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  1. 1. China
  2. 2. geography 9,573,000 square km Beijing Shanghai Xian Lhasa Urumqi Guangzhou Kunming
  3. 3. population population: 1,286,975,468 (UK: 60,094,648 ) density: 138 per square km (UK: 249/square km)
  4. 4. religion Secular 60% Chinese 31% Christian 4% Animist 2.5% Muslim 2.5%
  5. 5. history Ancient civilization 221-206BC: Unification of China 1800s: Western imperialism 1911: Republic founded 1949-1976: Chairman Mao 1966-1976: Cultural Revolution 1997: Deng Xiaoping dies 1997: Hong Kong returned to China 1999: Macau returned to China
  6. 6. Geographical Influences <ul><li>Mountains, sea, and desert provide some protection and isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerable to northwest </li></ul><ul><li>River valleys 1. Yellow(Huang Ho) earliest civilization - damaging floods 2. Yangtze- very important in unification- transportation- irrigation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Earliest Civilizations- most isolated <ul><li>Earliest- Neolithic- Ban Po- similar to other parts of the world/ one of the oldest </li></ul><ul><li>Shang Dynasty 1500-11 BCE in No China along the Huang Ho- raised silk worms- silk part of lure and fascination of China, famous for bronze sculpture, daggers, jade jewelry paid homage to ancestors- family important </li></ul><ul><li>Chou (Zhou) 1027-256-longest-developed foundations for Chinese society </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ancient China Way of Life- Confucianism p58-59 <ul><li>Moral and ethical code highly developed treat everyone with consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Advocated paternalistic government </li></ul><ul><li>Value on family head- ancestor respect </li></ul><ul><li>Values- loyalty, righteousness, wisdom, sincerity </li></ul><ul><li>very practical and humanistic Gentility </li></ul>
  9. 9. Daoism (Taoism) LaoTzu (Lao Zi) p 60 <ul><li>contemporary of Confucius </li></ul><ul><li>Tao= the road way </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute=sum of existence </li></ul><ul><li>Goal to bring people into harmony </li></ul><ul><li>very introspective </li></ul><ul><li>not as influential as Confucius </li></ul>
  10. 10. Zhou (Chou) Dynasty (cont) <ul><li>Feudal society- emperor gave out fiefs </li></ul><ul><li>Shang thought they had a divine right- Chou rulers had responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou did take title “Son of Heaven” </li></ul><ul><li>compared to medieval Europe- had a code for dress, fighting etc. </li></ul><ul><li>no contracts </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ancient Philosophies <ul><li>About 500BCE Buddha, Confucius, Greek Philosophers and Chinese - Lao Tze </li></ul><ul><li>Called a flowering period </li></ul><ul><li>India more concerned with cosmos and soul </li></ul><ul><li>China more concerned with ethical life on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Ironic comparison of Asoka and Shi Huangdi </li></ul>
  12. 12. Qin (Ch’in) Dynasty 221-206 BCE <ul><li>dominated by “The First Emperor” </li></ul><ul><li>Qin Shi Huangdi (Chin Shi Huang Ti) </li></ul><ul><li>ambitious= understatement </li></ul><ul><li>centralized the government- rid of feudal lords </li></ul><ul><li>constructed roads and canals </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Wall- sacrifice AND </li></ul><ul><li>An amazing tomb found in 20th Cen </li></ul>
  13. 13. Han Dynasty 202BCE-220 CE(Roman Times) <ul><li>Similar: built cities, officials to carry out edicts, heavy taxes collapsed under invasions and internal revolts </li></ul><ul><li>contact along the Silk Road, Buddhist Missionaries to China </li></ul><ul><li>combination of Confucius and legalism </li></ul><ul><li>advanced in science and literature </li></ul><ul><li>invented rudder, paper, magnetic compass, acupuncture </li></ul><ul><li>Short period of Civil War- Sui Dynasty connected two rivers with canal- over extended </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tang Dynasty 618-907 CE Contributions <ul><li>Internal renewal(improved lives of people) and external expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Used formal civil service exam to recruit-set up university </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to equalize land holdings- fought corruption </li></ul><ul><li>literature and art flourished- Tang horses p 203 </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions- paper during Han- used for clothes and tp- 589 used for writing- invented printing, gun powder, encyclopedia </li></ul>
  15. 15. Song(Sung) Dynasty 960-1279 <ul><li>moved the capitol east- </li></ul><ul><li>economic expansion- used paper money, </li></ul><ul><li>used abacus- </li></ul><ul><li>Silk Road traffic at height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when dangerous went to sea routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>first period of great oceanic commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trades tea, silk and porcelain for exotic woods and precious stones </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Mongols Nomadic peoples <ul><li>Loosely organized clans in a state of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Genghis Kahn- son of impoverished noble with army of less than 130,000 conquered Asia </li></ul><ul><li>mastered military tactics on horseback- pursue and ambush, firelance, took China </li></ul><ul><li>Kublai Kahn- grandson Yuan dynasty at Peking- adopted Chinese ways- lasted 100 years- gave way to Ming dynasty </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ancient China <ul><li>I. A Land of Difference </li></ul><ul><li>A. Civilization emerged in about 3,000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>B. China </li></ul><ul><li>1. Largest country in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>2. Largest population of any country in the world </li></ul><ul><li>C. Land of Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>1. Wide variety of landforms </li></ul><ul><li>2. Many different climates </li></ul><ul><li>3. Many different ways of life for the people who live there </li></ul><ul><li>II. North China Plain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Heavily populated area of China that serves as the center of agriculture and industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Fertile farmland from loess that blows from the dessert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Loess- yellowish soil that blows in from the desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Crops are grown on terraces- platforms like stairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Beijing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Capital of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. 12 million people live there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Center of trade for about 800 years </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>China’s Sorrow </li></ul><ul><li>A. Huang He River </li></ul><ul><li>1. Known as Huang river –Yellow River </li></ul><ul><li>2. Picks up yellow silt in the desert </li></ul><ul><li>B. Path: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Begins in the mountains of Western China </li></ul><ul><li>2. Flows east through the desert </li></ul><ul><li>3. Turns south and flows through the North China Plain </li></ul><ul><li>4. Empties into the South China Sea </li></ul><ul><li>C. Flooding and Control </li></ul><ul><li>1. Levees and Dikes have been built for centuries to try to prevent the flooding during the summer rainy season </li></ul><ul><li>2. Levees are walls built up along the banks of a river </li></ul><ul><li>3. Huang River is “China’s Sorrow” because of the severe flooding that occurs and the destruction of crops and homes </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Guangxi Zhungzu </li></ul><ul><li>A. Location </li></ul><ul><li>1. Located in Southern China along the Gulf of Tonkin </li></ul><ul><li>B. Cliamate </li></ul><ul><li>1. Great climate for farming </li></ul><ul><li>2. Plenty of rain </li></ul><ul><li>3. Very warm and steamy </li></ul><ul><li>C. Farming in this Region </li></ul><ul><li>1. Use double cropping cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Double cropping is when 2 crops are grown on the same land in the same year </li></ul><ul><li>3. Usually rice and either sugar cane or vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>D. Landscape </li></ul><ul><li>1. Rugged peaks of limestone </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sinkholes filled with water </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>To the Roof of the World </li></ul><ul><li>A. Tibetan Plateau </li></ul><ul><li>1. Rocky mountain range in Southwestern China </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reffered to as the Roof of the World because it is in the Himalayas </li></ul><ul><li>3. Himalayas are the highest mountain Range in the world </li></ul><ul><li>B. Zhuang </li></ul><ul><li>1. Chinese people who live in the Tibetan Plateau Region </li></ul><ul><li>2. Larges minority group in China </li></ul><ul><li>3. Nomadic people who herd animals </li></ul>
  21. 21. Lesson 2: China’s Past <ul><li>Picturing Chinese History </li></ul><ul><li>A. Civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>1. China’s first civilizations developed along the Huang River in about 2000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>2. China’s Civilizations are not among the oldest in the world </li></ul><ul><li>3. China’s Civilizations are the most continuous civilizations meaning they are unchanged over time </li></ul><ul><li>B. Writing </li></ul><ul><li>1. Pictographs pictures that represent words </li></ul><ul><li>2. Chinese writing could read and understand their own language for thousands of years ago </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Ancient Voices </li></ul><ul><li>A. Chinese Legends </li></ul><ul><li>1. Pangu creator of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>2. Developed super heroes that taught people how to find food clothing and shelter </li></ul><ul><li>3. Stories date from 2000-1700 BC </li></ul><ul><li>4. Stories formed a link between prehistory and written history </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>A. The first Dynasty in Ancient China (1760-1500 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>B. They were farmers </li></ul><ul><li>1. grew millet, rice, flax </li></ul><ul><li>2. Raised animals </li></ul><ul><li>C. War </li></ul><ul><li>1. Warriors used chariots in battle </li></ul><ul><li>D. Bronze </li></ul><ul><li>1. Used bronze in tools, weapons </li></ul><ul><li>2. Bronze is a harder metal mixing tin and copper </li></ul><ul><li>3. Bronze age – time period when humans used bronze </li></ul><ul><li>E. Anyang- Capitol city of the Shang Empire </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>F. Oracle Bones </li></ul><ul><li>1. bones used in rituals to predict the future </li></ul><ul><li>2. People would write questions on bones of deer, oxen or turtle shells </li></ul><ul><li>3. They would then heat the bones and see how they cracked </li></ul><ul><li>4. Then people would read the bones and make predictions </li></ul><ul><li>G. These oracle bones proved to archeologists that the Shang dynasty was the first civilization in China with a system of Writing </li></ul><ul><li>The Longest Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>A. Zhou Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>1. Zhou Dynasty conquered the Shang Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>2. Zhou Dynasty is the longest dynasty in China lasting 800 years </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Dynasty is split into two periods the west and the East </li></ul>
  24. 24. B. The Western Zhou Dynasty 1. Capitol was in Hao 2. Most people were farmers who grew wheat, rice, beans 3. Farmers worked small pieces of land and contributed food to the king 4. Women a. Women did most of the harvesting b. Women were also responsible for harvesting of silk from the silk worm cocoon c. Women used the silk fiber to make cloth C. Eastern Zhou Dynasty 770 BC – 221 BC 1. Capital was in Luoyang 2. Period of time is known as the “golden age” 3. Economy a. a system of money encouraged trade b. The economy thrived c. Began to use iron for tools and weapons 4. Government a. Many building projects- flood control, canals, irrigation, walls around cities
  25. 25. <ul><li>b. Kings power began to weaken </li></ul><ul><li>1. Fighting with neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>c. New Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>1. More people became scholars, teachers, and government officials </li></ul><ul><li>2. Some of the teachings changed China for thousands of years </li></ul><ul><li>The First Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>A. Shi Huangdi was the first Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>B. Earned this title when he defeated the Zhou Dynasty and began the Qin dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>C. Accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>1. Organized the empire into provinces- political regions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Standardized money and weights and measurements </li></ul><ul><li>3. Began the building of The Great wall of China </li></ul><ul><li>D. Problems </li></ul><ul><li>1. Wanted to control everyone, what they said and did </li></ul><ul><li>2. Punished those who spoke against him </li></ul><ul><li>3. People wanted freedom and revolts broke out </li></ul><ul><li>4. Dynasty only lasted 20 years </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Han Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>A. Came to power after revolts against Qin Dynast </li></ul><ul><li>B. Gaozu was the first ruler </li></ul><ul><li>C. Wu Di was the next Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>1. Advancements </li></ul><ul><li>a. Lifted the ban on books </li></ul><ul><li>b. Took land from wealthy and those who were against him </li></ul><ul><li>c. Taxed imported and exported goods </li></ul><ul><li>d. Built many new roads </li></ul><ul><li>e. Historian (Sima Qian) wroted a complete history of China </li></ul><ul><li>f. Taught women </li></ul><ul><li>g. Civil Service- (people who work for the government) had to take tests to prove they could do the work. Before the wealthy got the jobs now peasants or poor people could work for the government. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Inventions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Middlemen- people to go between buyers and sellers </li></ul><ul><li>2. Porcelain – type of pottery </li></ul><ul><li>3. Paper and ink </li></ul><ul><li>4. Silk Road- Trade route between China and the rest of the world Middlemen traveled this road making trades </li></ul>
  27. 27. Lesson 3: Legacy of Thought <ul><li>Master Kung </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Well educated man who traveled China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Became an advisor to the emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Taught morals valued harmony and wanted the world to be right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revised older texts and wrote his own books </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had 3,000 followers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>The Masters Work </li></ul><ul><li>A. Analects </li></ul><ul><li>1. Collection of Confucius sayings </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gives advice to people </li></ul><ul><li>B. Confuciusism </li></ul><ul><li>1. Values- family, humility, modesty </li></ul><ul><li>2. Middle way think twice before fighting </li></ul><ul><li>3. Accept your role in society </li></ul><ul><li>C. Mandate of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>1. Ruler have divine right to rule </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rulers should be wise and bring peace and prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unjust rulers should be pushed off the thrown by the people </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Beyond Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>A. Mencius </li></ul><ul><li>1. believed people were good by nature </li></ul><ul><li>2. Followed and spread Confucius thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>B. Daoism </li></ul><ul><li>1. Focus finding the way of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>2. Taught by Laozi </li></ul><ul><li>3. Believed people should live in harmony with nature, not apart from it </li></ul>