8. Management is about
human beings. Its task is to
make people capable of joint
performance […]. This is what
organization is all about, and it is
the reason that management is
the critical, determining factor.
Management: Revised Edition, 2008
Peter F. Drucker
11. A team is a complex adaptive system (CAS),
because it consists of parts (people) that form a
system (team), which shows complex behavior
while it keeps adapting to a changing
12. Anticipate, adapt, explore
Apart from looking forward (proactive), and
looking backward (reactive), don’t forget to try
things out (safe-to-fail experiments).
Evolutionary systems by their nature
Mike Rother, Toyota Kata, 2009
16. Steal and tweak
Successful systems spend most of their time
copying and adapting ideas from others.
We usually think of innovation
as inventing new things, but we
may be smarter to think of it as
recombining old ones.
TheBuildNetwork, “A Smarter Definition of Innovation”
19. People are the most important
parts of an organization and
managers must do all they can to
keep people active, creative, and
20. 10 Intrinsic Desires
Curiosity The need to think
Honor Being loyal to a group
Acceptance The need for approval
Mastery / Competence The need to feel capable
Power The need for influence of will
Freedom / Independence / Autonomy Being an individual
Relatedness / Social Contact The need for friends
Order Or stable environments
Goal / Idealism / Purpose The need for purpose
Status The need for social standing
21. Put the motivator cards in order, from unimportant1.
(You may leave out any cards you don2. ’t want to use.)
Exercise: Moving Motivators
22. Consider an important change in your work (for example,3.
becoming a more Agile organization)
Move cards4. up when the change is positive for that
motivator; move them down when the change is negative
Exercise: Moving Motivators
25. 1. Tell: make decision as the manager
2. Sell: convince people about decision
3. Consult: get input from team before decision
4. Agree: make decision together with team
5. Advise: influence decision made by the team
6. Inquire: ask feedback after decision by team
7. Delegate: no influence, let team work it out
The Seven Levels of Authority
27. Self-organization can lead to
anything, and it’s therefore
necessary to protect people
and shared resources…
…and to give people a clear
purpose and defined goals. 27
This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and
I cannot possibly list them all. Though I did my very best to attribute
all authors of texts and images, and to recognize any copyrights, if
you think that anything in this presentation should be changed,
added or removed, please contact me at firstname.lastname@example.org.
This slide will be on screen when people enter the room before the course starts.
I sometimes get the question “why 3.0”?See book: pagesxxxiv to xxxv
Here I show the many reasons why companies adopt Agile, according to the VersionOne research.
Here I show the problems with Agile adoption, and I point out that most of them are management responsibilities!See book: page 28
Peter Drucker knew already decades ago that management is about people.But he also pointed out why management is a crucial role in organizations!It is therefore not true that organizations don’t need managers, as some Agilists seem to claim.
I briefly explain the six management views according to Martie the management model, as described in the book.I also explain that in the rest of the course we will treat and discuss each of these views one by one.
Here I refer to “Embrace Change”, the subtitle of the famous Kent Beck book about Extreme Programming.And the primary reason for organizations to be Agile: coping with changing environments.
Here I refer to the first value of the Agile manifesto.
The “long tail” and the “strength of weak ties” are both metaphors that suggest that the sum of all small things in a social network can together be more powerful than the few strong things in the network.Likewise, several weak models can be more powerful than one strong model.In social systems we only have weak models (no strong mathematical models).Therefore, we need multiple models to make sense of the world around us.
Experimentation is often forgotten on Agile teams.They only do (lots of) adaptation and (a bit of) anticipation.
The practices you try will influence the system, but the system will also influence the practices you try.
I did some research into intrinsic desires and found several interesting sources.First is the 16 basic desires.See book: page 80-82
Some of these 16 basic desires I think are not really applicable in organizations.(Note: some students have claimed that Tranquility and Physical Activity could be addressed in an organization too.)
In Self-Determination Theory I found 3 more.
That gives us 10 intrinsic desires. A nice round number.
And then there are 3 basic desires referred to in Daniel Pink’s book Drive.But they all map to what we already had.(Note: actually Daniel Pink refers to Self-Determination research in his book, but doesn’t follow it exactly.)
The final result, reviewed briefly on the following slides...
I explain that the 360 degree evaluation is, in principle, a good idea. Because the point is to let the system (the team) generate its own feedback about its parts (team members).However, in some companies it is implemented badly. There are even HR tools that fully automate the 360-degree process, enabling people to fill out forms via email, anonymously, about each other. This is very bad for trust and respect in the organization.I explain that the last time I organized a 360 degree evaluation I did it during dinner with the whole team. It was a great and very useful experience.See book: page 242-245
Both Jeff Sutherland and Henrik Kniberg have expressed that the happiness index is for them the first metric to use to monitor the motivation on a team.Also see:http://scrum.jeffsutherland.com/2010/11/happiness-metric-wave-of-future.html
I have promoted the use of Twitter in my last organization, because it gave people the opportunity to learn more about each other’s lives.
See book: page 111-112
See book: page 127-129
The nice thing about this approach is that there is an urge to make things flow from left to right, just like a regular task board.
I explain that complexity researcher Dave Snowden says in his keynotes that stories/narratives work better than values or vision statements. And I show with this picture that we used a lego model of metaphors, combined with photos and video, to craft the vision for the ALE network.
I start this module by explaining there are various models about competence development.The Shu-Ha-Ri model is the best known one in Agile circles.Here I also explain that, according to research, journeymen are best able to teach apprentices, and masters can teach journeyman.The gap between masters and apprentices is sometimes too big.
I explain that (in my opinion) real competence means having both skill and discipline.
And so these are the 7 approaches to competence development.It starts with the first one: self-development. You can forget about the rest if that one doesn’t work well.But the other approaches can help to improve the effectiveness.
We can use this grid to check what parts of our complex system we want to measure.We can never hope to measure everything. But we can do our best not to forget what’s important.This grid will help us with that.I point out that the balanced scorecard has promoted a similar concept: multiple metrics to cover the entire organization. But the balanced scorecard was used in a management 2.0 manner, on the old hierarchical architecture of a business.
Fractals (from chaos theory) have the same properties at all scales.That also means the same communication overhead at all scales!That’s why organization experts aim for organizational designs following fractal principles.We aim to be able to scale our organizations without being bogged down by bureaucracy.
I believe we should see all teams as value delivering units. They do stuff for other teams, or for stakeholders (customers, shareholders, etc).I give examples of the good experiences I have with system administrators and a design unit treating Scrum teams as their customers. The Scrum teams were allowed to choose whether or not to use their services.The same should apply for other kinds of teams, like PMO’s and HR departments.
Many people don’t realize that creating awareness is not enough. Then you are only addressing the rational side of people. The ADKAR model says there are 4 other things to do at the personal level.
The Adoption Curve says that behaviors spread through different kinds of people at different times.
I added one “I” to the “4 I’s” that were discussed earlier in the course.Because I think “Infrastructure” can be treated separately from “Information”.