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The Waters Of The Earth


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The Waters Of The Earth

  1. 1. The Waters of the Earth Junhel C. Dalanon, DMD, MAT SNSCLC – Minglanilla Minglanilla, Cebu, Philippines 6046
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Hydrosphere – all the water on the surface of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>¾ of the earth is covered with water </li></ul><ul><li>Water is second most abundant substance next to air </li></ul><ul><li>Same amount of water now as it had millions of years ago </li></ul>
  3. 3. Oceans of the World <ul><li>Oceanography – study of ocean currents, tides, wave formation, energy exchange between oceans and atmospheres </li></ul><ul><li>Different Oceans: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctic </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Pacific Ocean <ul><li>Biggest </li></ul><ul><li>Deepest </li></ul><ul><li>Covers 3/8 of the total area of the global ocean </li></ul><ul><li>4144 meters Average Depth </li></ul>
  5. 6. Atlantic Ocean <ul><li>Second largest </li></ul><ul><li>¼ of total area of global ocean </li></ul><ul><li>3846 meters Average Depth </li></ul>
  6. 7. Indian Ocean <ul><li>Third largest </li></ul><ul><li>1/8 of total area </li></ul>
  7. 8. Arctic Ocean <ul><li>Around the North Pole </li></ul><ul><li>1/13 of the area </li></ul><ul><li>Almost totally covered with ice </li></ul><ul><li>2.95 meters deep </li></ul>
  8. 9. Antarctic Ocean <ul><li>Covers the Antarctic continent </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest ocean </li></ul><ul><li>South Pole </li></ul>
  9. 10. Resources of the Ocean <ul><li>Desalination – salts & chemicals are removed from seawater so it can be used for drinking, in industry, and agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Salts </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil Fuels – oil & petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Marine Animals – fish, coral, plankton </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic Plants – Algae & Phytoplankton </li></ul>
  10. 11. Ocean Basin <ul><li>Basalt – First layer; (igneous rock)forms mostly the ocean basin </li></ul><ul><li>Granite – second layer underneath basalt </li></ul><ul><li>Depth varies from one place to another </li></ul><ul><li>Continental Shelf – shallow edge of a continent </li></ul><ul><li>Continental Slope – drops abruptly from the edge of the continental shelf; sides of the ocean basin; landslides often occur here </li></ul>
  11. 13. Ocean Floor <ul><li>Farther to the ocean from the shore </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by the process of volcanism & sedimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Ridges – mountain chains </li></ul><ul><li>Seamounts – 300 meters above the sea floor; volcanoes under the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Trenches – Deep gashes on the ocean floor; deepest parts of the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Marianas Trench – Marianas Islands near Guam 12, 066 meters deep </li></ul><ul><li>Mindanao Deep – 11, 880 meters deep </li></ul><ul><li>Ooze – made of mud; first 500 meters of the ocean floor </li></ul>
  12. 15. Sea Floor Spreading <ul><li>Caused by the formation of new crusts at oceanic rises </li></ul><ul><li>Oceans have increased in depth at the rate of 1 meter per million years </li></ul>
  13. 16. Salt Water & Fresh Water <ul><li>The salts dissolved in the sea account for the salinity of ocean water </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity - 3.2% or 3.5 parts of salt for every 100 parts of water </li></ul><ul><li>Common salts in sea water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium Chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium Chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium Chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium Sulfate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium Sulfate </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Salinity of Seawater <ul><li>What causes it to vary? </li></ul><ul><li>Rain Water </li></ul><ul><li>Melted Glacier </li></ul><ul><li>Crater from Rivers </li></ul>