOW THEY THINK CLIMATE CHANGE MIGHT AFFECT US HERE IN (CITY, STATE, REGION)?
ENCOURAGESOLVABLEKEY FOR THE CLIMATE PROJECT AUDIENCE
SOLUTIONWON’T BE POLITICALCAN BE CONSUMER ACTIVISTS
WHY IS IT BAD?
WHY IS IT BAD?EDUCATION
SCIENTISTS AGREEASK: WHAT SHOULD WE DO???ENERGY EFFICIENCY MESSAGE
IGNOREOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY MESSAGE
Harmful health impacts of c.c. are related to increasing heat stress, waterborne diseases, poor air quality, extreme weather events, and diseases transmitted by insects and rodents. Reduced cold stress provides some benefits. Robust public health infrastructure can reduce the potential for negative health impacts.
CONCRETEADAPTATION CONCRETEALLIES LIKE DOCTORS, PTA, AARP
Today, highways define our nation, but we can build a nation defined by its walking and cycling paths, its public transportation systems, and by jobs and schools that are closer to home (possibly even at home) rather than ever-increasing distances away from home.
Today our global/industrial agricultural system transports foods over vast distances, thereby producing about 1/5 of all greenhouse gas pollution worldwide, but we can build a food system in which farmers grow better, healthier, and tastier foods closer to home.
And instead of powering our communities with fuels that emit vast amounts of greenhouse gas pollution, we can power our communities with clean renewable energy sources, that eventually will be far cheaper than what we pay today for dirty fossil fuels.In short, the solutions to climate change will also produce solutions to many of societies most pressing problems.