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Empower Teams<br />© Jurgen Appelo version 0.99 management30.com<br />
story<br />
Management 3.0<br />
View #2: Empower Teams<br />Teams can self-organize, and this requires empowerment, authorization, and trust from manageme...
Agile software development works because of<br />self-organizing teams<br />
management<br />self-organization<br />self-organizationis often complex, not chaotic<br />Sometimes it needs a littlemana...
Managers are like gardeners<br />They let self-organization (anarchy) do useful work<br />while steering the system toward...
But HOWdo we grow<br />a valuable self-organizing system?<br />
Well, NOTby putting a<br />control center on top of a living system<br />
Distributed being<br />A complex system is more than the sum of its parts, and the “extra” stuff is distributed over the s...
Authorization<br />
We distribute authorization with...<br />Empowerment<br />Yes, there is that<br />buzzword again...<br />
Empowerment<br />is implementing distributed control by delegating authority<br />
Delegation<br />“Delegation (or deputation) is the assignment of authority and responsibility to another person (normally ...
Managers empower people,and distribute control,to prevent the system itselffrom breaking down.<br />
Question:<br />Does handing over power to others make you<br />powerless?<br />
Answer: NO<br />Non-Zero-Sum<br />Zero-Sum<br />Free markets<br />Social networks<br />Teamwork<br />…<br />We all win!<br...
Non-Zero-Sum<br />Powerful teams make their managers more powerful.<br />
Trust your people(communicate this clearly)<br />
2)	Earn trust from your people(consistent behavior)<br />
Help people to trust each other(mingle, don’t meddle)<br />
4)	Trust yourself(stay true to your own values)<br />
The four types of trust<br />
Techniques for delegation<br />
Key Decision Areas<br />Make explicit list with“areas of authorization”<br />Prepare project schedules<br />Select key tec...
Key Decision Areas<br />However…<br />Authorization per key decision area is not a “binary” thing<br />Reinertsen, Donald....
Situational Leadership<br />Four different “leadership styles”<br />Telling<br />Selling<br />Participating<br />Delegatio...
Situational Leadership<br />However…<br />It might be good to distinguish between informing people (push your opinion) vs....
RACI Matrix<br />Involvement depends on tasks<br />Responsible<br />Accountable<br />Consulted<br />Informed<br />Make exp...
RACI Matrix<br />However…<br />Key decision areas are better than tasks, and there should be no separation of accountable ...
We will now mergethe ideas behind the previous examples...<br />
The Seven Levels of Authority<br />Tell: make decision as the manager<br />Sell: convince people about decision<br />Consu...
Relocate to other office building<br />Replace waterfall with Scrum<br />Select new team members<br />Choose logo for busi...
The optimal level of authority depends on people’s competenceand the organizational impactof decisions<br />
Authority Boards<br />
Seven Levels of Authority<br />
Key Decision Areas<br />
teams or people<br />
flow from left to right<br />
Authority boards are<br />controlled by the manager<br />
Treat delegation as an<br />investment<br />
The ultimate goal is a<br />self-directed team<br />(but usually not attainable)<br />
Game: Delegation Poker<br />Find Delegation Poker Cards, and Delegation Poker Stories<br />One person picks a story and re...
Game: Delegation Poker<br />Keep track of the points people earned (optional)<br />Let both highest and lowest motivate th...
Tell: make decision as the manager<br />Sell: convince people about decision<br />Consult: get input from team before deci...
Debrief<br />
Challenges<br />
Practices<br />
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Management 3.0 - Empower Teams

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This presentation is part of the Management 3.0 course, developed by Jurgen Appelo

http://www.management30.com/course-introduction/

Published in: Technology, Business
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Management 3.0 - Empower Teams

  1. 1. Empower Teams<br />© Jurgen Appelo version 0.99 management30.com<br />
  2. 2. story<br />
  3. 3. Management 3.0<br />
  4. 4. View #2: Empower Teams<br />Teams can self-organize, and this requires empowerment, authorization, and trust from management.<br />
  5. 5. Agile software development works because of<br />self-organizing teams<br />
  6. 6. management<br />self-organization<br />self-organizationis often complex, not chaotic<br />Sometimes it needs a littlemanagement<br />
  7. 7. Managers are like gardeners<br />They let self-organization (anarchy) do useful work<br />while steering the system toward valuable results<br />
  8. 8. But HOWdo we grow<br />a valuable self-organizing system?<br />
  9. 9. Well, NOTby putting a<br />control center on top of a living system<br />
  10. 10. Distributed being<br />A complex system is more than the sum of its parts, and the “extra” stuff is distributed over the system. It cannot be attributed to any single authoritative part. <br />Control from the bottom up<br />In a complex system, everything happens at once, and problems ignore any central authority. Therefore overall governance must be spread among all the parts.<br />Kelly, Kevin. Out of Control.<br />Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1994, page 469<br />
  11. 11. Authorization<br />
  12. 12. We distribute authorization with...<br />Empowerment<br />Yes, there is that<br />buzzword again...<br />
  13. 13. Empowerment<br />is implementing distributed control by delegating authority<br />
  14. 14. Delegation<br />“Delegation (or deputation) is the assignment of authority and responsibility to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities.”<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delegation<br />
  15. 15. Managers empower people,and distribute control,to prevent the system itselffrom breaking down.<br />
  16. 16. Question:<br />Does handing over power to others make you<br />powerless?<br />
  17. 17. Answer: NO<br />Non-Zero-Sum<br />Zero-Sum<br />Free markets<br />Social networks<br />Teamwork<br />…<br />We all win!<br />Football<br />Elections<br />Judiciary<br />…<br />I win and you lose<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-sum<br />
  18. 18. Non-Zero-Sum<br />Powerful teams make their managers more powerful.<br />
  19. 19. Trust your people(communicate this clearly)<br />
  20. 20. 2) Earn trust from your people(consistent behavior)<br />
  21. 21. Help people to trust each other(mingle, don’t meddle)<br />
  22. 22. 4) Trust yourself(stay true to your own values)<br />
  23. 23. The four types of trust<br />
  24. 24. Techniques for delegation<br />
  25. 25. Key Decision Areas<br />Make explicit list with“areas of authorization”<br />Prepare project schedules<br />Select key technologies<br />Set documentation standards<br />Etc…<br />People should not walk into“invisible electric fences”<br />Reinertsen, Donald. Managing the Design Factory. New York: Free Press, 1997, page 107.<br />
  26. 26. Key Decision Areas<br />However…<br />Authorization per key decision area is not a “binary” thing<br />Reinertsen, Donald. Managing the Design Factory. New York: Free Press, 1997, page 107.<br />
  27. 27. Situational Leadership<br />Four different “leadership styles”<br />Telling<br />Selling<br />Participating<br />Delegation<br />Work your way to level 4<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_leadership_theory<br />
  28. 28. Situational Leadership<br />However…<br />It might be good to distinguish between informing people (push your opinion) vs. consulting them (pull their opinions)<br />
  29. 29. RACI Matrix<br />Involvement depends on tasks<br />Responsible<br />Accountable<br />Consulted<br />Informed<br />Make explicit what people can expect from whom<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsibility_assignment_matrix<br />
  30. 30. RACI Matrix<br />However…<br />Key decision areas are better than tasks, and there should be no separation of accountable versus responsible in Agile teams<br />
  31. 31. We will now mergethe ideas behind the previous examples...<br />
  32. 32. The Seven Levels of Authority<br />Tell: make decision as the manager<br />Sell: convince people about decision<br />Consult: get input from team before decision<br />Agree: make decision together with team<br />Advise: influence decision made by the team<br />Inquire: ask feedback after decision by team<br />Delegate: no influence, let team work it out<br />
  33. 33. Relocate to other office building<br />Replace waterfall with Scrum<br />Select new team members<br />Choose logo for business unit<br />Select architecture or component<br />Sprint length and deliveries<br />Coding guidelines and pairing<br />EXAMPLE<br />
  34. 34. The optimal level of authority depends on people’s competenceand the organizational impactof decisions<br />
  35. 35. Authority Boards<br />
  36. 36. Seven Levels of Authority<br />
  37. 37. Key Decision Areas<br />
  38. 38. teams or people<br />
  39. 39. flow from left to right<br />
  40. 40. Authority boards are<br />controlled by the manager<br />
  41. 41. Treat delegation as an<br />investment<br />
  42. 42. The ultimate goal is a<br />self-directed team<br />(but usually not attainable)<br />
  43. 43. Game: Delegation Poker<br />Find Delegation Poker Cards, and Delegation Poker Stories<br />One person picks a story and reads it out loudOR tell a story from personal experience<br />Everyone choose (privately) one of the 7 cards<br />After everyone has decided, show all cards<br />Everyone earn points except the highest minority(see examples…)<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Game: Delegation Poker<br />Keep track of the points people earned (optional)<br />Let both highest and lowest motivate their choices<br />Play it again for the same topic (optional)<br />30 minutes<br />
  49. 49. Tell: make decision as the manager<br />Sell: convince people about decision<br />Consult: get input from team before decision<br />Agree: make decision together with team<br />Advise: influence decision made by the team<br />Inquire: ask feedback after decision by team<br />Delegate: no influence, let team work it out<br />
  50. 50. Debrief<br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52. Challenges<br />
  53. 53. Practices<br />
  54. 54. Feedback<br />

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