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  1. 1. Multi-Layered Interfaces for Mobile Applications for Older Adults: Qualitative Analysis By Justine Yang CPSC 448B April 28, 2009
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Mobile devices have gone through a major </li></ul><ul><li>transformation in the past decades </li></ul>First phone in the 1970’s Phones we have today
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>And emerged in popularity in recent years </li></ul>Wait, there’s something missing!
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>And emerged in popularity in recent years </li></ul>Where are the seniors in the picture?
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>It is observed that seniors often perceive new </li></ul><ul><li>technologies as too complicated </li></ul><ul><li>“ I don’t know how to use these new gadgets, my son taught me before, but I always forget after a while…” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Motivation <ul><li>Attempting to make the interfaces on mobile </li></ul><ul><li>devices easier to use </li></ul>Multi-Layered Interface!!!
  7. 7. Motivation <ul><li>Previous research shows </li></ul><ul><li>“ Multi-layered interfaces have been seen as a suitable approach to helping novice users to learn to use software interfaces.” - Shneiderman, B. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Novices can learn with multi-layered interfaces by starting with an initial layer consisting of a limited function set, and progressing to successive layers when needed or when they are comfortable using the initial set.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Study Design
  9. 9. Study Design <ul><li>Participants: </li></ul><ul><li>16 young participants (age 20-39) </li></ul><ul><li>16 senior participants (age 65+) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Study Design <ul><li>Independent Variables (Interface): </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Layered Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform tasks on different interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Layered Interface (control) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform all tasks on one interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaborate more in a bit… </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Study Design <ul><li>Tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>1 st set: Basic </li></ul><ul><li>(Add user, edit user, and delete user) </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd set: Advanced </li></ul><ul><li>(Add voice dialing, send text message and </li></ul><ul><li>add custom ringtone) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Study Design <ul><li>Participants using Multi-Layered Interface </li></ul>Interface 1 Perform 1 st set of task (Add, edit, delete user) Interface 2 Perform 2 nd set of task (voice dial, text message, ringtone)
  13. 13. Study Design <ul><li>Participants using Non-Layered Interface </li></ul>Perform both sets of tasks Interface 2
  14. 14. Study Design <ul><li>Data: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Track the number of extra steps performed in a task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given after each set of tasks and rate on Likert scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-study Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open ended questions, understand preferences and reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Track the number of extra steps performed in a task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given after each set of tasks and rate on Likert scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-study Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open ended questions, understand preferences and reasoning </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Study Design <ul><li>What are the perceived benefits of the ML </li></ul><ul><li>interfaces for learning? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are the perceived benefits of the ML interfaces for long term usage? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Do seniors prefer multi-layered interfaces or traditional non-layered interfaces and Why? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Do age-related differences exist in the aforementioned questions? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Results and Analysis
  17. 17. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Performance Data on Initial Learning </li></ul>ML NL ML NL
  18. 18. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Seniors prefer the ML interface for learning </li></ul>Total: 10/15 of the seniors prefer the ML interface NL ML 2/7 5/7 Seniors using NL 3/8 5/8 Seniors using ML Preference Learning
  19. 19. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Reasons why seniors prefer the ML interface: </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual Learning Curve </li></ul><ul><li>“ [D]oing the simpler thing first is easier. Going from simpler to complex is more of a natural progress of learning.” </li></ul><ul><li>(ML, age 65+, P53) </li></ul><ul><li>“ I would learn this first and go on to the other option if one is comfortable with [interface 1]. (ML, age 65+, P63) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Drawbacks of the ML interface for Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Because you sort of get in your mind that it’s a different thing and you had to learn this all over again.” (ML, age 65+, P69) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Drawbacks of the ML interface for Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>2. “If you do the first one, then you become over competent. Like you’d think you can do it with your eyes closed. Then, you get this false sense of competence. So I think I would want to go with the 2nd system first.” (ML, age 65+, P57) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Performance Data on Long Term Usage </li></ul>ML,NL ML,NL
  23. 23. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Same number of seniors prefer the ML and NL </li></ul><ul><li>interface for long term usage </li></ul>** B = Only Basic Interface B NL ML 0/7 4/7 3/7 Seniors using NL 1/8 3/8 4/8 Seniors using ML Preference Long Term Usage
  24. 24. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Reasons why seniors prefer the ML interface: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think I would prefer them both even if I never use interface 2. If it’s there, there’s a possibility for me to use it.” (ML, age 65+, P67) </li></ul><ul><li>“ I would prefer the one where you have all the personal commonly used [features]…I would use this most of the time… It might be the occasional time that I want to use [interface 2] or probably not you know? “(ML, age 65+, P69) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Reasons why seniors prefer the NL interface </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think I would choose the one with all the functions because it’s all there.”. (ML, age 65+, P52) </li></ul><ul><li>“ I would want all of the functions” (ML, age 65+, P53) </li></ul><ul><li>“ It’s not difficult to use…Keep it simple.” (NL, age 65+, P70) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Results and Analysis <ul><li>No drawback was seen from </li></ul><ul><li>participants’ response in using the </li></ul><ul><li>ML interface for long term usage </li></ul>
  27. 27. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Age-related differences: </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Senior: ML interface v.s. Young: Mixed preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for Long Term Usage: </li></ul><ul><li>Senior: Equal v.s . Young: ML interface </li></ul>
  28. 28. Results and Analysis Age-related differences in Learning : Senior: ML interface v.s. Young: Mixed preferences Seniors take more steps, difference between NL and ML is larger Seniors take more time, difference between NL and ML is larger
  29. 29. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Age-related differences in Long Term Usage : </li></ul><ul><li>Senior: Equal v.s. Young: ML interface </li></ul>Takes same number of steps, no difference between NL and ML Seniors take more time, no difference between NL and ML
  30. 30. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Possible Cause #1: Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Senior: Simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>“ Probably, it’s simpler to do a bit and get more familiar with fingers and </li></ul><ul><li>where the buttons are and so on. Just the way you did.” (ML, age 65+, P59) </li></ul><ul><li>[Interface 1] Always. It’s simple . [For interface 2], well if you feel more </li></ul><ul><li>ambitious and want to do more fancy things. (ML, age 65+, P65) </li></ul><ul><li>Young: Efficiency and Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’ll definitely be faster if I use the one with fewer options…Use it when I </li></ul><ul><li>first got it. I would switch to the other one when I feel like I know how to do </li></ul><ul><li>the other functions.” (ML, age 20-39, P13) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Possible Cause #1: Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Senior : Simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>For learning: ML interface </li></ul><ul><li>“ It was easier and then increase the complexity. That worked well for me.” (ML, age 65+, P67) </li></ul><ul><li>For long term usage: either </li></ul><ul><li>ML interface: Use this one most of the time. These are the essential functions. The other functions are extras, fancy things to impress your friends.” (ML, age 65+, P65) </li></ul><ul><li>NL interface: “It’s not difficult to use, just more functions to use. I would just go with one [interface]. Keep it simple.” (NL, age+, P70) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Possible Cause #1: Priority </li></ul><ul><li>Young : Efficiency and Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>For learning: Mixed </li></ul><ul><li>ML participants prefer the ML interface: </li></ul><ul><li>“ [Interface 1] add quickly . Also for learning. [Interface 2] when bored, and want to try and use the other functions.” (ML, age 20-39, P3) </li></ul><ul><li>NL participants prefer the NL interface: </li></ul><ul><li>“ less moving around and all in one place. There are fewer steps.” (ML, age 20-39, P6) </li></ul><ul><li>For long term usage: ML interface </li></ul><ul><li>“ I would choose interface 1 because I have fewer options to scroll through. Interface 2: Use interface two when I have more time.” (ML, age 20-39, P10) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Possible Cause #2: Past Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Senior: Little Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Young: Abundant Experience </li></ul>Mobile Devices Computer 16/16 16/16 Young 5/15 15/15 Senior Experience
  34. 34. Results and Analysis Possible Cause #2: Past Experience Senior : Less Experience complex, need guidance Takes more steps and longer time
  35. 35. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Possible Cause #2: Past Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Senior : Less Experience complex, need guidance </li></ul><ul><li>For learning: ML interface </li></ul><ul><li>“ It was easier and then increase the complexity. That worked well for me.” (ML, age 65+, P67) </li></ul><ul><li>For long term usage: either </li></ul><ul><li>ML interface: Use this one most of the time. These are the essential functions. The other functions are extras, fancy things to impress your friends.” (ML, age 65+, P65) </li></ul><ul><li>NL interface: “ I can see what features that are in there, and I think it would be very useful for me and for my work. ” (NL, age+, P62) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Possible Cause #2: Past Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Young : Abundant Experience not complex, efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>“ Plus, it’s not that complicated. It’s pretty standard I guess. It’s probably </li></ul><ul><li>harder for people in my parents age.” (NL, age 20-39, P4) </li></ul>20 10 identical Possible Cause #2: Past Experience Young : Abundant Experience not complex, efficiency “ Plus, it’s not that complicated. It’s pretty standard I guess. It’s probably harder for people in my parents age.” (NL, age 20-39, P4)
  37. 37. Results and Analysis <ul><li>Possible Cause #2: Past Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Young : Abundant Experience not complex, efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>For learning: Mixed </li></ul><ul><li>ML participants prefer the ML interface: </li></ul><ul><li>“ [Interface 1] add quickly . Also for learning. [Interface 2] when bored, and want to try and use the other functions.” (ML, age 20-39, P3) </li></ul><ul><li>NL participants prefer the NL interface: </li></ul><ul><li>“ less moving around and all in one place. There are fewer steps.” (ML, age 20-39, P6) </li></ul><ul><li>For long term usage: ML interface </li></ul><ul><li>“ I would choose interface 1 because I have fewer options to scroll through. Interface 2: Use interface two when I have more time.” (ML, age 20-39, P10) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Conclusion
  39. 39. Conclusion <ul><li>Senior Users: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Senior participants prefer ML interface </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks exist, but can be overcome by switching to interface 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term Usage </li></ul><ul><li>Equal number of senior participants prefer the ML and NL Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>but no drawback was found </li></ul>
  40. 40. Conclusion <ul><li>Younger Users: </li></ul><ul><li>There was no distinct improvement in terms of performance when learning through the ML interface </li></ul><ul><li>For long term usage, the ML interface is beneficial to younger population as the basic interface makes the operations more efficient </li></ul>
  41. 41. Questions and Answer

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