Japan

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  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • The next couple of slides are a comparison of the countries that we will be visiting. Notice how small all are compared to China.
  • Japan

    1. 1. Junhel Dalanon, DDM, MAT
    2. 2. Architecture
    3. 3. Pagoda Characteristics <ul><li>Japan is mostly volcanic rock, so most of the pagodas are wood. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Chinese temples, but more richly decorated. </li></ul><ul><li>Built to withstand both earthquakes and island storms. </li></ul><ul><li>Always feature curved roofs. </li></ul><ul><li>Built in 616 A.D. the Pagoda at Horyuji is the oldest wooden structure in the world. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Temple Complex at Horyuji
    5. 5. Story Scrolls
    6. 6. Story Scrolls <ul><li>The illustrations stressed realism and action. </li></ul><ul><li>The scenes are read, or unrolled, from right to left. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Burning of the Sanjo Palace” is nearly 23 feet long. </li></ul><ul><li>It tells the story of a night attack on the palace in 1159 A.D. in which the emperor was taken prisoner. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Burning of the Sanjo Palace
    8. 8. Sculpture
    9. 9. Sculpture <ul><li>Japanese sculpture tend to highly “stylized”. </li></ul><ul><li>The subject shown in the artwork usually fits with its surroundings. A Zen Buddhist temple will feature statues of the Buddha, while a castle will be “protected” by statues of guard dogs, samurai and guardian deities. </li></ul>
    10. 13. Woodblock Prints
    11. 14. Woodblock Prints <ul><li>These are made by carving an illustration into a sheet or block of wood, inking the surface, and printing on paper. </li></ul><ul><li>A separate carving must be made for each color, but they must be perfectly identical so everything lines up precisely. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, woodblock print illustrations tend to be far less complex than paintings and drawings. </li></ul>
    12. 15. Great Wave at Kanagawa
    13. 16. Utilitarian Art
    14. 17. Utilitarian art <ul><li>Utilitarian art is art that has a practical use. Anything in your home that has a specific use, but is decorated to be more attractive, is utilitarian. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese screens are used to provide more privacy in the home. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are wood, others are made of silk or paper. </li></ul>
    15. 20. Nippon – Land of the Rising Sun
    16. 21. Japan’s Regions
    17. 22. Japan’s Prefectures
    18. 23. Japan’s Topography
    19. 24. Sea of Japan Ishikari R. Korean Straits Pacific Ocean Inland Sea Tone R. Shinano R. Bodies of Water
    20. 25. Kitani Mts. Kitakami Mts. Mikuni Mts. Chugoku Mts. Kyushu Mts. Mt. Fuji Mountains and Peaks
    21. 26. Kanto Plain Nobi Plain Ishikari Plain Osaka Plain Plains
    22. 27. Hokkaido Honshu Shikuku Kyushu Okinawa Islands
    23. 28. Sapporo Hiroshima Kobe Tokyo Nagasaki Kyoto Yokohama Nagoya Osaka Cities
    24. 29. Sea of Japan Ishikari R. Korean Straits Pacific Ocean Inland Sea Tone R. Shinano R. Kitani Mts. Kitakami Mts. Mikuni Mts. Chugoku Mts. Kyushu Mts. Mt. Fuji Kanto Plain Nobi Plain Osaka Plain Ishikari Plain Hokkaido Honshu Shikuku Kyushu Okinawa Russia China N. Korea S. Korea Sapporo Hiroshima Kobe Tokyo Nagasaki Kyoto Yokohama Nagoya Osaka
    25. 30. Shinkansen : Bullet Train Bullet Train National Lines Travel
    26. 31. Very Mountainous: Little Arable Land
    27. 32. Hells Lake Pool in Beppu
    28. 33. Mt. Fuji
    29. 34. Swift-Moving Rivers: Hydroelectric Power
    30. 35. Japan’s Land Area and Utilization
    31. 36. Japan by Satellite
    32. 37. Mt. Aso -- Active Volcano
    33. 38. Shiranesan Caldera
    34. 39. Global Tectonic Plates Japan -- On the “Fire Rim of the Pacific”
    35. 40. Japan’s Sub-Oceanic Trenches
    36. 41. Japanese Earthquakes: 1961-1994
    37. 42. Ginza Ruins After The Great Kanto Earthquake -- Tokyo, 1923 Over 100,000 dead!
    38. 43. Kobe Earthquake -- January 17, 1995 <ul><li>7.2 Richter scale </li></ul><ul><li>5,500 deaths </li></ul>
    39. 44. Kobe Earthquake -- January 17, 1995
    40. 45. Tsunamis – Tidal Waves
    41. 46. Vegetation
    42. 47. Igawa Town on the Izumo Plain
    43. 48. Rice Farmer’s Farmhouse: Okutsu Town, Okayama Prefecture
    44. 49. Terrace Farming of Rice
    45. 50. The Japanese Farm the Sea Tokyo Fish Market
    46. 51. Raw Materials and Resources
    47. 52. Natural Resources
    48. 53. Raw Materials
    49. 54. World Contributions to Global Warming
    50. 55. Shinto Polytheism Ancestor Worship Hyper- Nationalism The World of the kami Minimize sin & guilt Great Creator
    51. 56. Amaterasu : Sun Goddess
    52. 57. Union of Izanami & Izanagi Wedded Rocks at Futami no Ura
    53. 58. Tree kami surrounded by sacred boundaries
    54. 59. Torii Gate, Miyajima Island
    55. 60. Torii Gate in Winter
    56. 61. Torii Gate
    57. 62. A Tunnel of Torii Gates Inari Mt., Kyoto
    58. 63. Torii Gong
    59. 64. Shinto Temple – “worship hall”
    60. 65. Shinto Priest
    61. 66. Traditional Shinto Wedding Today
    62. 67. Prayers, Thoughts, & Wishes at a Shinto Shrine
    63. 68. Memorials for the Unborn
    64. 69. Jizo Stones
    65. 70. Shinto Subway Shrine
    66. 71. Hot Sand Bath at Takegawara Onsen, Beppu Origins in the Nara Period (710-794)
    67. 72. Japanese Baths Grandma & her grandson
    68. 73. Shintoism in traditional japanese culture
    69. 74. Noh Theater : 8-man chorus
    70. 75. Noh Theater The Play Aoi no Ue
    71. 76. Noh Theater Traditional Weeping Gesture Woman Heavenly-being Demonness   Old Man Warrior Demon God
    72. 77. Kabuki Theater An interior of a Kabuki theater.
    73. 78. Bunraku Puppets
    74. 79. Bunraku Puppets
    75. 80. Chanoyu : Tea Ceremony
    76. 81. Tea Ceremony Equipment Green Tea
    77. 82. A Japanese Tea Master
    78. 83. A Japanese Tea House
    79. 84. A Tea House Interior
    80. 85. Origami : The Art of Japanese Paper Folding
    81. 86. Origami : Modern Adaptations
    82. 87. Calligraphy
    83. 88. Calligraphy
    84. 89. Haiku : 17-syllable poem Matsuo Basho , Master of Haiku Spring departs. Birds cry Fishes' eyes are filled with tears.
    85. 90. Ikebana : The Art of Japanese Flower Arranging <ul><li>Tallest  Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Middle  Man </li></ul><ul><li>Smallest  Earth </li></ul>
    86. 91. Bonzai : A Unique Method of Meditation
    87. 92. Japanese Garden for Meditation
    88. 93. Japanese Zen Garden
    89. 94. Japanese Sand Garden
    90. 95. Miniature Rock/Sand Garden
    91. 96. Shinto in Modern Furniture
    92. 98. Yamato Period: 300-710 “ Great Kings” era Began promoting the adoption of Chinese culture: Confucianism. Language ( kanji characters). Buddhist sects. Chinese art & architecture. Government structure.
    93. 99. Prince Shotoku: 573-621 <ul><li>Adopted Chinese culture and Confucianism. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist sects allowed to develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Created a new government structure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17 Article Constitution in 604.  </li></ul></ul>
    94. 100. Heian Period: 794-1156 <ul><li>Characteristics : </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of large landed estates. </li></ul><ul><li>Arts & literature of China flourished. </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate court life [highly refined] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ETIQUETTE.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personal diaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon [10c] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great novel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki Shikibu [1000 pgs.+]  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moving away from Chinese models in religion, the arts, and government.  </li></ul>
    95. 101. Heian Period: Cultural Borrowing <ul><li>Chinese writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese artistic styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism [in the form of ZEN]. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT, not the Chinese civil service system!  </li></ul>
    96. 102. Heian Court Dress
    97. 103. The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon (diary)
    98. 104. The Pillow Book by Sei Shonagon (diary)
    99. 105. Tale of Genji ( first novel)
    100. 106. Tale of Genji Scroll (first novel)
    101. 107. Lady Murasaki Shikibu She contributed much to the Japanese script known as kana , while men wrote with Chinese characters, kanji .
    102. 108. Minamoto Yoritomo Founded the Kamakura Shogunate : 1185-1333
    103. 109. Feudal Society The emperor reigned, but did not always rule!
    104. 110. Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Japan: Shogun Daimyo Daimyo Samurai Samurai Samurai Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant Land - Shoen Land - Shoen Protection Loyalty Loyalty Food
    105. 111. Code of Bushido <ul><li>Fidelity </li></ul><ul><li>Politeness </li></ul><ul><li>Virility </li></ul><ul><li>Simplicity </li></ul>
    106. 112. Seppuku: Ritual Suicide Kaishaku – his “seconds” It is honorable to die in this way.
    107. 113. Full Samurai Attire
    108. 114. Samurai Sword
    109. 115. Early Mounted Samurai Warriors
    110. 116. Underpinnings: Basic Steps in Self Defense A COTTON BREECH CLOUT that extended up over the chest was the basic undergarment of a samurai’s costume A SHORT SLEEVED KIMONO , or “armor robe,” was tied snugly at the waist with a special knot (lower right)
    111. 117. BILLOWING PANTALOONS, worn over the armor robe, fitted loosely in the legs to allow freedom of movement STURDY SHINGUARDS of cloth or leather were reinforced with strips of iron to give protection from the front AN EXQUISITE BROCADE , richly worked with a design of peonies, was one of the extravagant materials used in an armor robe that may have been made for a 14 th Century imperial prince
    112. 118. Samurai Charging
    113. 119. Modern-Day “Samurai Warriors”
    114. 120. Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Europe: King Lord Lord Knight Knight Knight Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant Land - Fief Land - Fief Protection Loyalty Loyalty Food
    115. 121. Code of Chivalry <ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul><ul><li>Faith </li></ul><ul><li>Humility </li></ul><ul><li>Nobility </li></ul>
    116. 122. European knight Samurai Warrior vs. Medieval Warriors
    117. 123. Knight’s Armor Samurai Armor vs. Medieval Warriors
    118. 124. Zen Buddhism A Japanese variation of the Mahayana form of Buddhism, which came from India through China. It reinforced the Bushido values of mental and self-discipline.
    119. 125. Mongol “Invasions” of Japan 4,400 ships and 140,000 men, but kamikaze winds stopped them.
    120. 126. Ashikaga Age: 1338-1573 <ul><li>Shoguns fought for power. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws are unclear. </li></ul><ul><li>Less efficient than the Kamakura. </li></ul><ul><li>Armies of samurai protected the country.  </li></ul>
    121. 127. C A S T L E S
    122. 128. Osaka Castle
    123. 129. Main Gate of Hiroshima Castle
    124. 130. Caernorfon Castle, Wales
    125. 131. Warwick Castle, England
    126. 132. R O E N S
    127. 133. The Age of the Warring States: ( 1467 - 1568) Castles built on hills in different provinces. Power shifts from above to below. Europeans arrive in Japan  bringing firearms & Christianity. Christianity & foreign trade flourish.
    128. 134. Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582) Banishes the last Ashikaga shogun. Unifies a large part of Japan.
    129. 135. Catholic Jesuits in Japan St. Francis Xavier [First Catholic Missionaries in Asia]
    130. 136. Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598) Becomes suspicious of European territorial ambitions. Orders all European missionaries expelled from Japan.  Tries to invade Korea, but fails.
    131. 137. First Christian Martyrs (1597): Shrine in Nagasaki Today
    132. 138. Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) <ul><li>Appointed shogun by the Emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>Four-class system laid down with marriage restricted to members of the same class!  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warriors. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artisans. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    133. 139. Tokugawa Shogunate Period <ul><li>Japan closed off to all trade [except to the Dutch and Chinese].  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Dutch were restricted to a small island in Nagasaki harbor. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Japanese Christians persecuted and Christianity is forbidden. </li></ul><ul><li>The government is centralized with all power in the hands of the shogun. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic trade flourishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Towns, esp. castle towns, increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Merchant class becomes rich!  </li></ul><ul><li>New art forms  haiku poetry, kabuki theater. </li></ul>
    134. 140. Japan Changes Direction During the Meiji Era: 1868 - 1912 Commodore Matthew Perry
    135. 141. 1853 – Commodore Matthew Perry “Opens Up” Japan to Western Trade!
    136. 142. What Did the U. S. Want?? <ul><li>Coaling stations. </li></ul><ul><li>More trading partners. </li></ul><ul><li>A haven for ship-wrecked sailors. </li></ul>
    137. 143. Perry’s “Black Ships”
    138. 144. The Treaty of Kanagawa - 1854
    139. 145. Japan Learns a Lesson! I n 1862, just before the start of the Meiji period, Tokugawa sent officials and scholars to China to study the situation there. A Japanese recorded in his diary from Shanghai… The Chinese have become servants to the foreigners. Sovereignty may belong to China but in fact it's no more than a colony of Great Britain and France.
    140. 146. China’s “Unequal Treaties” <ul><li>After the Opium War of 1839-1842, Japan was convinced that it had to Open Up to the West. </li></ul>
    141. 147. The Shi-shi (“Men of High Purpose”) <ul><li>Highly idealistic samurai who felt that the arrival of Westerners was an attack on the traditional values of Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan was sacred ground. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The emperor, now a figurehead in Kyoto, was a God. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Were furious at the Shogun for signing treaties with the West without the Emperor’s consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Their slogan  Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians! </li></ul>
    142. 148. The Meiji Revolt - 1868 <ul><li>A powerful group of samurai overthrow the Shogun. </li></ul><ul><li>Sakamoto Ryoma , the hero. </li></ul><ul><li>He helped Japan emerge from feudalism into a unified modern state. </li></ul>
    143. 149. The Shogunate Is Overthrown! <ul><li>The last Shogun. </li></ul><ul><li>Tokugawa Yoshinobu. </li></ul>
    144. 150. The Emperor Is “Restored” to Power MEIJI  “Enlightened Rule”
    145. 151. Newspaper Cartoon, 1870s? Enlightened Half-Enlightened Un-Enlightened
    146. 152. Modernization by “Selective Borrowing” <ul><li>Popular board game. </li></ul><ul><li>Start by leaving Japan & studying in various Western capitals. </li></ul><ul><li>End by returning to Japan and becoming a prominent government official. </li></ul>
    147. 153. European Goods <ul><li>Europe began to “loom large” in the thinking of many Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>New slogan : Japanese Spirit; Western Technology! </li></ul>
    148. 154. The Japanese Became Obsessed with Western Styles Civilization and Enlightenment!
    149. 155. Everything Western Was Fashionable!
    150. 156. Everything Western Was Fashionable! Japanese soldiers with their wives.
    151. 157. The Rulers Set the Tone with Western Dress Emperor Meiji Empress Haruko (1868- 1912)
    152. 158. Changing Women’s Fashions 1900 Styles The First “Miss Japan” (1908)
    153. 159. Meiji Reforms Abolition of the feudal system Land Redistribution Human Rights & Religious Freedom Build a Modern Navy (British) Westernize the School System (Fr. & Ger.) Modernize the Army (Prussian) Emperor Worship Intensified Written Constitution (Germans) Modern Banking System
    154. 160. A Constitutional Government Copied from the Germans Satsuma & Choshu Families The Emperor of Japan The Diet (Legislative Body) House of Representatives House of Peers 1889 Constitution of Japan
    155. 161. Expansionism & the Rise of Military Power New players on the block?
    156. 162. Sino-Japanese War: 1894-1895 The Meiji Emperor was in Hiroshima during the Sino-Japanese War
    157. 163. Soldiers on the Battlefield During the Sino-Japanese War The Treaty of Shimonoseki ended the war.
    158. 164. Today—Tensions Between China & Japan EEZ -Exclusive Economic Zone. <ul><li>Offshore gas field in the East China Sea reveals recently strained relations between China & Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Tension over disputed gas field on the rise, exacerbating mutual mistrust dating back to the Sino-Japanese War. </li></ul>
    159. 165. The Russo-Japanese War: 1904-1905 The Battle of Tsushima : The results startled the world!
    160. 166. President Teddy Roosevelt Mediates the Peace The Treaty of Portsmouth , NH ended the Russo-Japanese War.
    161. 167. Japan Annexes Korea
    162. 168. Japan Is a Player in China
    163. 169. Competition from Another “Pacific” Power Is on the Horizon
    164. 170. The U. S. “Great White Fleet”
    165. 171. But, Japanese Power Would Grow . . .

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