Navigating the Open Source Geospatial Ecosystem

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Presentation on the Open Source seminar at the Geospatial World Forum in Rotterdam may 16, 2013. See http://www.geospatialworldforum.org/2013/open_pr.htm.
This seminar was organized by OSGeo.nl (http://osgeo.nl), the Dutch Language Local OSGeo Chapter. In this presentation I share my view on what "Open" for Geospatial is about. Further: laying out the FOSS Geospatial ecosystem with some major players like OSGeo, OGC and OpenStreetMap. Further on monetising, i.e. how geospatial businesses can make money with Open Source.

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Navigating the Open Source Geospatial Ecosystem

  1. 1. Navigating the OpenSource GeospatialEcosystemJust van den BroeckeGeospatial World Forum 2013Rotterdam - May 16, 2013www.justobjects.nl
  2. 2. Independent Open SourceGeospatial Professionalwww.justobjects.nlAbout MeMy name is Just van den Broecke. My daily work is being hired as a consultant/architect/developerin various open source geospatial projects (like PDOK). I try to combine this with developing OpenSource software myself. In ideal cases I work in projects that sponsor the further development ofthe FOSS projects I work on, for example the Heron Mapping Client. You can checkout stuff andprojects via my somewhat 90‘s website. I also will often use the term Free and Open Source forGeospatial (FOSS4G).
  3. 3. Member of theOpenGeoGroep (NL)www.opengeogroep.nlAbout MeWith the OGG we have a group of companies doing support/development services for FOSS4G.
  4. 4. Secretaryof theOSGeo Dutch Language ChapterAbout MeI am former trailblazer and now secretary for OSGeo.nl the Dutch Language Chapter of OSGeo. I willtell you more about OSGeo and OSGeo.nl later.
  5. 5. Navigating the OpenSource GeospatialEcosystemJust van den BroeckeGeospatial World Forum 2013Rotterdam - May 16, 2013www.justobjects.nlI’ll be presenting some of my findings and visions from living within the geospatial open sourceworld for around 8 years. So this is also a story from within.
  6. 6. 1.“Open”2. Ecosystems3. MonetisingAgenda
  7. 7. What isOpen Source?What is Open Source (for Geospatial)?
  8. 8. Source CodeIs(Almost) IrrelevantWhat is Open Source (for Geospatial)?A harsh exaggerating statement, but hopefully got your attention. Let me explain this further. We’llencounter this fact again in the “monetising” part. Like the great Paul Ramsey (OpenGeo/PostGIS)said in his 2009 FOSS4G Sydney keynote: The Whole Product is what counts.
  9. 9. Open ‘Source”Geospatial=Four ThingsWhat is Open Source (for Geospatial)?Ok, but what, let’s count.
  10. 10. OpenDataWhat is Open Source (for Geospatial)?If we are building SDIs, albeit open or closed, we need data, raster, vector, lots of it. Without opendata we can’t do much. Open Data means different things to different people. Later on Arnulf willlearn us everything about Open Data. Some data for example is “less than open”. Take Google Maps.But we are in prosperous times w.r.t. Open data: more and more governments open up (PDOK in theNetherlands e.g.), OpenStreetMap is blossoming and within the EU the INSPIRE legislation opens upmany silo’s.
  11. 11. OpenDataOpenStandardsWhat is Open Source (for Geospatial)?Most, if not all SDI’s are distributed interconnected systems, so we need more standards than otherIT-domains. Open Standards for example for protocols and data formats to exchange raster, vectorinformation and metadata. While we need lots of Open Data we would rather not have too manyOpen Standards, just a few good ones. What are “good standards”? A whole subject by itself.Hopefully many of you were at this morning’s Standards and Interoperability session.
  12. 12. OpenDataOpenStandardsWhat is Open Source (for Geospatial)?OpenSourceO yes, and we need Open Source software as well. With Open Source meaning that the source codeis available under an Open Source license. Many options here: from GNU GPL to Public Domain. Sowe have a nucleus of three aspects that in my view capture “Open”. So what would be the fourth?
  13. 13. OpenSourceOpenDataOpenStandardsOpenProcessesWhat is Open Source (for Geospatial)?The fourth aspect is what one could call “Open Processes”, these are all the activities needed tobuild and extend the nucleus.Without these Open Processes the first three elements would just be “dead matter”.
  14. 14. OpenSourceOpenDataOpenStandardsOpenCommunitiesWhat is Open Source (for Geospatial)?“Open Processes” should better be called “Open Communities”. In the end it is all about people,anywhere from developers to end-users, who are working together.This collaboration is often very distributed, more and more enabled by The Cloud.One can view the Communities as concentric circles around the nucleus: anyone can make acontribution and anyone can decide on his/her amount of involvement.
  15. 15. OpenSourceOpenDataOpenStandardsPeopleWhat is Open Source (for Geospatial)?Eventually all this Open Source/Data/Standards is an enabler for people working together!
  16. 16. “Proprietary SoftwareKeeps UsersHelpless and Divided”What is Open Source (for Geospatial)?Richard M. StallmanINTERVIEW Richard Matthew Stallman (RMS) on the importance of free software: http://www.techradar.com/news/software/proprietary-software-keeps-users-helpless-963248 (and many other refs on the web). The term Open Source camealong much later (end 90s), not all, like RMS, were happy with that term as it dilutes the case for Free Software/GNU GPL.Hence some people talk about FOSS i.s.o. Open Source.
  17. 17. OpenSource/Data/StandardsEmpowers and UnitesPeopleWhat is Open Source (for Geospatial)?Though I fully agree with RMS-statement, I often like to reverse RMS’s statement. I have mixedfeelings about Mixed Source...
  18. 18. Example:Let’s Git to theHub-GitHub1. What is Open Source for Geospatial?GitHub is just one of the many platforms “In The Cloud” where people, both users and developers,work together on Open Source in a transparent environment. Many of the managerial tasks, likereporting, have been automated such that the focus can be on the actual products. These daysGitHub resembles almost a social medium like FaceBook. Wiki’s and other collaboration platformsare abundant. Sending Word and Excel documents and code via email has become something wedid in the dark ages....
  19. 19. Open SourceGeospatialEcosystemsThis new way of collaboration on a global scale is what I find one of the fascinating aspects of opensource. Lets get back into the open source geospatial world.
  20. 20. Lake ecosystem: Source: Georgia Department of Natural ResourcesUsually natural ecosystems are taken as a model for forms of sustainability. Like for example aquaticecosystems. There’s a tension between chaos and an equilibrium like entropy and energy.
  21. 21. Lake ecosystem: Source: Georgia Department of Natural ResourcesUsers DevelopersOpenProcessesThe Open Geospatial EcosystemI like this idea of ecosystems in Open Source: Users, Developers, Software tied together to producelong-term ever-increasing value that is greater than the sum of individuals and softwarecomponents. Within FOSS4G the notion of Open Standards, Open Data and Crowd Sourcing alsotends to make these components even better integrated. OGC standards also raise competition inperformance/quality/features for similar products. Think of WMS shootouts...Also there is a strong tendency here to build on each other’s work, “standing on the shoulders ofgiants”. In practice many projects build on libraries such as GDAL and GeoTools.
  22. 22. http://geotux.tuxfamily.org/index.php/en/geo-blogs/item/291-comparacion-clientes-web-v6When we zoom in we would find sub-ecosystems. This example shows the major geospatialmapping clients and their interrelations.And just as in a realworld eco-system: species arise, dominate for some time and die off. Look howmany build on OpenLayers. Watch the now Leaflet island in the next years....But given our limitedtimeframe I would like to stick to some of the major inhabitants of our global ecosystem, that is 3major organizations.
  23. 23. Lake ecosystem: Source: Georgia Department of Natural ResourcesUsers DevelopersOpenProcessesThe Open Geospatial EcosystemOpenStandardsWhen looking at Open Standards for Geospatial, the OGC, OpenGeoSpatial Consortium is the mainone to go to.
  24. 24. www.opengeospatial.orgThe first place to look for geospatial standards is the Open Geospatial Consortium or OGC. http://www.opengeospatial.org/
  25. 25. Lake ecosystem: Source: Georgia Department of Natural ResourcesUsers DevelopersOpenProcessesThe Open Geospatial EcosystemOpenStandardsOpenDataOpen Data: the OpenStreetMap or OSM can be somewhat compared to Wikipedia, in the sense thatusers are jointly gathering geodata via crowdsourcing to build a map of the entire world. But inessence OSM is about the data itself as a map is just a specific rendering of the data. Think of otherapps like routing and geocoding. Other open data sources are more and more governments like viaPDOK www.pdok.nl in the Netherlands making their geodata available via webservices (WMS/WFS) ordownloads. Within the EU the INSPIRE initiative is a great driver for this movement. How is yourcountry doing?
  26. 26. OSM is also an entire software and service ecosystem (built with Open Source) to manage all aspectsof geodata management via The Cloud. From gathering, editing and mapmaking to map-bugtracking. Using the OSM software stack one could even build an SDI.
  27. 27. Lake ecosystem: Source: Georgia Department of Natural ResourcesUsers DevelopersOpenProcessesThe Open Geospatial EcosystemOpenStandardsOpenDataOpenSourceLast but not in the very least, when it comes to Open Source for Geospatial, the Open SourceGeospatial Foundation, or OSGeo, is your one-stop shop.
  28. 28. Open Source Geospatial Foundationwww.osgeo.orgYour Open Source Compass...organizes geospatial ITSo what is OSGeo?
  29. 29. From: http://arnulf.us/Publications#2011 GIN Pres
  30. 30. From: http://arnulf.us/Publications#2011 GIN Pres
  31. 31. From: http://arnulf.us/Publications#2011 GIN Pres
  32. 32. From: http://arnulf.us/Publications#2011 GIN Pres
  33. 33. From: http://www.slideshare.net/justb4/osgeonl-introductie-geo-freedom-day
  34. 34. From: http://arnulf.us/Publications#2011 GIN Pres
  35. 35. ActivitiesEvents/seminars: OSGeo.nl DagLocal initiatives “Stammtish”Space for SIGsCoop: OSM NL OpenData NLDo-ocracy !
  36. 36. 39CoachThe DreamTeamKeynoteTechnical Business & ApplicationOSGeo Open Source Seminar - Geospatial World Forum - 25 April 2012 - AmsterdamMarketingCoachApr 2012OSS Seminar GWF
  37. 37. 40Jun 2012OSGeo.nl Day
  38. 38. MONETISINGI will talk a bit about monetising, also introducing some Open Source Geo-companies that are partof the ecosystem we talked about before.
  39. 39. How to Earn MoneywithOpen SourceSo bluntly put: how the &*%$ can you earn any money with Open Source when you give the softwareaway for free?
  40. 40. Open Sourceis not aBusiness ModelI used to say : “I do Open Source”. But without even putting a reference here, we all may know thatOpen Source is a development model and not a business model. Hmm.
  41. 41. “Ideals and Concepts byitself will not sell aProduct”http://worldisgreen.com/2008/10/17/open-source-and-sustainability-what-do-they-have-in-common/This is painfully true...from the ref: ”Customers do not buy products/services for their ideals but for the valuethey provide to their business.”
  42. 42. Open SourceBusiness TacticsBut there are off course multiple what one could call “Business Tactics” around Open Source.
  43. 43. The steps that turn inputsinto value-added outputValue-ChainFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenYes! Transforming input into output, that is what programming is also about.
  44. 44. CASCADOSS:Model of Berlecon Research (2002)Software Value-ChainFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenwww.berlecon.de/studien/downloads/200207FLOSS_Basics.pdfThe SVC was taken from an earlier study from Berlecon als available on the net. But I will lead youthrough the essentials.
  45. 45. SoftwareValue ChainFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenEach step adds value. Note: I am not talking about value in terms of money, just value, for examplefor a customer.“The steps in this value-chain are:-Software development: analysis, design, programming and testing of the software.-Documentation: writing documentation (API documentation, Reference Manual, User Guides, Tutorials, Howtos, FAQs, ...)-Software packaging: creating a user-friendly package of the software; bundling the software with other packages.-Marketing/sales: marketing the software, closing sales, promoting wide-spread adoption, distribution.-Consulting: providing consultancy with respect to the software.-Integration/custom development: Integrating the software in the clients systems,customizing it for user-specific needs-Training: training in the use or customization of the software-Support: end-user support (telephone, e-mail), installation and update support, bug fixing-Application management: operational management of the clients applications based on the software.”This chain is really no different than a value-chain for proprietary software. “Revenue-generatingactivities in the value chain such as training, support and consultancy remain unaffected.” No business model yethere. Business models/tactics are basically one or more slices where you want to intercept in thischain. Let’s look at a few of them.
  46. 46. SoftwareValue ChainDevelopmentFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenEach step adds value. Note: I am not talking about value in terms of money, just value, for examplefor a customer.“The steps in this value-chain are:-Software development: analysis, design, programming and testing of the software.-Documentation: writing documentation (API documentation, Reference Manual, User Guides, Tutorials, Howtos, FAQs, ...)-Software packaging: creating a user-friendly package of the software; bundling the software with other packages.-Marketing/sales: marketing the software, closing sales, promoting wide-spread adoption, distribution.-Consulting: providing consultancy with respect to the software.-Integration/custom development: Integrating the software in the clients systems,customizing it for user-specific needs-Training: training in the use or customization of the software-Support: end-user support (telephone, e-mail), installation and update support, bug fixing-Application management: operational management of the clients applications based on the software.”This chain is really no different than a value-chain for proprietary software. “Revenue-generatingactivities in the value chain such as training, support and consultancy remain unaffected.” No business model yethere. Business models/tactics are basically one or more slices where you want to intercept in thischain. Let’s look at a few of them.
  47. 47. SoftwareValue ChainDevelopment DocumentationFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenEach step adds value. Note: I am not talking about value in terms of money, just value, for examplefor a customer.“The steps in this value-chain are:-Software development: analysis, design, programming and testing of the software.-Documentation: writing documentation (API documentation, Reference Manual, User Guides, Tutorials, Howtos, FAQs, ...)-Software packaging: creating a user-friendly package of the software; bundling the software with other packages.-Marketing/sales: marketing the software, closing sales, promoting wide-spread adoption, distribution.-Consulting: providing consultancy with respect to the software.-Integration/custom development: Integrating the software in the clients systems,customizing it for user-specific needs-Training: training in the use or customization of the software-Support: end-user support (telephone, e-mail), installation and update support, bug fixing-Application management: operational management of the clients applications based on the software.”This chain is really no different than a value-chain for proprietary software. “Revenue-generatingactivities in the value chain such as training, support and consultancy remain unaffected.” No business model yethere. Business models/tactics are basically one or more slices where you want to intercept in thischain. Let’s look at a few of them.
  48. 48. SoftwareValue ChainDevelopment PackagingDocumentationFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenEach step adds value. Note: I am not talking about value in terms of money, just value, for examplefor a customer.“The steps in this value-chain are:-Software development: analysis, design, programming and testing of the software.-Documentation: writing documentation (API documentation, Reference Manual, User Guides, Tutorials, Howtos, FAQs, ...)-Software packaging: creating a user-friendly package of the software; bundling the software with other packages.-Marketing/sales: marketing the software, closing sales, promoting wide-spread adoption, distribution.-Consulting: providing consultancy with respect to the software.-Integration/custom development: Integrating the software in the clients systems,customizing it for user-specific needs-Training: training in the use or customization of the software-Support: end-user support (telephone, e-mail), installation and update support, bug fixing-Application management: operational management of the clients applications based on the software.”This chain is really no different than a value-chain for proprietary software. “Revenue-generatingactivities in the value chain such as training, support and consultancy remain unaffected.” No business model yethere. Business models/tactics are basically one or more slices where you want to intercept in thischain. Let’s look at a few of them.
  49. 49. SoftwareValue ChainDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenEach step adds value. Note: I am not talking about value in terms of money, just value, for examplefor a customer.“The steps in this value-chain are:-Software development: analysis, design, programming and testing of the software.-Documentation: writing documentation (API documentation, Reference Manual, User Guides, Tutorials, Howtos, FAQs, ...)-Software packaging: creating a user-friendly package of the software; bundling the software with other packages.-Marketing/sales: marketing the software, closing sales, promoting wide-spread adoption, distribution.-Consulting: providing consultancy with respect to the software.-Integration/custom development: Integrating the software in the clients systems,customizing it for user-specific needs-Training: training in the use or customization of the software-Support: end-user support (telephone, e-mail), installation and update support, bug fixing-Application management: operational management of the clients applications based on the software.”This chain is really no different than a value-chain for proprietary software. “Revenue-generatingactivities in the value chain such as training, support and consultancy remain unaffected.” No business model yethere. Business models/tactics are basically one or more slices where you want to intercept in thischain. Let’s look at a few of them.
  50. 50. SoftwareValue ChainDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsultingFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenEach step adds value. Note: I am not talking about value in terms of money, just value, for examplefor a customer.“The steps in this value-chain are:-Software development: analysis, design, programming and testing of the software.-Documentation: writing documentation (API documentation, Reference Manual, User Guides, Tutorials, Howtos, FAQs, ...)-Software packaging: creating a user-friendly package of the software; bundling the software with other packages.-Marketing/sales: marketing the software, closing sales, promoting wide-spread adoption, distribution.-Consulting: providing consultancy with respect to the software.-Integration/custom development: Integrating the software in the clients systems,customizing it for user-specific needs-Training: training in the use or customization of the software-Support: end-user support (telephone, e-mail), installation and update support, bug fixing-Application management: operational management of the clients applications based on the software.”This chain is really no different than a value-chain for proprietary software. “Revenue-generatingactivities in the value chain such as training, support and consultancy remain unaffected.” No business model yethere. Business models/tactics are basically one or more slices where you want to intercept in thischain. Let’s look at a few of them.
  51. 51. SoftwareValue ChainDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting IntegrationFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenEach step adds value. Note: I am not talking about value in terms of money, just value, for examplefor a customer.“The steps in this value-chain are:-Software development: analysis, design, programming and testing of the software.-Documentation: writing documentation (API documentation, Reference Manual, User Guides, Tutorials, Howtos, FAQs, ...)-Software packaging: creating a user-friendly package of the software; bundling the software with other packages.-Marketing/sales: marketing the software, closing sales, promoting wide-spread adoption, distribution.-Consulting: providing consultancy with respect to the software.-Integration/custom development: Integrating the software in the clients systems,customizing it for user-specific needs-Training: training in the use or customization of the software-Support: end-user support (telephone, e-mail), installation and update support, bug fixing-Application management: operational management of the clients applications based on the software.”This chain is really no different than a value-chain for proprietary software. “Revenue-generatingactivities in the value chain such as training, support and consultancy remain unaffected.” No business model yethere. Business models/tactics are basically one or more slices where you want to intercept in thischain. Let’s look at a few of them.
  52. 52. SoftwareValue ChainDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting TrainingIntegrationFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenEach step adds value. Note: I am not talking about value in terms of money, just value, for examplefor a customer.“The steps in this value-chain are:-Software development: analysis, design, programming and testing of the software.-Documentation: writing documentation (API documentation, Reference Manual, User Guides, Tutorials, Howtos, FAQs, ...)-Software packaging: creating a user-friendly package of the software; bundling the software with other packages.-Marketing/sales: marketing the software, closing sales, promoting wide-spread adoption, distribution.-Consulting: providing consultancy with respect to the software.-Integration/custom development: Integrating the software in the clients systems,customizing it for user-specific needs-Training: training in the use or customization of the software-Support: end-user support (telephone, e-mail), installation and update support, bug fixing-Application management: operational management of the clients applications based on the software.”This chain is really no different than a value-chain for proprietary software. “Revenue-generatingactivities in the value chain such as training, support and consultancy remain unaffected.” No business model yethere. Business models/tactics are basically one or more slices where you want to intercept in thischain. Let’s look at a few of them.
  53. 53. SoftwareValue ChainDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting TrainingIntegration SupportFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenEach step adds value. Note: I am not talking about value in terms of money, just value, for examplefor a customer.“The steps in this value-chain are:-Software development: analysis, design, programming and testing of the software.-Documentation: writing documentation (API documentation, Reference Manual, User Guides, Tutorials, Howtos, FAQs, ...)-Software packaging: creating a user-friendly package of the software; bundling the software with other packages.-Marketing/sales: marketing the software, closing sales, promoting wide-spread adoption, distribution.-Consulting: providing consultancy with respect to the software.-Integration/custom development: Integrating the software in the clients systems,customizing it for user-specific needs-Training: training in the use or customization of the software-Support: end-user support (telephone, e-mail), installation and update support, bug fixing-Application management: operational management of the clients applications based on the software.”This chain is really no different than a value-chain for proprietary software. “Revenue-generatingactivities in the value chain such as training, support and consultancy remain unaffected.” No business model yethere. Business models/tactics are basically one or more slices where you want to intercept in thischain. Let’s look at a few of them.
  54. 54. SoftwareValue ChainDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting TrainingIntegration SupportApplicationManagementFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenEach step adds value. Note: I am not talking about value in terms of money, just value, for examplefor a customer.“The steps in this value-chain are:-Software development: analysis, design, programming and testing of the software.-Documentation: writing documentation (API documentation, Reference Manual, User Guides, Tutorials, Howtos, FAQs, ...)-Software packaging: creating a user-friendly package of the software; bundling the software with other packages.-Marketing/sales: marketing the software, closing sales, promoting wide-spread adoption, distribution.-Consulting: providing consultancy with respect to the software.-Integration/custom development: Integrating the software in the clients systems,customizing it for user-specific needs-Training: training in the use or customization of the software-Support: end-user support (telephone, e-mail), installation and update support, bug fixing-Application management: operational management of the clients applications based on the software.”This chain is really no different than a value-chain for proprietary software. “Revenue-generatingactivities in the value chain such as training, support and consultancy remain unaffected.” No business model yethere. Business models/tactics are basically one or more slices where you want to intercept in thischain. Let’s look at a few of them.
  55. 55. Model 1: Dual-LicensingDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting TrainingIntegration SupportApplicationManagementFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenWe start easy: The Dual Licensing Model.“In the dual-licensing model, the software product is available under two different licenses:- a reciprocal open source license that obligates customers to release their own products also under the reciprocallicense if they include the product as part of their own software products.- a commercial license that releases the user from his obligation to release under a reciprocal license.In short: either the customer reciprocates by contributing to the software commons or he pays the developers.”
  56. 56. Model 1: Dual-LicensingFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuven?So where’s the money earned here?
  57. 57. Model 1: Dual-LicensingFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenLicensing FeesforCommercial LicensesSimple: in license fees. (It is up to you for any judgement.)
  58. 58. Model 1: Dual-LicensingFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenExtJS - JavaScript LibHere’s some products that do Dual Licensing. MySQL is probably the best known. ExtJS/Sencha is a(powerful) GUI component used in various webclients like the GeoExt JavaScript client. ExtJS is alsoused in the new Flamingo webclient presented next.
  59. 59. Model 2: Support SellerDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting TrainingIntegration SupportApplicationManagementFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuven“In this model the company that creates a F/OSS product offers support services to users of the product. The model is basedon the premiss that the creators of a software are the best suited to provide support because they are the creators.”
  60. 60. Model 2: Support SellerFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuven?
  61. 61. Model 2: Support SellerFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenSupport Packages:SLAsFixed Price SupportSubscription“Standardized support packages are offered as an SLA or support subscription for a fixed price on a (typically) yearly basis.This last model is the most important”
  62. 62. Model 2: Support SellerFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenCould be also a third-party, i.e. not the company that is the creator of the FOSS product.
  63. 63. Model 3: Platform ProviderDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting TrainingIntegration SupportApplicationManagementFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuven“The company bundles several F/OSS products into a complete solution or platform. The companyprovides quality-assurances that the selected products work together. ...This model is usually combinedwith the (Third-Party) Support Seller Model. First, because it is far easier to support and bug-fix acomplete solution (platform) as it implies greater control over the operating environment. Secondly, thevalue proposition is enhanced for the customer if he can source the platform and related supportservices for the same supplier.”
  64. 64. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenModel 3: Platform Provider?
  65. 65. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenLicense Feeusually combined withSupport SellerModel 3: Platform Provider“Usually a license fee. However, the business model is mostly combined with a support seller model. In that case, the license fee will cover access to support services togetherwith the bundled product.”
  66. 66. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenModel 3: Platform Provider
  67. 67. Model 4: ConsultingDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting TrainingIntegration SupportApplicationManagementFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuven“The company provides consulting and customization services with respect to a range of F/OSS products. This model is certainly the most widely adopted model.”
  68. 68. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenModel 4: Consulting?
  69. 69. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenConsulting Services (p/hour)Fixed Price Custom DevelopmentModel 4: Consulting“Services are usually sold on a time & means basis. Custom developments are often contracted on a fixed price basis.”
  70. 70. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenModel 4: ConsultingMany of you. Also means competition. This is good for customers. But you may also want to thinkto get into one of the other models that may be more niche...
  71. 71. Model 5:AccessorizingDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting TrainingIntegration SupportApplicationManagementFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuven“The company sells physical accessories to F/OSS products. Most important of these are technical books andmanuals.”
  72. 72. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuven?Model 5:Accessorizing
  73. 73. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenModel 5:AccessorizingRevenue from Book Sales
  74. 74. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenModel 5:Accessorizing
  75. 75. Model 6: Software-as-a-ServiceDevelopment PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting TrainingIntegration SupportApplicationManagementFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuven“In this model F/OSS is used to create a web-accessible application service. Such systems arelabeled ““Software as a Service”” (SaaS).”These days the buzz-word is “In The Cloud!”.
  76. 76. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuven?Model 6: Software-as-a-Service
  77. 77. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenAccess and Usage FeesModel 6: Software-as-a-Service“Usually the customer pays a monthly fee for access to the application services.”
  78. 78. From: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenModel 6: Software-as-a-Service“The best known company that uses this model is undoubtedly Google. “. Not yet a lot Geospatial activity. Opportunities!!! Ifind this one interesting since GIS is a lot about web-services and we have stable Open Source.
  79. 79. Development PackagingDocumentationMarketing/SalesConsulting TrainingIntegration SupportApplicationManagementFrom: CASCADOSS Del. 1.5 KULeuvenSoftwareValue ChainSo all, in all we have seen these various models intercepting this value chain. As the FOSS4G market is sort of a niche within a niche (GIS) there are stillopportunities here apart from the usual Consulting. The Platform Provider and SaaS are relatively unexplored in FOSS4G, so take that with you...
  80. 80. Concluding
  81. 81. 1. Open Data2. Open Standards3. Open Source4. Open Communities
  82. 82. Open SourceGeospatialEcosystemsOSGeo - OGC - OSM
  83. 83. Monetising:Operating in theValue Chain
  84. 84. ThankYou!

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