SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 19
Download to read offline
CRITICAL PATH METHOD
                               (CEE 320 – VDC SEMINAR)


4 February 2009   Jesse Santiago & Desirae Magallon
Overview
 Background & History
 CPM Defined
 The CPM approach
 Definitions
 Class Exercise
Background & History
 Developed in the 1950s by the US Navy
 Originally, the critical path method considered only logical
 dependencies between terminal elements
 Since then, it has been expanded to allow for the inclusion of
 resources related to each activity, through processes called
 activity-based resource assignments and resource leveling.
 Critical Path Method for the construction industry
   Non-computer approach
   John Fondahl
John Fondahl
 Stanford CE Professor Emeritus – 35 years
 Passed away last September 13th, 2008
 US Marine Corps Sergeant in Iwo Jima
   His father was USMC LtCol
 Co-founder of the CEM program
 1961 Paper for the US Navy – "Non-Computer
 Approach to the Critical Path Method for the
 Construction Industry"
What is CPM?
 The Critical Path Method or Critical Path Analysis, is a
 mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project
 activities
 It is an important tool for effective project management
 Commonly used with all forms of projects, including
 construction, software development, research projects, product
 development, engineering, and plant maintenance, among
 others
 Any project with interdependent activities can apply this
 method of scheduling
What is CPM?
 The essential technique for using CPM is to construct
 a model of the project that includes the following:
   A list of all activities required to complete the project
   (also known as Work Breakdown Structure)
   The time (duration) that each activity will take to
   completion
   The dependencies between the activities.
What is CPM?
 CPM calculates
   The longest path of planned activities to the end of the project
   The earliest and latest that each activity can start and finish without
   making the project longer
 Determines “critical” activities (on the longest path)
 Prioritize activities for the effective management and to
 shorten the planned critical path of a project by:
   Pruning critical path activities
   “Fast tracking" (performing more activities in parallel)
   “Crashing the critical path" (shortening the durations of critical path
   activities by adding resources)
The CPM Approach
 Phase I
   Break project into operations necessary for completion
   Determine sequential relationship of operations
     Every operation must have event to mark commencement –
     i.e. completion of preceding operation
     Can operations overlap?
The CPM Approach
 Phase II
   Create time estimates for each operation
   Determine earliest possible start date, earliest possible
   finish date , latest start & finish
     Determine “free float” and “total float”
   Revised after completion of Phase III
The CPM Approach
 Phase III
   Establish time-cost relationship
   Establish scheduling variations
     Determine most favorable balance between time-cost
   Normal Start – normal time, least cost
   All-Crash Start – least time, higher cost
The CPM Approach
Definitions
 Float (slack) - amount of time that a task can be delayed without causing a
 delay to:
    subsequent tasks (free float)
    project completion date (total float)
 Critical path is the sequence of activities which add up to the longest overall
 duration. It is the shortest time possible to complete the project. Any delay of
 an activity on the critical path directly impacts the planned project completion
 date (there is no float on the critical path). A project can have several, parallel,
 near critical paths. An additional parallel path through the network with the
 total durations shorter than the critical path is called a sub-critical or non-critical
 path.
 Critical activity – activity with zero float
 Resource leveling – iterative process of assigning crews to activities in order to
 calculate their duration
Definitions

Activity Identity box

        Early Start                 Early Finish
           (ES)                         (EF)


                      Activity ID

         Late Start                 Late Finish
            (LS)        Duration
                                       (LF)
Class Exercise
                    A              C   G
      STAR                                          H
      T
                    B              D   E


                                   F
      Activity ID       Duration       Dependency
          A                7
          B                3
          C                6               A
          D                3               B
          E                3               D,F
          F                2               B
          G                3               C
          H                2               E,G
Class Exercise

  0       7   7        13   13       16
      A            C             G
  0   7 7     7    6 13     13   3 16
                                          16       18
                                               H
                                          16   2 18
  0       3   3        6    6        9
      B            D             E
  7   3 10    10   3 13     13   3 16



              3        5
                   F
              11   2 13
Class Exercise

Gantt Chart
Summary

 Critical Path Analysis is an effective and powerful method of
 assessing:
    Tasks which must be carried out
    Where parallel activity can be carried out
    The shortest time in which a project can be completed
    Resources needed to achieve a project
    The sequence of activities, scheduling, and timings involved
    Task priorities
References
 Fondahl, John W., “Non-Computer Approach to the Critical Path Method for
 the Construction Industry”, Report #9, Stanford University, 1961
 Fondahl, John W. “The History of Modern Project Management –
 Precedence Diagramming Methods: Origins and Early Development”.
 Project Management Journal. Volume XVIII. No. 2. June 1987.
 Hendrickson, Chris & Au, Tung, Project Management for Construction,
 Prentice Hall, 1989
 Weber, Sandra C., Scheduling Construction Projects: Principles and Practices,
 Prentice Hall, 2005
Questions???

More Related Content

What's hot

What's hot (20)

Project Management Techniques ( CPM & PERT Techniques )
Project Management Techniques ( CPM & PERT Techniques )Project Management Techniques ( CPM & PERT Techniques )
Project Management Techniques ( CPM & PERT Techniques )
 
Critical Path Method presentation.
Critical Path Method presentation.Critical Path Method presentation.
Critical Path Method presentation.
 
PERT and CPM
PERT and CPMPERT and CPM
PERT and CPM
 
Pert & Cpm
Pert & CpmPert & Cpm
Pert & Cpm
 
The Critical Path Method
The Critical Path MethodThe Critical Path Method
The Critical Path Method
 
Critical path method
Critical path methodCritical path method
Critical path method
 
CPM - Critical Path Method
CPM - Critical Path MethodCPM - Critical Path Method
CPM - Critical Path Method
 
Critical Path Method: Activities And Events, Float/Slacks
Critical Path Method: Activities And Events, Float/SlacksCritical Path Method: Activities And Events, Float/Slacks
Critical Path Method: Activities And Events, Float/Slacks
 
Cpm n pert lecture 1
Cpm n pert lecture 1Cpm n pert lecture 1
Cpm n pert lecture 1
 
Critical Path Method(CPM)
Critical Path Method(CPM)Critical Path Method(CPM)
Critical Path Method(CPM)
 
Critical path method
Critical path methodCritical path method
Critical path method
 
PROJECT SCHEDULE
PROJECT SCHEDULEPROJECT SCHEDULE
PROJECT SCHEDULE
 
Project management cpm-pert
Project management   cpm-pertProject management   cpm-pert
Project management cpm-pert
 
Project management techniques
Project management techniquesProject management techniques
Project management techniques
 
Cpm and pert
Cpm and pertCpm and pert
Cpm and pert
 
PERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
PERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLSPERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
PERT-CPM : PROJECT MANAGEMENT TOOLS
 
Project cost & control
Project cost & controlProject cost & control
Project cost & control
 
Project Management PERT and CPM
Project Management PERT and CPMProject Management PERT and CPM
Project Management PERT and CPM
 
Project Management Techniques
Project Management TechniquesProject Management Techniques
Project Management Techniques
 
Project planning and scheduling techniques
Project planning and scheduling techniquesProject planning and scheduling techniques
Project planning and scheduling techniques
 

Viewers also liked

Pert & cpm project management
Pert & cpm   project managementPert & cpm   project management
Pert & cpm project managementRahul Dubey
 
Black box and White box examples
Black box and White box examplesBlack box and White box examples
Black box and White box examplesGurbakash Phonsa
 
Swot analysis , its importance and limitations
Swot analysis , its importance and limitationsSwot analysis , its importance and limitations
Swot analysis , its importance and limitationsSuleyman Ally
 
Advantages of swot analysis
Advantages of swot analysisAdvantages of swot analysis
Advantages of swot analysisDhivya S Dhvi
 
Internal Auditing - Performance Standards
Internal Auditing - Performance StandardsInternal Auditing - Performance Standards
Internal Auditing - Performance Standardsaldenmae
 
Eindtermen en leerplannen wo natuur - Walter Dons
Eindtermen en leerplannen wo natuur - Walter DonsEindtermen en leerplannen wo natuur - Walter Dons
Eindtermen en leerplannen wo natuur - Walter DonsPIME
 
Cpm (critical path method)
Cpm (critical path method)Cpm (critical path method)
Cpm (critical path method)Areef Khan
 
Establishing performance standards
Establishing performance standardsEstablishing performance standards
Establishing performance standardsRajendra Nabar
 
Critical path method
Critical path methodCritical path method
Critical path methodNicola2903
 
Pert and its applications
Pert and its applicationsPert and its applications
Pert and its applicationsAmrit Mty
 
Chapter 12(cpm pert)
Chapter 12(cpm pert)Chapter 12(cpm pert)
Chapter 12(cpm pert)Debanjan15
 
Management and it's functions
Management and it's functionsManagement and it's functions
Management and it's functionsGeorge Cherian
 
Program evaluation review technique (pert)
Program evaluation review technique (pert)Program evaluation review technique (pert)
Program evaluation review technique (pert)tomeh
 
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
Program Evaluation and Review TechniqueProgram Evaluation and Review Technique
Program Evaluation and Review TechniqueRaymund Sanchez
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Pert & cpm project management
Pert & cpm   project managementPert & cpm   project management
Pert & cpm project management
 
Black box and White box examples
Black box and White box examplesBlack box and White box examples
Black box and White box examples
 
Gantt PERT and CPM
Gantt PERT and CPMGantt PERT and CPM
Gantt PERT and CPM
 
Swot analysis , its importance and limitations
Swot analysis , its importance and limitationsSwot analysis , its importance and limitations
Swot analysis , its importance and limitations
 
Advantages of swot analysis
Advantages of swot analysisAdvantages of swot analysis
Advantages of swot analysis
 
Internal Auditing - Performance Standards
Internal Auditing - Performance StandardsInternal Auditing - Performance Standards
Internal Auditing - Performance Standards
 
Eindtermen en leerplannen wo natuur - Walter Dons
Eindtermen en leerplannen wo natuur - Walter DonsEindtermen en leerplannen wo natuur - Walter Dons
Eindtermen en leerplannen wo natuur - Walter Dons
 
Cpm (critical path method)
Cpm (critical path method)Cpm (critical path method)
Cpm (critical path method)
 
Establishing performance standards
Establishing performance standardsEstablishing performance standards
Establishing performance standards
 
P E R T
P E R TP E R T
P E R T
 
Critical path method
Critical path methodCritical path method
Critical path method
 
Pert and its applications
Pert and its applicationsPert and its applications
Pert and its applications
 
Chapter 12(cpm pert)
Chapter 12(cpm pert)Chapter 12(cpm pert)
Chapter 12(cpm pert)
 
Management and it's functions
Management and it's functionsManagement and it's functions
Management and it's functions
 
Posdcorb
PosdcorbPosdcorb
Posdcorb
 
Posdcorb
PosdcorbPosdcorb
Posdcorb
 
Program evaluation review technique (pert)
Program evaluation review technique (pert)Program evaluation review technique (pert)
Program evaluation review technique (pert)
 
Critical Path Method
Critical Path MethodCritical Path Method
Critical Path Method
 
CPM-Updating
CPM-UpdatingCPM-Updating
CPM-Updating
 
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
Program Evaluation and Review TechniqueProgram Evaluation and Review Technique
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
 

Similar to Cpm (critical path method)

Chapter 6 project management
Chapter 6 project managementChapter 6 project management
Chapter 6 project managementShadina Shah
 
Project Management Through Gantt & Pert Chart
Project Management Through Gantt & Pert ChartProject Management Through Gantt & Pert Chart
Project Management Through Gantt & Pert ChartVinay Prajapati
 
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniques
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniquesLec 09 network scheduling_techniques
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniquesSAJID ALI RUK
 
Project management
Project managementProject management
Project managementTrade Expert
 
Project management activity task
Project management activity taskProject management activity task
Project management activity taskTadele Asmare
 
Introduction to Project Management
Introduction to Project Management Introduction to Project Management
Introduction to Project Management Joshua Miranda
 
00 Introduction of project scheduling
00 Introduction of project scheduling00 Introduction of project scheduling
00 Introduction of project schedulingSoe Naing Win
 
Lec - 3 Construction_Management_Time_Estimation_2014_summer23.pptx
Lec - 3 Construction_Management_Time_Estimation_2014_summer23.pptxLec - 3 Construction_Management_Time_Estimation_2014_summer23.pptx
Lec - 3 Construction_Management_Time_Estimation_2014_summer23.pptxNegeseTeklearegay
 

Similar to Cpm (critical path method) (20)

Cpm
CpmCpm
Cpm
 
Chapter 6 project management
Chapter 6 project managementChapter 6 project management
Chapter 6 project management
 
Project Management Through Gantt & Pert Chart
Project Management Through Gantt & Pert ChartProject Management Through Gantt & Pert Chart
Project Management Through Gantt & Pert Chart
 
Pert cpm
Pert cpmPert cpm
Pert cpm
 
Network analysis & cpm
Network analysis & cpmNetwork analysis & cpm
Network analysis & cpm
 
Cm exercise 4
Cm exercise 4Cm exercise 4
Cm exercise 4
 
Pert and CPM
Pert and CPMPert and CPM
Pert and CPM
 
Critical Path Method
Critical Path MethodCritical Path Method
Critical Path Method
 
Pert cpm
Pert cpmPert cpm
Pert cpm
 
Pert cpm
Pert cpmPert cpm
Pert cpm
 
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniques
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniquesLec 09 network scheduling_techniques
Lec 09 network scheduling_techniques
 
MGT-Ch07.ppt
MGT-Ch07.pptMGT-Ch07.ppt
MGT-Ch07.ppt
 
Critical Path Method
Critical Path MethodCritical Path Method
Critical Path Method
 
Project management
Project managementProject management
Project management
 
Project Management
Project Management Project Management
Project Management
 
Project management activity task
Project management activity taskProject management activity task
Project management activity task
 
Introduction to Project Management
Introduction to Project Management Introduction to Project Management
Introduction to Project Management
 
Project management
Project managementProject management
Project management
 
00 Introduction of project scheduling
00 Introduction of project scheduling00 Introduction of project scheduling
00 Introduction of project scheduling
 
Lec - 3 Construction_Management_Time_Estimation_2014_summer23.pptx
Lec - 3 Construction_Management_Time_Estimation_2014_summer23.pptxLec - 3 Construction_Management_Time_Estimation_2014_summer23.pptx
Lec - 3 Construction_Management_Time_Estimation_2014_summer23.pptx
 

More from El Moro

Utility panel
Utility panelUtility panel
Utility panelEl Moro
 
Process & procedure presentation
Process & procedure presentationProcess & procedure presentation
Process & procedure presentationEl Moro
 
Contoh pelan konsep
Contoh pelan konsepContoh pelan konsep
Contoh pelan konsepEl Moro
 
Commercial presentation group b
Commercial presentation group bCommercial presentation group b
Commercial presentation group bEl Moro
 
Mbas piawaian copy
Mbas piawaian   copyMbas piawaian   copy
Mbas piawaian copyEl Moro
 
Presentation1 adi
Presentation1 adiPresentation1 adi
Presentation1 adiEl Moro
 
Perumahan edit (2)
Perumahan   edit (2)Perumahan   edit (2)
Perumahan edit (2)El Moro
 
Piawaian industri
Piawaian industriPiawaian industri
Piawaian industriEl Moro
 

More from El Moro (8)

Utility panel
Utility panelUtility panel
Utility panel
 
Process & procedure presentation
Process & procedure presentationProcess & procedure presentation
Process & procedure presentation
 
Contoh pelan konsep
Contoh pelan konsepContoh pelan konsep
Contoh pelan konsep
 
Commercial presentation group b
Commercial presentation group bCommercial presentation group b
Commercial presentation group b
 
Mbas piawaian copy
Mbas piawaian   copyMbas piawaian   copy
Mbas piawaian copy
 
Presentation1 adi
Presentation1 adiPresentation1 adi
Presentation1 adi
 
Perumahan edit (2)
Perumahan   edit (2)Perumahan   edit (2)
Perumahan edit (2)
 
Piawaian industri
Piawaian industriPiawaian industri
Piawaian industri
 

Recently uploaded

Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation - April 2024
Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation - April 2024Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation - April 2024
Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation - April 2024CollectiveMining1
 
Osisko Gold Royalties Ltd - Corporate Presentation, April 10, 2024
Osisko Gold Royalties Ltd - Corporate Presentation, April 10, 2024Osisko Gold Royalties Ltd - Corporate Presentation, April 10, 2024
Osisko Gold Royalties Ltd - Corporate Presentation, April 10, 2024Osisko Gold Royalties Ltd
 
Leveraging USDA Rural Development Grants for Community Growth and Sustainabil...
Leveraging USDA Rural Development Grants for Community Growth and Sustainabil...Leveraging USDA Rural Development Grants for Community Growth and Sustainabil...
Leveraging USDA Rural Development Grants for Community Growth and Sustainabil...USDAReapgrants.com
 
Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation | April 2024
Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation | April 2024Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation | April 2024
Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation | April 2024CollectiveMining1
 
Mandalay Resources 2024 April IR Presentation
Mandalay Resources 2024 April IR PresentationMandalay Resources 2024 April IR Presentation
Mandalay Resources 2024 April IR PresentationMandalayResources
 
Falcon Invoice Discounting unlock your cash flow potential
Falcon Invoice Discounting unlock your cash flow potentialFalcon Invoice Discounting unlock your cash flow potential
Falcon Invoice Discounting unlock your cash flow potentialFalcon Invoice Discounting
 
Q1 Probe Gold Quarterly Update- April 2024
Q1 Probe Gold Quarterly Update- April 2024Q1 Probe Gold Quarterly Update- April 2024
Q1 Probe Gold Quarterly Update- April 2024Probe Gold
 

Recently uploaded (8)

Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation - April 2024
Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation - April 2024Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation - April 2024
Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation - April 2024
 
Osisko Gold Royalties Ltd - Corporate Presentation, April 10, 2024
Osisko Gold Royalties Ltd - Corporate Presentation, April 10, 2024Osisko Gold Royalties Ltd - Corporate Presentation, April 10, 2024
Osisko Gold Royalties Ltd - Corporate Presentation, April 10, 2024
 
Korea District Heating Corporation 071320 Algorithm Investment Report
Korea District Heating Corporation 071320 Algorithm Investment ReportKorea District Heating Corporation 071320 Algorithm Investment Report
Korea District Heating Corporation 071320 Algorithm Investment Report
 
Leveraging USDA Rural Development Grants for Community Growth and Sustainabil...
Leveraging USDA Rural Development Grants for Community Growth and Sustainabil...Leveraging USDA Rural Development Grants for Community Growth and Sustainabil...
Leveraging USDA Rural Development Grants for Community Growth and Sustainabil...
 
Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation | April 2024
Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation | April 2024Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation | April 2024
Collective Mining | Corporate Presentation | April 2024
 
Mandalay Resources 2024 April IR Presentation
Mandalay Resources 2024 April IR PresentationMandalay Resources 2024 April IR Presentation
Mandalay Resources 2024 April IR Presentation
 
Falcon Invoice Discounting unlock your cash flow potential
Falcon Invoice Discounting unlock your cash flow potentialFalcon Invoice Discounting unlock your cash flow potential
Falcon Invoice Discounting unlock your cash flow potential
 
Q1 Probe Gold Quarterly Update- April 2024
Q1 Probe Gold Quarterly Update- April 2024Q1 Probe Gold Quarterly Update- April 2024
Q1 Probe Gold Quarterly Update- April 2024
 

Cpm (critical path method)

  • 1. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CEE 320 – VDC SEMINAR) 4 February 2009 Jesse Santiago & Desirae Magallon
  • 2. Overview Background & History CPM Defined The CPM approach Definitions Class Exercise
  • 3. Background & History Developed in the 1950s by the US Navy Originally, the critical path method considered only logical dependencies between terminal elements Since then, it has been expanded to allow for the inclusion of resources related to each activity, through processes called activity-based resource assignments and resource leveling. Critical Path Method for the construction industry Non-computer approach John Fondahl
  • 4. John Fondahl Stanford CE Professor Emeritus – 35 years Passed away last September 13th, 2008 US Marine Corps Sergeant in Iwo Jima His father was USMC LtCol Co-founder of the CEM program 1961 Paper for the US Navy – "Non-Computer Approach to the Critical Path Method for the Construction Industry"
  • 5. What is CPM? The Critical Path Method or Critical Path Analysis, is a mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities It is an important tool for effective project management Commonly used with all forms of projects, including construction, software development, research projects, product development, engineering, and plant maintenance, among others Any project with interdependent activities can apply this method of scheduling
  • 6. What is CPM? The essential technique for using CPM is to construct a model of the project that includes the following: A list of all activities required to complete the project (also known as Work Breakdown Structure) The time (duration) that each activity will take to completion The dependencies between the activities.
  • 7. What is CPM? CPM calculates The longest path of planned activities to the end of the project The earliest and latest that each activity can start and finish without making the project longer Determines “critical” activities (on the longest path) Prioritize activities for the effective management and to shorten the planned critical path of a project by: Pruning critical path activities “Fast tracking" (performing more activities in parallel) “Crashing the critical path" (shortening the durations of critical path activities by adding resources)
  • 8. The CPM Approach Phase I Break project into operations necessary for completion Determine sequential relationship of operations Every operation must have event to mark commencement – i.e. completion of preceding operation Can operations overlap?
  • 9. The CPM Approach Phase II Create time estimates for each operation Determine earliest possible start date, earliest possible finish date , latest start & finish Determine “free float” and “total float” Revised after completion of Phase III
  • 10. The CPM Approach Phase III Establish time-cost relationship Establish scheduling variations Determine most favorable balance between time-cost Normal Start – normal time, least cost All-Crash Start – least time, higher cost
  • 12. Definitions Float (slack) - amount of time that a task can be delayed without causing a delay to: subsequent tasks (free float) project completion date (total float) Critical path is the sequence of activities which add up to the longest overall duration. It is the shortest time possible to complete the project. Any delay of an activity on the critical path directly impacts the planned project completion date (there is no float on the critical path). A project can have several, parallel, near critical paths. An additional parallel path through the network with the total durations shorter than the critical path is called a sub-critical or non-critical path. Critical activity – activity with zero float Resource leveling – iterative process of assigning crews to activities in order to calculate their duration
  • 13. Definitions Activity Identity box Early Start Early Finish (ES) (EF) Activity ID Late Start Late Finish (LS) Duration (LF)
  • 14. Class Exercise A C G STAR H T B D E F Activity ID Duration Dependency A 7 B 3 C 6 A D 3 B E 3 D,F F 2 B G 3 C H 2 E,G
  • 15. Class Exercise 0 7 7 13 13 16 A C G 0 7 7 7 6 13 13 3 16 16 18 H 16 2 18 0 3 3 6 6 9 B D E 7 3 10 10 3 13 13 3 16 3 5 F 11 2 13
  • 17. Summary Critical Path Analysis is an effective and powerful method of assessing: Tasks which must be carried out Where parallel activity can be carried out The shortest time in which a project can be completed Resources needed to achieve a project The sequence of activities, scheduling, and timings involved Task priorities
  • 18. References Fondahl, John W., “Non-Computer Approach to the Critical Path Method for the Construction Industry”, Report #9, Stanford University, 1961 Fondahl, John W. “The History of Modern Project Management – Precedence Diagramming Methods: Origins and Early Development”. Project Management Journal. Volume XVIII. No. 2. June 1987. Hendrickson, Chris & Au, Tung, Project Management for Construction, Prentice Hall, 1989 Weber, Sandra C., Scheduling Construction Projects: Principles and Practices, Prentice Hall, 2005