Sejak menjadi anggota Asosiasi Psikologi Positif Indonesia (AP2I), saya lebih mendalami lagi studi-studi dan praktik-praktik psikologi positif dalam berbagai bidang dan setting, baik klinis, sosial, pendidikan, maupun industri & organisasi. Salindia (slide) ini merupakan sebagian presentasi saya di Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Kristen Maranatha, Bandung, Jawa Barat. Sebelumnya, saya telah menulis mengenai Aplikasi Psikologi Positif Dalam Dunia Bisnis, serta memberikan paparan tentang positive education kepada guru-guru di wilayah Banten, Jawa Barat. Salindia ini diperbarui terus-menerus seiring perkembangan sains dan terapan psikologi positif terkhusus kontekstualisasinya di Indonesia. (Dr. Juneman Abraham, S.Psi.)
Pendidikan positif (Intervensi Psikologi Positif dalam Pendidikan)
disampaikandi Universitas Kristen Maranatha,
Bandung, 15 November 2019
DR. JUNEMAN ABRAHAM
Psikologi positif merupakan
istilah yang memayungi studi-
studi terhadap emosi-emosi
positif, sifat-sifat dasar positif,
Seligman, Steen, Park, dan
Emosi Positif: joy (bersukacita), gratitude (berterima
kasih/bersyukur), serenity (tenang), interest (berminat), hope
(berpengharapan), pride (bangga), amusement (terhibur), inspiration
(terinspirasi), awe (kagum), love (cinta), dan sebagainya.
Karakter positif: berintegritas, jujur, setia, hormat,
bertanggungjawab, adil, rendah hati, bersimpati, pemaaf, otentik.
Lembaga yang Tidak berdaya: anomik, mudah diatur dengan suap,
lembaga yang tidak mampu mengemansipasikan siswa
Imagine that when you have dinner with a friend who has been bullied by
his or her colleague, you get a call from your boss informing you of job
promotion and a raise in salary. Will you just express your joy directly or
switch the expression of happiness to anger and sadness in front of your
Especially, we were more interested in comparing the cost of switching
from anger to happiness with that of switching from happiness to anger,
both including the inhibition cost and reprogramming cost.
Concerning the finding that the inhibition cost of angry expression was
greater relative to the happy expression during the switching phase, it can
be interpreted in the perspective of evolutionary psychology to some
extent, which claims that negative emotions were more critical to survival
than positive emotions.
Introverts also have a bad reputation, at least in the modern western world, and
Cain argues that in such domains as business, school, and even
religion, extroversion is idealized.
When positive psychologists focus on positive emotions, we privilege activated
feelings like happiness and shoulder aside more quiet feelings like contentment.
When positive psychologists — like me in particular — proclaim that “other
people matter,” it is easy to hear this slogan as implying that the most
meaningful life is one abuzz nonstop with lots of other folks.
When positive psychologists discuss achievement, we point to the role played by
teams and workgroups, never mind the fact that many accomplishments result
from long hours of solitary work.
My apologies to all who invite me, but I dislike
positive psychology conferences, at least after the
first day, because they are attended by people who
seem extremely extroverted: happy and humorous,
boisterous and bouncy, hugging strangers and
hollering out to any and all.
So, the character strength of curiosity can be
shown in a loudly inquisitive way (“I am always
asking other people questions”) or in a quietly
observant way (“I am always sitting on the
sidelines and paying attention to what is
Dua kualitas yang
Berpikir kritis vs.
Patuhi aturan vs.
Dua kualitas yang
Berpikir kritis vs.
Patuhi aturan vs.
Critical thinking is one of the supposed pillars of higher education, lauded in
commencement addresses and celebrated on institutional websites. The great crises of
our day – climate change, political corruption, economic injustice and corporate
surveillance – demand problem-solvers who can apply their critical minds to complex
situations, we are told. Critical thinking skills are necessary not only for students’
personal growth but for the survival of democracy and even civilisation itself.
But I’m not sure that critical thinking is as valuable as we say it is, or that it achieves
what we think it achieves.
But if critical thinking can be learned through any sort of complex problem solving,
couldn’t people acquire it in the workplace? Or even just by solving puzzles or playing
video games? Do we even need the traditional university? If critical thinking is merely a
kind of technical cleverness, a sort of all-purpose, baseline rationality, then maybe we
don’t need campuses or professors to disseminate it.
This, in fact, is why it is important to resist
government and industry fixations on job skills:
because we can’t replace the study of ethics with the
study of computers and expect graduates to have
somehow learned ethics anyway. There is no
substitute for studying these subjects.
Unsur Kelas Positif
Hubungan berbasis aset positif terlihat di antara semua di kelas.
Siswa memiliki suara dan pilihan dalam hal-hal yang berkaitan
Pelajaran dibuat relevan dengan menghubungkan kurikulum dengan
Lingkungan fisik kelas merespons preferensi belajar siswa.
Rutinitas dan praktik memiliki ritme yang dapat diprediksi.
Psikologi Positif: Dari Ketidakberdayaan yang dipelajari menuju
Optimisme yang dipelajari
When encountering students who refuse to try, avoid the work, put in little to no effort, or have
general negative attitudes about learning, it is important for us to consider whether learned
helplessness is at play. Intervening when learned helplessness behaviors are exhibited can alter how
students understand their successes and failures. When teachers employ strategies such as using
specific praises, providing feedback on effort, and noting where action resulted in success, students
may become more willing to set achievable goals. https://www.myips.org/blog/district/dont-ignore-learned-helplessness-in-students/
1. Suka lupa tugas dan tanggung jawab karena over enjoy dan guru lalai.
2. Sulit dinasehati, kebal-bebal karena efek stres yang bertubi-tubi baik dari sekolah, keluarga dan
3. Bandel/tak patuh/suka melawan karena salah didik-asuh baik dari keluarga ataupun sekolah.
4. Tak peduli kesulitan guru karena mereka dicueki, tidak dipedulikan keluarga dan sekolah.
5. Mudah bete-stres karena bekal akal mental yang lemah/lelah.
Traditionally, the role of psychological services in schools
has been a remedial one.
Although established educational goals like literacy
continue to be important, students’ well-being and their
ability to deal with life are being increasingly regarded as
goals of education.
Clearly, one cannot simply generalise the findings of these
studies across diverse cultures and locations. There is a
need for research to not only evaluate cultural adaptations
of existing interventions but also assess indigenous
Notably, existing literature suggests that nurturing the positive does not
essentially diminish the negative.
You at your best (YB) and Three good things (TGT) appeared to be largely
ineffective in boosting well-being or alleviating depressive symptoms among the
As regards YB, the present findings concur with Seligman et al.’s (2005, p. 419)
observation, ‘‘this exercise is not an effective intervention, at least not in
GV involved the act of acknowledging a benefactor and then expressing
gratitude in person. Further, both signature strengths-based activities were
anchored on the feedback (essentially positive) that each participant received
on completion of the VIA Inventory of Strengths for Youth.
In principle, these exercises were different from Three good things and You at
your best which essentially revolved around self-reflection over positive
personal experiences and then writing about them.
The Indian school education system is characterised by
tremendous focus on written work as part of classroom as well
as home assignments.
Consequently, students may associate any form of written
exercise (e.g. Three good things, You at your best, recalling early
memories) as an onerous task and not something pleasurable.
This proposition is corroborated by student narratives reflecting
their dislike for writing/journaling and their appreciation for
interactive activities during this research project
This happiness is achieved as a product of education through occupations,
rather than via the explicitly individual pursuit of positive emotions that
reinforces an individualistic conception of self.
This is perhaps closer to the Aristotelian concept of happiness often cited by
positive psychologists and serves to address concerns about some PPIs that may
promote ‘harmful experiential attachment’ or unhealthy fixations with positive
states (Ciarrochi et al., 2016, p. 5).
Dewey (1915) admitted that ‘the difference that appears when occupations are
made the articulating centers of school life is not easy to describe in words; it is
a difference in motive, of spirit and atmosphere’ (p. 12).
As acknowledged by Biswas-Diener (2011), a more collective vision, a shift
towards ‘group level flourishing’ (p. vi), is needed.
Apa yang Anda
inginkan bagi anak
atau siswa Anda?
Apa yang sekolah
ajarkan & hargai?
Culture and religion significantly affect how
happiness is understood, pursued, and desired, with
studies revealing negative perceptions of happiness.
Indeed, fear of happiness and a belief in its fragility
exist across a range of cultures.
Accordingly, more investigation is required to
◦whether the fear and fragility of happiness can be
◦whether the use of PPIs in a predominantly non-Western
setting can achieve wellbeing gains over time, and
◦whether levels of religiosity are impacted by education
about, and use of, PPIs.
Although some cultural and religious beliefs frame
happiness in a negative light, our findings suggest
that receiving instruction in the science of wellbeing
and experiencing its effects can reduce attitudes of
fear and fragility of happiness, without diminishing
levels of religiosity.
Random acts of kindness. The concept of random acts of kindness (Jones,
1998) is well-known. Such acts involve people in doing usually very brief,
unplanned actions to help others, often unknown others. The 6-min video “Kindness
Boomerang” (LifeVestInside, 2011) illustrates such acts, and even though many of
the acts in the video seem a bit unrealistic, the video has attracted over 30 million
views, perhaps attesting to the power of the positive. A true story about this power
(Seligman, 2011) comes from the boyhood of one of Seligman’s (2011) colleagues
whose mother, whenever the boy felt sad, would urge him to go and help someone
else. This act of doing a good deed always seemed to be the antidote for the boy’s
Making the best of least favorite classes and students. Sometimes, teachers
do not click with a particular class, or perhaps the classmates seem to have little
chemistry with each other. Ideas for staying positive in such situations include: (a)
appreciate that teachers who foster change, i.e., go against what students might want,
are doing a service to the entire school; (b) be a positivity detective by looking for
the good in these students, e.g., maybe ideas from Multiple Intelligences (Chap. 7)
will spark change; and (c) while wearing the detective hat, also try to understand
why these students are difficult, as such understanding can offer a path to reaching
Teachers inspire others by walking the talk about emphasizing the
positive, just as teachers who talk about protecting the environment
should walk the talk by taking public transport, using reusables for
drinking and eating, and moving toward a plant-based diet
Teachers can look for opportunities for students to experience the
first letter in PERMA, P for positive emotions. For example, word
problems in mathematics can demonstrate the benefits of
cooperation, and even when dealing with sad topics, such as disease,
silver linings can be included, such as families growing closer as they
come together in aid of a critically ill family member.
“Play to success” was the slogan used by one of our supervisors in our early days
in teaching. This slogan is very much like Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
(Kim, Magdelena, Tara, Maris, & Melissa, n.d.; Vygotsky, 1978).
In other words, tasks should be neither too easy nor too difficult. In order for students to
feel a sense of accomplishment (the fifth PERMA element), students need some
degree of challenge, and in order for students to succeed at this challenge they
need support from peers and teachers,
DISAMPAIKAN KEPADA FAKULTAS
PSIKOLOGI, UNIVERSITAS KRISTEN
MARANATHA, BANDUNG, JAWA
Dr. Juneman Abraham, S.Psi.