Integrated Plant Management C&P


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Using growing degree days to anticipate insect developement and increase your effectiveness on control.

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Integrated Plant Management C&P

  1. 1. Justin C. Ruiz, CGCS Integrated Plant Management Practical IPM on the Golf Course
  2. 3. Being Creative
  3. 4. Integrated Plant Management <ul><li>Defined </li></ul>“ IPM is a sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks.” Reference:
  4. 5. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Growing Degree Day Calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Billbug Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree Day Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scouting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cutworm Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree Day Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scouting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Application </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Masked Chafer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree Day Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scouting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Application </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Growing Degree Day <ul><li>“ The number of degrees the average temperature is above a baseline temperature. Used to predict insect and plant development.” </li></ul>
  7. 8. Upper and Lower Threshold Temperature <ul><li>“ The high and low temperature at which insect/plant development occurs.” </li></ul>
  8. 9. Calculating Growing Degree Days (GDD) T max + T min GDD = ____ 2 -T base T max = Daily High T min = Daily Low T base = 50 degrees <ul><li>Sine Wave Method is more accurate. You can find calculators on the web. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Integrated Plant Management Billbug Control
  10. 11. Bluegrass Billbug Adult www. biosurvey . ou . edu / okwild /misc/ bgbill .html
  11. 12. Billbug Control <ul><li>Degree Day Model </li></ul>
  12. 13. Degree Day Model <ul><li>Adults become active </li></ul><ul><li> 280-352 GDD </li></ul><ul><li>Last effective adult contact control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>560-624 GDD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larvae control is effective </li></ul><ul><li> 925-1035 GDD </li></ul><ul><li>Significant visual damage occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1330-1485 GDD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting March 1st </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Billbug Damage
  14. 15. Billbug Control <ul><li>Degree Day Model </li></ul><ul><li>Scouting/Trapping </li></ul>
  15. 16. Billbug Scouting <ul><li>Using pitfall traps </li></ul><ul><li>Observing cart paths and greens </li></ul><ul><li>Clippings in mower buckets </li></ul>
  16. 20. Billbug Trap Data Chlorpyrifos Application made April 24 th
  17. 21. Chemical Application <ul><li>4/24/08 Chlorpyrifos (1oz/M) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring around perimeter of golf course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target adult billbugs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GDD aprox. 502 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>5/12/08 Clothianidin (12.8oz/A) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All short cut and South facing slopes in rough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target billbug larvae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GDD aprox. 799* </li></ul></ul></ul>* Application made a few days early in preparation for a tournament
  18. 22. When to Spray What <ul><li>Adult Control </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contact insecticide (350-600GDD) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare with trap data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Larvae Control </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic insecticide (925-1035GDD) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Biological Control <ul><li>Entomopathogenic Nematodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steinernema carpocapsae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endophyte enhanced grasses </li></ul>
  20. 24. Infecting Nematodes www. ag . ndsu . edu /pubs/ plantsci /pests/e1229w. htm
  21. 25. www. bsu . edu /classes/ ruch / msa / blackwell .html Endophyte Mycelium
  22. 26. Integrated Plant Management <ul><li>Scouting/Trapping </li></ul><ul><li>Cutworm Control </li></ul><ul><li>Degree Day Model </li></ul>
  23. 28. Cutworms March 25th
  24. 29. Cutworm Scouting <ul><li>Light traps </li></ul><ul><li>Walking greens </li></ul><ul><li>Pitfall traps??? </li></ul><ul><li>Soap Flush </li></ul>
  25. 33. Cutworm Control <ul><li>Degree Day Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Threshold is 50 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Threshold is 86 degrees </li></ul></ul>
  26. 34. Degree Day Model <ul><li>Adults Migrate </li></ul><ul><li> Mid March to early April </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs hatch after peak flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90 GDD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larvae control is effective </li></ul><ul><li> 200-300 GDD </li></ul><ul><li>Significant visual damage occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>300-1000 GDD </li></ul></ul>
  27. 35. Degree Day Model Cont. <ul><li>Second Generation Peak Flight </li></ul><ul><li> 900-1100 GDD </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation Peak Flight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1900-2100 GDD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is our observation at our property </li></ul>
  28. 36. Cutworm Damage
  29. 37. Cutworm Trap Data Chlorpyrifos Application made April 24 th
  30. 38. Chemical Application <ul><li>Systemic application </li></ul><ul><li>( Accelepryn, etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All green surrounds and mapped rough areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target cutworm larvae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GDD aprox. 250-275 GDD* </li></ul></ul></ul>* Peak flight we recorded on our property
  31. 39. Chemical Application Cont. <ul><li>Contact Insecticide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Label rate for Cutworm larvae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply to area that has visible damage over your threshold. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not really a GDD timed application. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 40. Biological Control <ul><li>Entomopathogenic Nematodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steinernema carpocapsae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endophytic grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacillus thuringiensis  var.  kurstaki </li></ul></ul>
  33. 41. Infecting Nematodes
  34. 42. www. bsu . edu /classes/ ruch / msa / blackwell .html Endophyte Mycelium
  35. 43.
  36. 44. Integrated Plant Management <ul><li>Scouting/Trapping </li></ul><ul><li>Masked Chafer Control </li></ul><ul><li>Degree Day Model </li></ul>
  37. 45. WWW.KSDA.GOV
  38. 47. Masked Chafer Scouting <ul><li>Light traps </li></ul><ul><li>Javalina damage </li></ul>
  39. 49. Masked Chafer Control <ul><li>Degree Day Model </li></ul><ul><li>Day length may be more important than temperature?? </li></ul>
  40. 50. Masked Chafer Control <ul><li>Degree Day Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Threshold is 50 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Threshold is 75 degrees </li></ul></ul>
  41. 51. Degree Day Model <ul><li>Peak Flight prediction </li></ul><ul><li> 1375-1575 GDD ( </li></ul><ul><li>First Instar Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>260-340 GDD from peak flight (my observation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature Threshold </li></ul><ul><li>50 deg. Base and 75 deg. Max. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One generation per year here. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 53. Chemical Application <ul><li>Systemic at label rate </li></ul><ul><li>( Accelepryn, Arena etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All mapped areas, mostly south facing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target White grub </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GDD 1375-1575 GDD* </li></ul></ul></ul>* At peak flight observation
  43. 54. Chemical Application Cont. <ul><li>Contact Insecticide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Label rate for Masked Chafer Grub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply to area that has visible damage over your threshold. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not really a GDD timed application. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very hard to control since contact is needed and thatch can capture most of the chemical. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 55. Biological Control <ul><li>Entomopathogenic Nematodes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterorhabditis bacteriophora </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endophytic grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Mach 2 (halofenozide) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupts molting process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasitic Wasps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typhia Wasp </li></ul></ul>
  45. 56. Parasitic Wasp Feeding on White Grub
  46. 57. Nice Links <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  47. 58. Any Questions?
  48. 59. Justin C. Ruiz, CGCS 928-472-1456 [email_address]