Building Energy Saving Potential Cooperative Energy Efficiency Design for Sustainability                           16 July...
Outline•   Purpose of the study•   Findings from literature review•   Methodology•   Data requirements•   Next steps
PurposeThe estimate of energy saving potential will:1. provide key decision makers and important   stakeholders with infor...
Literature Overview• Sources consulted: Academic journals,  conference proceedings, and studies by  governments and other ...
Specific Findings from the Literature          • Potentials and costs of carbon dioxide mitigation in the world’s building...
Scope• Considerations      – Likelihood of near-term implementation      – Clarity of impact      – Data availabilityIntr...
Overview of Approach1.   Select key building categories2.   Model savings potential of building prototypes3.   QA check us...
Select Key Building Categories• Criteria      1.    Residential and            public/commercial                          ...
Small ResidentialName        Small residential building (SRB)Class       ResidentialDescription A 3 story apartment buildi...
Large ResidentialName        Large residential building (SRB)Class       ResidentialDescription A 20 story apartment build...
Commercial - RetailName          Retail (RET)Class         CommercialDescription   A 3 story retail complex with 4 shops p...
Commercial - OfficeName        Office (OFF)Class       CommercialDescription A 20 story office buildingRepresents  Estimat...
Modeling Software                               Sample Calculation:                                 Thermal conductance * ...
Data: Model Inputs                                                           Baseline       Proposed1          Climate    ...
Data: QA and Forecast 2     Energy use intensity of baseline buildings                                             Example...
Proposed Schedule for Next Steps     TASKS                                                   COMPLETION DATE     1. Agree ...
THANK YOU!9/8/2010      METHODOLOGY   17
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  • Occupant density is also a key input.
  • Alternatives to economy-provided new construction forecasts are: 1) develop an APERC forecast, or 2) use the IEA Energy Technologies Perspectives forecasts.
  • Before October 8, any information provided will help to improve the default model inputs (e.g. Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand audit data)
  • 1 james russell

    1. 1. Building Energy Saving Potential Cooperative Energy Efficiency Design for Sustainability 16 July, 2010 James Russell Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre
    2. 2. Outline• Purpose of the study• Findings from literature review• Methodology• Data requirements• Next steps
    3. 3. PurposeThe estimate of energy saving potential will:1. provide key decision makers and important stakeholders with information that they can use to prioritize this particular policy.2. Put building energy codes into the context of other goals, programs and studies.In addition to the two main purposes, this study will also provide a better understanding of what data is currently available, and what additional information may need to be collected as part of the policy design process.9/8/2010 PURPOSE 3
    4. 4. Literature Overview• Sources consulted: Academic journals, conference proceedings, and studies by governments and other organizations• Key Findings: 1. Assessment of the energy saving potential is performed in many economies prior to code adoption 2. A common method for assessing the energy saving potential is to simulate the before and after energy consumption of a somewhat representative sample of buildings 3. Some previous work on this subject has been conducted by the participating economies and this should be referenced by our analysis.9/8/2010 LITERATURE REVIEW 4
    5. 5. Specific Findings from the Literature • Potentials and costs of carbon dioxide mitigation in the world’s buildings (2008, ongoing) – This study performed a meta-analysis of previous regional/national studies of energy saving potential toCONTEXT estimate that 29% of global, building-related CO2 emissions can be cost-effectively eliminated. • The economics of energy efficiency in buildings (2009) – Using the WBCSD model, finds that using codes and standards to induce a 10% premium on building-sector investment (which is recouped in energy savings) and a modest carbon price can reduce CO2 emissions ~50% below BAU in 2050. • Modeling of end-use energy consumption in the residential sector: A review of modelingMETHOD techniques (2010) – reviews modeling techniques available to a study of this type, defining bottom- up type approaches (like ours) to be flexible and appropriate for estimating technological changes induced by a building code, but sensitive to assumptions about users’ actual behavior. • Revised Building Energy Code of Thailand: Potential Energy and Power Demand Savings (2010) – using an audit database to establish the baseline, estimates large savings for the new building energy code in the area of lighting, but only small savings from the modest envelope improvements. • Building energy efficiency labeling program in Singapore (2008) – summarizes surveys of over 100 buildings. The cutoff for the nation’s top 25% performing buildings is a normalized 178 kWh/m2/year.DATA • Implementing building energy codes in Hong Kong: energy savings, environmental impacts and costs (2005) – estimates a large benefit:cost ratio for making building codes mandatory. • Indoor thermal environment and energy saving for urban residential buildings in China (2006) – improving the envelope reduces energy use by 40% (Beijing) and 67% (Shanghai). • Indonesia: Energy Conservation Partnership Program (2010) – Audits of 62 buildings conducted by 2007 show building energy intensities generally higher than ASEAN’s benchmark intensities. 9/8/2010 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
    6. 6. Scope• Considerations – Likelihood of near-term implementation – Clarity of impact – Data availabilityIntroducing or strengthening a mandatory building energy code for new buildings in urban areas. New Urban Buildings Building Efficiency9/8/2010 METHODOLOGY 6
    7. 7. Overview of Approach1. Select key building categories2. Model savings potential of building prototypes3. QA check using building energy intensity data4. Extrapolate savings to future building stock 9/8/2010 METHODOLOGY 7
    8. 8. Select Key Building Categories• Criteria 1. Residential and public/commercial How to get to this point depends on 2. Collectively represent a large the economy portion of building energy Understanding use 3. Reflect common design/construction practices• Preliminary selection: 1. Commercial – office 2. Commercial – retail Resources 3. Residential – large 4. Residential – small9/8/2010 METHODOLOGY 8
    9. 9. Small ResidentialName Small residential building (SRB)Class ResidentialDescription A 3 story apartment building with 2 units per storyRepresents Estimated to represent __% of new urban residencesEnvelope Wood-framed, clay brick or cement block (select one) + clear glass, and clay tile roofHVAC Split-systems air conditioner (or heat pump) installed by occupantLighting Occupant installed mix of incandescent and compact fluorescent lampsZones and Bedrooms – 18-7, M-F; 18-9, Sa-SuSchedules living/dining – 13-22, M-F; 9-21, Sa-Su kitchen/bath – naBuilding Chile: Residential building code article 4.1.10 (M)Energy Code China: Regional Energy Efficiency Codes for Residential Buildings (M)M-mandatory Indonesia: naV-voluntary Malaysia: na Mexico: na Philippines: na Vietnam: na9/8/2010 METHODOLOGY 9
    10. 10. Large ResidentialName Large residential building (SRB)Class ResidentialDescription A 20 story apartment building with 16 units per storyRepresents Estimated to represent __% of new urban residencesEnvelope Mass (tile, cement plaster, heavy concrete, gypsum plaster) + clear glass, and built- up roof (insulation board, concrete)HVAC Split-systems air conditioner (or heat pump) installed by occupantLighting Occupant installed mix of incandescent and compact fluorescent lampsZones and Bedrooms – 18-7, M-F; 18-9, Sa-SuSchedules living/dining – 13-22, M-F; 9-21, Sa-Su kitchen/bath – naBuilding Chile: Residential building code article 4.1.10 (M)Energy Code China: Regional Energy Efficiency Codes for Residential Buildings (M)M-mandatory Indonesia: naV-voluntary Malaysia: na Mexico: na Philippines: na Vietnam: na9/8/2010 METHODOLOGY 10
    11. 11. Commercial - RetailName Retail (RET)Class CommercialDescription A 3 story retail complex with 4 shops per storyRepresents Estimated to represent __% of new commercial floor spaceEnvelope Cavity walls (thin stone, air gap, insulation board, steel frame, gypsum board) + clear glass, and built-up roof (insulation board, concrete)HVAC Multi-split system air conditioner (or heat pump)Lighting Primarily T12 linear fluorescent lamps with magnetic ballastsZones and Retail space – 10-22, M-SuSchedulesBuilding Chile: naEnergy Code China: National Energy Efficient Design Standard for Public Buildings (M) and Standard forM-mandatory Lighting Design in Buildings (M)V-voluntary Indonesia: Commercial building energy code (V) Malaysia: Guidelines for Energy Efficiency in Buildings (V) Mexico: Mexico Thermal Insulation Standard, Building Envelope Standard, and Lighting Systems Standard (M) Philippines: Philippine National Building Code, energy provisions (V) Vietnam: Vietnam Energy Efficiency Commercial Code (M) 9/8/2010 METHODOLOGY 11
    12. 12. Commercial - OfficeName Office (OFF)Class CommercialDescription A 20 story office buildingRepresents Estimated to represent __% of new commercial floor spaceEnvelope Cavity (concrete panel, air gap, insulation board, steel frame, gypsum board) + clear glass, and built-up roof (insulation board, concrete)HVAC Water-cooled chiller and one air-handler per floor, + hot water boilers if neededLighting Primarily T12 linear fluorescent lamps with magnetic ballastsZones and Lobby – 6-22, M-FSchedules Offices – 8-19, M-FBuilding Chile: naEnergy Code China: National Energy Efficient Design Standard for Public Buildings (M) and Standard forM-mandatory Lighting Design in Buildings (M)V-voluntary Indonesia: Commercial building energy code (V) Malaysia: Guidelines for Energy Efficiency in Buildings (V) Mexico: Mexico Thermal Insulation Standard, Building Envelope Standard, and Lighting Systems Standard (M) Philippines: Philippine National Building Code, energy provisions (V) Vietnam: Vietnam Energy Efficiency Commercial Code (M) 9/8/2010 METHODOLOGY 12
    13. 13. Modeling Software Sample Calculation: Thermal conductance * Area (including leakage) Cooling degree days 24 * CDD * ∑ UA Q fuel = η ac *η dist Fuel requirement System efficiencies9/8/2010 METHODOLOGY 13
    14. 14. Data: Model Inputs Baseline Proposed1 Climate Dimensions  ? Operation - Hours of use ? - Heating and cooling set points ? Envelope - U-values (walls, windows, roof) ? Code - “Tightness” ? Code - Window area and solar heat gain coefficient ? Code - Shading ? Code Equipment - Heating/cooling efficiency ? Code - Ventilation: rate & efficiency ? Code - Lighting: levels & efficiency ? Code - Plug loads ? Code Retail Energy Prices ?9/8/2010 DATA REQUIREMENTS 14
    15. 15. Data: QA and Forecast 2 Energy use intensity of baseline buildings Example: Taipower provided: 1. Consumption by sector and cityNew Urban 2. Number of customers by sectorBuildings ? and city 3. Design assumptions for new building services by sector Building Efficiency 3 New construction forecast (2010 – 2035) Data Hierarchy: Local Study – Surveys, audits, or other studies of local Data Hierarchy: Local Study – Surveys, audits, or other studies of local buildings buildings Local Expert – economy participants and their Local Expert – economy participants and their recommended expert sources recommended expert sources Regional Study – values from aasimilar economy Regional Study – values from similar economy 9/8/2010 Assumed – based on researcher judgment and literature Assumed – based on researcher judgment and literature DATA REQUIREMENTS 15
    16. 16. Proposed Schedule for Next Steps TASKS COMPLETION DATE 1. Agree on the key building types This workshop 2. Agree on a schedule for next steps This workshop 3. APERC provides default model inputs to delegates October 8 (items 1-3) 4. Delegates provide approved/revised model inputs to November 1 APERC (items 1-3) 5. APERC models building energy saving potential and December 3 provides draft results to delegates for review 6. Delegates review and provide comments to APERC December 17 7. Results presented and discussed at the second January workshop FEEDBACK?9/8/2010 NEXT STEPS 16
    17. 17. THANK YOU!9/8/2010 METHODOLOGY 17

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