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INTRODUCTION TO   PENFLOW
STATEMENT OF PRODUCT DIRECTION




This statement of product direction sets forth Juniper Networks‟
current intention and is subject to change at any time without
notice. No purchases are contingent upon Juniper Networks
delivering any feature or functionality depicted in this
presentation.




2                     Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.   www.juniper.net
OPENFLOW – WHAT IS IT?
Openflow compromises an architecture and a protocol
In a traditional networking device, the control processes and
forwarding functionality reside on the network device

                                                                                                      penflow
     Control                                                           Control            penflow   Controller


    Forwarding                                                          Forwarding

               Traditional                Openflow-enabled

In the Openflow architecture, an interface is created on the
network device through which an external control process known
as a „controller‟, is able the program the packet matching and
forwarding operations of the networking device

3                            Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.    www.juniper.net
OPENFLOW – WHAT IS IT?
The Openflow protocol defines
     A standardized API and communication method between the external
      controller and Openflow process on the networking device
     The use of „Flow-tables‟ held on the networking device which are
      populated by the external controller which are used for matching and
      forwarding packets
Openflow Flow-tables contain
     Header Fields – fields against which a packet can be matched
     Counters – statistics reporting capabilities
     Actions – defining how the packet should be treated (forward, drop,
      modify)

There is no use of static configuration or cli/xml-based programming
via Openflow, nor does Openflow provide functionality to boot or
maintain the networking device



4                          Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.   www.juniper.net
OPENFLOW 1.0 FLOW TABLE & FIELDS
                    Ingress           Ethernet                        VLAN                          IP                       TCP/UDP
    Header Fields     Port    SA         DA         Type         ID      Priority      SA      DA        Proto   TOS        Src   Dst




                         Classifier                      Action                        Statistics
                         Classifier                      Action                        Statistics
    Flow Table           Classifier                      Action                        Statistics
    OF1.0 style




                                                             …
                         Classifier                      Action                        Statistics

                                                                       Physical Port
                                                                                      ALL
                                                                               CONTROLLER
    Actions                                 Forward            Virtual
                                                                                    LOCAL
                                                                Port
                                                                                    TABLE
                                                                                    IN_PORT
                                                                                                         Mandatory Action
                                                                      Drop
                                                               Virtual              NORMAL                Optional Action
                                            Forward
                                                                Port                FLOOD
                                                                Enqueue
                                                               Modify Field

5                                  Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.   www.juniper.net

                                                                                                                     Actions
OPENFLOW – WHAT IS IT?
Two components
     Openflow controller
       Controls one or more switches
       Computes paths, maintains state, formulates flows and programs
        Openflow Switches
     Openflow Switch
       Receives commands (flow entries, queries) from the Openflow
        controller in order to populate entries in the flow-table
       Holds the flow-table in volatile memory

Flow-table population can occur in two modes
     Reactive – Flow-table programmed in response to received packet
     Proactive – Flow-table is populated with pre-provisioned entries



6                           Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.   www.juniper.net
MODES OF OPERATION

    Reactive – Data plane driven                                            Pro-active – Configuration driven
                                                                            •        Like Static routes & LSPs
            Base principle of flow caching
                                                                            •        Not stored in configuration file



              Controller         FIB                                                  Controller           FIB

                                       C
                            4



                      Switch     FIB                                                              Switch   FIB

                1                2                3                                      1                 2            3


        1.     Receive packet                                                   1.     Receive packet
        2.     Perform lookup in local FIB                                      2.     Perform lookup in local FIB
        3.     Hit: forward to port                                             3.     Hit: forward to port
        4.     Miss: forward to controller                                      4.     Miss: DROP
                 Controller inspects packet
                 Performs route computation
                 C: Inserts new flow entry

7                                          Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.    www.juniper.net
OPENFLOW SWITCH / NETWORK DESIGN

                                   Switch Control Plane
                                          Applications                                                  Switch Control Plane:
                                                                                                        • Logically centralized
                                       OpenFlow Controller
                                                                                                        • Physically distributed in one
                                                                                                          or more compute devices
                                                                                                        • Embedded OF Controller to
                        OpenFlow                                                                          communicate with switches
                        Protocol

                                                                          penflow switch
                                  penflow switch


                penflow switch                     penflow switch



                                 penflow switch                          penflow switch




Source: OpenFlow.org




8                                           Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.   www.juniper.net
THE ISSUE:
APPLICATIONS DON’T COMMUNICATE WITH THE NETWORK

           THE HUMAN WORLD                                                           THE NETWORK WORLD


          Network Aware Applications:                                                     Application Aware Networking:
          Applications blindly probe the network                                          Networks spy on traffic to try to
          to understand what it can deliver                                               understand applications


             Game ping-stats, Doppler, Geo-                                                  Deep Packet Inspection, Deep
              location, whois, proprietary                                                     Flow Inspection
              codecs, proprietary control
                                                                                              Approximate application by
              channels in VBRB
                                                                                               fingerprinting
             Approximate topology/location
                                                                                              Service specific overlay topologies
              thru:
                                                                                              Application-based Quality of
             Active/game-based broadcast,
                                                                                               Service profiles
              passive derivation



      Current approximation techniques are barely sufficient and inefficient
  9                                Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.   www.juniper.net
OPENFLOW HELPS BY ENABLING NETWORK
          PROGRAMMABILITY FOR COMMUNICATION




       APPLICATION                     NETWORK                               NETWORK                       APPLICATION



         Applications made better by                                    Networks made better by information
          information from network                                               from application
      Understanding of end-device                                           Bandwidth and resource optimization
       capabilities                                                          New service topologies
      Real location / topology                                              Security identification
      Adjust behavior to real-time usage                                    Service-specific packet treatment
      Billing granularity




     Flexibility of service placement                                                Control of resources from
                                                                                           applications

10                                 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.    www.juniper.net
HOW DO YOU MAKE THIS HAPPEN?
THE APPLICATION WORLD                                                                             THE APPLICATION WORLD

                                                  Real-time topology
                                                    understanding
                                                   (ALTO, BGP-TE)                                    SI       ISV      Service             Research             Enterprise
                                                                                                   Partner   Partner   Provider            Institution          Customer




                                                Steering traffic through                                        Web Services API
                                                    optimal paths
                                                        (PCE)
                             Network                                                                    Orchestration Across Networks
                          Programmability
                                               Selecting specific traffic




                                                                                                                                                                   OpenFlow
                                                                                                                                  BGP-TE
                                                    (OpenFlow)




                                                                                                                          ALTO




                                                                                                                                                         Mgmt
                                                                                                                                              PCE
                                                                                                   Network APIs




                                                                                                                                                                              …
                                              Opening more touchpoints
                                             to control: Gateways, billing
                                                  collectors, service
                                              appliances, CDN, DPI/IDP


THE NETWORK WORLD                                                                                   THE NETWORK WORLD
   11
  Programmable Networking is SFW            Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.   www.juniper.net
AN EXAMPLE: BE “IN THE NETWORK”
Weak architecture = one-legged tap dancing                             Continuous, real-time streaming of surrounding
                                                                             content, resources, places, people



Where am I?                              I am here!
                                                                                                                           And this is
                                                                        You’re here!                                      around you:
                                    Active broadcast                    <access>
                                    Game broadcast                                                                        <content>
                                                                        <capability>                                      <resources>
                                    Passive                               <BW>
                                     derivation                                                                             <places>
                                                                          <profile>                                         <people>
                                                                                                                               …




         !     “Above the topology”
              “Visualize the topology”
               “Below the topology”
                                                                                                 “In the topology”



      Low value in navigational coordinates                                                       APPLICATION   NETWORK




12                                   Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.   www.juniper.net
WANT MORE ON OPENFLOW?
Useful URLs:
Open Networking Foundation https://www.opennetworking.org/
Openflow Whitepaper
http://www.openflow.org//documents/openflow-wp-latest.pdf
Openflow protocol
https://www.opennetworking.org/standards/open-flow/50-
openflow




13                   Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc.   www.juniper.net
Introduction to PenFlow: OpenFlow and Programmable Networking

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Introduction to PenFlow: OpenFlow and Programmable Networking

  • 1. INTRODUCTION TO PENFLOW
  • 2. STATEMENT OF PRODUCT DIRECTION This statement of product direction sets forth Juniper Networks‟ current intention and is subject to change at any time without notice. No purchases are contingent upon Juniper Networks delivering any feature or functionality depicted in this presentation. 2 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net
  • 3. OPENFLOW – WHAT IS IT? Openflow compromises an architecture and a protocol In a traditional networking device, the control processes and forwarding functionality reside on the network device penflow Control Control penflow Controller Forwarding Forwarding Traditional Openflow-enabled In the Openflow architecture, an interface is created on the network device through which an external control process known as a „controller‟, is able the program the packet matching and forwarding operations of the networking device 3 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net
  • 4. OPENFLOW – WHAT IS IT? The Openflow protocol defines  A standardized API and communication method between the external controller and Openflow process on the networking device  The use of „Flow-tables‟ held on the networking device which are populated by the external controller which are used for matching and forwarding packets Openflow Flow-tables contain  Header Fields – fields against which a packet can be matched  Counters – statistics reporting capabilities  Actions – defining how the packet should be treated (forward, drop, modify) There is no use of static configuration or cli/xml-based programming via Openflow, nor does Openflow provide functionality to boot or maintain the networking device 4 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net
  • 5. OPENFLOW 1.0 FLOW TABLE & FIELDS Ingress Ethernet VLAN IP TCP/UDP Header Fields Port SA DA Type ID Priority SA DA Proto TOS Src Dst Classifier Action Statistics Classifier Action Statistics Flow Table Classifier Action Statistics OF1.0 style … Classifier Action Statistics Physical Port ALL CONTROLLER Actions Forward Virtual LOCAL Port TABLE IN_PORT Mandatory Action Drop Virtual NORMAL Optional Action Forward Port FLOOD Enqueue Modify Field 5 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net Actions
  • 6. OPENFLOW – WHAT IS IT? Two components  Openflow controller  Controls one or more switches  Computes paths, maintains state, formulates flows and programs Openflow Switches  Openflow Switch  Receives commands (flow entries, queries) from the Openflow controller in order to populate entries in the flow-table  Holds the flow-table in volatile memory Flow-table population can occur in two modes  Reactive – Flow-table programmed in response to received packet  Proactive – Flow-table is populated with pre-provisioned entries 6 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net
  • 7. MODES OF OPERATION Reactive – Data plane driven Pro-active – Configuration driven • Like Static routes & LSPs  Base principle of flow caching • Not stored in configuration file Controller FIB Controller FIB C 4 Switch FIB Switch FIB 1 2 3 1 2 3 1. Receive packet 1. Receive packet 2. Perform lookup in local FIB 2. Perform lookup in local FIB 3. Hit: forward to port 3. Hit: forward to port 4. Miss: forward to controller 4. Miss: DROP  Controller inspects packet  Performs route computation  C: Inserts new flow entry 7 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net
  • 8. OPENFLOW SWITCH / NETWORK DESIGN Switch Control Plane Applications Switch Control Plane: • Logically centralized OpenFlow Controller • Physically distributed in one or more compute devices • Embedded OF Controller to OpenFlow communicate with switches Protocol penflow switch penflow switch penflow switch penflow switch penflow switch penflow switch Source: OpenFlow.org 8 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net
  • 9. THE ISSUE: APPLICATIONS DON’T COMMUNICATE WITH THE NETWORK THE HUMAN WORLD THE NETWORK WORLD Network Aware Applications: Application Aware Networking: Applications blindly probe the network Networks spy on traffic to try to to understand what it can deliver understand applications  Game ping-stats, Doppler, Geo-  Deep Packet Inspection, Deep location, whois, proprietary Flow Inspection codecs, proprietary control  Approximate application by channels in VBRB fingerprinting  Approximate topology/location  Service specific overlay topologies thru:  Application-based Quality of  Active/game-based broadcast, Service profiles passive derivation Current approximation techniques are barely sufficient and inefficient 9 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net
  • 10. OPENFLOW HELPS BY ENABLING NETWORK PROGRAMMABILITY FOR COMMUNICATION APPLICATION NETWORK NETWORK APPLICATION Applications made better by Networks made better by information information from network from application  Understanding of end-device  Bandwidth and resource optimization capabilities  New service topologies  Real location / topology  Security identification  Adjust behavior to real-time usage  Service-specific packet treatment  Billing granularity Flexibility of service placement Control of resources from applications 10 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net
  • 11. HOW DO YOU MAKE THIS HAPPEN? THE APPLICATION WORLD THE APPLICATION WORLD Real-time topology understanding (ALTO, BGP-TE) SI ISV Service Research Enterprise Partner Partner Provider Institution Customer Steering traffic through Web Services API optimal paths (PCE) Network Orchestration Across Networks Programmability Selecting specific traffic OpenFlow BGP-TE (OpenFlow) ALTO Mgmt PCE Network APIs … Opening more touchpoints to control: Gateways, billing collectors, service appliances, CDN, DPI/IDP THE NETWORK WORLD THE NETWORK WORLD 11 Programmable Networking is SFW Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net
  • 12. AN EXAMPLE: BE “IN THE NETWORK” Weak architecture = one-legged tap dancing Continuous, real-time streaming of surrounding content, resources, places, people Where am I? I am here! And this is You’re here! around you:  Active broadcast <access>  Game broadcast <content> <capability> <resources>  Passive <BW> derivation <places> <profile> <people> … ! “Above the topology” “Visualize the topology” “Below the topology” “In the topology” Low value in navigational coordinates APPLICATION NETWORK 12 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net
  • 13. WANT MORE ON OPENFLOW? Useful URLs: Open Networking Foundation https://www.opennetworking.org/ Openflow Whitepaper http://www.openflow.org//documents/openflow-wp-latest.pdf Openflow protocol https://www.opennetworking.org/standards/open-flow/50- openflow 13 Copyright © 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. www.juniper.net

Editor's Notes

  1. This is just an examples discussion. Imagine what you could do… what if…Bring in architectural changes over last few years … IGP Generic application information can be carried. Separate from routing. You don’t have to break everything. You can target specific devices in the network (ak flooding) …Key is “Network, User and Session Telemetry” for apps and being able to program the network beyond session logon and working within the constraints of IF-Map, Radius/Diameter, COPs, PCMM. Now it’s possible for multiple sources to create a service profile and update it in real time
  2. This is an easy one. Foursquare on steroids.Current, weak architecture:“ above the topology&quot;  - user-interactive layer - (Loopt, burbn, BooYay, Gowalla, micello, foursquare)&quot;on the topology&quot; - visual representation of topo - (SimpleGeo, motricity, tele atlas, navteq, geo api)&quot;below the topology&quot; - HW/SW layer - (android, IOS - Apple, Skyhook, SiRF).These categories are to describe functionality that is beyond tweeting your location, checking-in and geo marking in social media map-ups. As an analogy to the current fubared&apos;ness of the situation ... using straight mobile phone GSM coordinates for marking your location in a social media interface is merely noting the navigational coordinates that has little to do with the interaction/exchange/communication of information of a social network on the internet. It&apos;s less useful that what a dog leaves on a fire hydrant.Advert: SocialbombCommerce:Comm: BlockchalkContent: NavxAnalytics:Social:Gowalla,Loopthis means that the quality of interaction can abandon the three common modes of topologic interaction listed above and enter continuous real time updates and streaming. Really the point in the non-exhaustive list of topo-interested APIs/platforms above is that they are in fact the *orchestration* platforms that &quot;app developers&quot; that go to J1 know about.