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Pendidikan positif (Intervensi Psikologi Positif dalam Pendidikan)

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Sejak menjadi anggota Asosiasi Psikologi Positif Indonesia (AP2I), saya lebih mendalami lagi studi-studi dan praktik-praktik psikologi positif dalam berbagai bidang dan setting, baik klinis, sosial, pendidikan, maupun industri & organisasi. Salindia (slide) ini merupakan sebagian presentasi saya di Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Kristen Maranatha, Bandung, Jawa Barat. Sebelumnya, saya telah menulis mengenai Aplikasi Psikologi Positif Dalam Dunia Bisnis, serta memberikan paparan tentang positive education kepada guru-guru di wilayah Banten, Jawa Barat. Salindia ini diperbarui terus-menerus seiring perkembangan sains dan terapan psikologi positif terkhusus kontekstualisasinya di Indonesia. (Dr. Juneman Abraham, S.Psi.)

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Pendidikan positif (Intervensi Psikologi Positif dalam Pendidikan)

  1. 1. Pendidikan Positif disampaikandi Universitas Kristen Maranatha, Bandung, 15 November 2019 DR. JUNEMAN ABRAHAM JUNEMAN@BINUS.AC.ID ANGGOTA ASOSIASI PSIKOLOGI POSITIF INDONESIA
  2. 2. Psikologi Positif Psikologi positif merupakan istilah yang memayungi studi- studi terhadap emosi-emosi positif, sifat-sifat dasar positif, dan pemberdayaan institusi/komunitas. Seligman, Steen, Park, dan Peterson (2005)
  3. 3. Emosi Positif: joy (bersukacita), gratitude (berterima kasih/bersyukur), serenity (tenang), interest (berminat), hope (berpengharapan), pride (bangga), amusement (terhibur), inspiration (terinspirasi), awe (kagum), love (cinta), dan sebagainya. Karakter positif: berintegritas, jujur, setia, hormat, bertanggungjawab, adil, rendah hati, bersimpati, pemaaf, otentik. Lembaga yang Tidak berdaya: anomik, mudah diatur dengan suap, lembaga yang tidak mampu mengemansipasikan siswa
  4. 4. Imagine that when you have dinner with a friend who has been bullied by his or her colleague, you get a call from your boss informing you of job promotion and a raise in salary. Will you just express your joy directly or switch the expression of happiness to anger and sadness in front of your friend? Especially, we were more interested in comparing the cost of switching from anger to happiness with that of switching from happiness to anger, both including the inhibition cost and reprogramming cost. Concerning the finding that the inhibition cost of angry expression was greater relative to the happy expression during the switching phase, it can be interpreted in the perspective of evolutionary psychology to some extent, which claims that negative emotions were more critical to survival than positive emotions.
  5. 5. Introverts also have a bad reputation, at least in the modern western world, and Cain argues that in such domains as business, school, and even religion, extroversion is idealized. When positive psychologists focus on positive emotions, we privilege activated feelings like happiness and shoulder aside more quiet feelings like contentment. When positive psychologists — like me in particular — proclaim that “other people matter,” it is easy to hear this slogan as implying that the most meaningful life is one abuzz nonstop with lots of other folks. When positive psychologists discuss achievement, we point to the role played by teams and workgroups, never mind the fact that many accomplishments result from long hours of solitary work. https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/the-good- life/201205/quiet-positive-psychology
  6. 6. / My apologies to all who invite me, but I dislike positive psychology conferences, at least after the first day, because they are attended by people who seem extremely extroverted: happy and humorous, boisterous and bouncy, hugging strangers and hollering out to any and all. So, the character strength of curiosity can be shown in a loudly inquisitive way (“I am always asking other people questions”) or in a quietly observant way (“I am always sitting on the sidelines and paying attention to what is happening”).
  7. 7. Menulis Blog https://www.redandyellow.co.za/content/uploads/2018/03/fixed-growth-mindset.png
  8. 8. Dua kualitas yang umumnya diajarkan di sekolah Berpikir kritis vs. ……………….. Patuhi aturan vs. ………………
  9. 9. Dua kualitas yang umumnya diajarkan di sekolah Berpikir kritis vs. Pengambilan Perspektif Patuhi aturan vs. Kesempatan Belajar
  10. 10. Critical thinking is one of the supposed pillars of higher education, lauded in commencement addresses and celebrated on institutional websites. The great crises of our day – climate change, political corruption, economic injustice and corporate surveillance – demand problem-solvers who can apply their critical minds to complex situations, we are told. Critical thinking skills are necessary not only for students’ personal growth but for the survival of democracy and even civilisation itself. But I’m not sure that critical thinking is as valuable as we say it is, or that it achieves what we think it achieves. But if critical thinking can be learned through any sort of complex problem solving, couldn’t people acquire it in the workplace? Or even just by solving puzzles or playing video games? Do we even need the traditional university? If critical thinking is merely a kind of technical cleverness, a sort of all-purpose, baseline rationality, then maybe we don’t need campuses or professors to disseminate it. This, in fact, is why it is important to resist government and industry fixations on job skills: because we can’t replace the study of ethics with the study of computers and expect graduates to have somehow learned ethics anyway. There is no substitute for studying these subjects.
  11. 11. Unsur Kelas Positif Hubungan berbasis aset positif terlihat di antara semua di kelas. Siswa memiliki suara dan pilihan dalam hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan mereka. Pelajaran dibuat relevan dengan menghubungkan kurikulum dengan kehidupan siswa. Lingkungan fisik kelas merespons preferensi belajar siswa. Rutinitas dan praktik memiliki ritme yang dapat diprediksi. http://inservice.ascd.org/five-elements-of-a-positive- classroom-environment-for-students-living-with-adversity/
  12. 12. Binus.ac.id
  13. 13. Psikologi Positif: Dari Ketidakberdayaan yang dipelajari menuju Optimisme yang dipelajari https://s3.amazonaws.com/kajabi-storefronts- production/blogs/8482/images/BX5Wwjp3Q0Cbv8l4NFv1_B log_1_Helplessness_to_Optimism.png
  14. 14. When encountering students who refuse to try, avoid the work, put in little to no effort, or have general negative attitudes about learning, it is important for us to consider whether learned helplessness is at play. Intervening when learned helplessness behaviors are exhibited can alter how students understand their successes and failures. When teachers employ strategies such as using specific praises, providing feedback on effort, and noting where action resulted in success, students may become more willing to set achievable goals. https://www.myips.org/blog/district/dont-ignore-learned-helplessness-in-students/
  15. 15. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17439760.2019.1639799
  16. 16. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17439760.2019.1639799
  17. 17. Pemahaman Umum
  18. 18. Ekosistem 1. Suka lupa tugas dan tanggung jawab karena over enjoy dan guru lalai. 2. Sulit dinasehati, kebal-bebal karena efek stres yang bertubi-tubi baik dari sekolah, keluarga dan lingkungan bermain. 3. Bandel/tak patuh/suka melawan karena salah didik-asuh baik dari keluarga ataupun sekolah. 4. Tak peduli kesulitan guru karena mereka dicueki, tidak dipedulikan keluarga dan sekolah. 5. Mudah bete-stres karena bekal akal mental yang lemah/lelah.
  19. 19. Traditionally, the role of psychological services in schools has been a remedial one. Although established educational goals like literacy continue to be important, students’ well-being and their ability to deal with life are being increasingly regarded as goals of education. Clearly, one cannot simply generalise the findings of these studies across diverse cultures and locations. There is a need for research to not only evaluate cultural adaptations of existing interventions but also assess indigenous interventions https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12646-019-00477-3
  20. 20. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12646-019-00477-3
  21. 21. Christina Flanders, PsyD, NCSP Tari Selig, MEd, CAGS
  22. 22. https://www.viacharacter.org/topics/articles/what-are-your-signature-strengths
  23. 23. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12646-019-00477-3
  24. 24. Notably, existing literature suggests that nurturing the positive does not essentially diminish the negative. You at your best (YB) and Three good things (TGT) appeared to be largely ineffective in boosting well-being or alleviating depressive symptoms among the participants. As regards YB, the present findings concur with Seligman et al.’s (2005, p. 419) observation, ‘‘this exercise is not an effective intervention, at least not in isolation’’. GV involved the act of acknowledging a benefactor and then expressing gratitude in person. Further, both signature strengths-based activities were anchored on the feedback (essentially positive) that each participant received on completion of the VIA Inventory of Strengths for Youth. In principle, these exercises were different from Three good things and You at your best which essentially revolved around self-reflection over positive personal experiences and then writing about them. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12646-019-00477-3
  25. 25. The Indian school education system is characterised by tremendous focus on written work as part of classroom as well as home assignments. Consequently, students may associate any form of written exercise (e.g. Three good things, You at your best, recalling early memories) as an onerous task and not something pleasurable. This proposition is corroborated by student narratives reflecting their dislike for writing/journaling and their appreciation for interactive activities during this research project
  26. 26. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03054985.2019.1625761
  27. 27. https://www.slideshare.net/MASwellness/science-of- happiness-slides
  28. 28. While the pursuit of individual happiness may contribute to community flourishing, it also may not. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03054985.2019.1625761
  29. 29. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03054985.2019.1625761
  30. 30. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03054985.2019.1625761
  31. 31. This happiness is achieved as a product of education through occupations, rather than via the explicitly individual pursuit of positive emotions that reinforces an individualistic conception of self. This is perhaps closer to the Aristotelian concept of happiness often cited by positive psychologists and serves to address concerns about some PPIs that may promote ‘harmful experiential attachment’ or unhealthy fixations with positive states (Ciarrochi et al., 2016, p. 5). Dewey (1915) admitted that ‘the difference that appears when occupations are made the articulating centers of school life is not easy to describe in words; it is a difference in motive, of spirit and atmosphere’ (p. 12). As acknowledged by Biswas-Diener (2011), a more collective vision, a shift towards ‘group level flourishing’ (p. vi), is needed.
  32. 32. Dua Pertanyaan Apa yang Anda inginkan bagi anak atau siswa Anda? Apa yang sekolah ajarkan & hargai?
  33. 33. PEACE (Preparation, Education, Action, Coping and Evaluation)
  34. 34. Culture and religion significantly affect how happiness is understood, pursued, and desired, with studies revealing negative perceptions of happiness. Indeed, fear of happiness and a belief in its fragility exist across a range of cultures. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-018-9993-z
  35. 35. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-018-9993-z
  36. 36. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-018-9993-z
  37. 37. Accordingly, more investigation is required to determine ◦whether the fear and fragility of happiness can be manipulated, ◦whether the use of PPIs in a predominantly non-Western setting can achieve wellbeing gains over time, and ◦whether levels of religiosity are impacted by education about, and use of, PPIs. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-018-9993-z
  38. 38. Although some cultural and religious beliefs frame happiness in a negative light, our findings suggest that receiving instruction in the science of wellbeing and experiencing its effects can reduce attitudes of fear and fragility of happiness, without diminishing levels of religiosity.
  39. 39. https://www.slideshare.net/MASwellness/science-of-happiness-slides
  40. 40. http://www.genevawritersgroup.org/Members-News/7554414
  41. 41. http://www.genevawritersgroup.org/Members-News/7554414
  42. 42. http://www.genevawritersgroup.org/Members-News/7554414
  43. 43. Random acts of kindness. The concept of random acts of kindness (Jones, 1998) is well-known. Such acts involve people in doing usually very brief, unplanned actions to help others, often unknown others. The 6-min video “Kindness Boomerang” (LifeVestInside, 2011) illustrates such acts, and even though many of the acts in the video seem a bit unrealistic, the video has attracted over 30 million views, perhaps attesting to the power of the positive. A true story about this power (Seligman, 2011) comes from the boyhood of one of Seligman’s (2011) colleagues whose mother, whenever the boy felt sad, would urge him to go and help someone else. This act of doing a good deed always seemed to be the antidote for the boy’s unhappiness. http://www.genevawritersgroup.org/Members-News/7554414
  44. 44. Making the best of least favorite classes and students. Sometimes, teachers do not click with a particular class, or perhaps the classmates seem to have little chemistry with each other. Ideas for staying positive in such situations include: (a) appreciate that teachers who foster change, i.e., go against what students might want, are doing a service to the entire school; (b) be a positivity detective by looking for the good in these students, e.g., maybe ideas from Multiple Intelligences (Chap. 7) will spark change; and (c) while wearing the detective hat, also try to understand why these students are difficult, as such understanding can offer a path to reaching them. http://www.genevawritersgroup.org/Members-News/7554414
  45. 45. Teachers inspire others by walking the talk about emphasizing the positive, just as teachers who talk about protecting the environment should walk the talk by taking public transport, using reusables for drinking and eating, and moving toward a plant-based diet Teachers can look for opportunities for students to experience the first letter in PERMA, P for positive emotions. For example, word problems in mathematics can demonstrate the benefits of cooperation, and even when dealing with sad topics, such as disease, silver linings can be included, such as families growing closer as they come together in aid of a critically ill family member. http://www.genevawritersgroup.org/Members-News/7554414
  46. 46. “Play to success” was the slogan used by one of our supervisors in our early days in teaching. This slogan is very much like Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (Kim, Magdelena, Tara, Maris, & Melissa, n.d.; Vygotsky, 1978). In other words, tasks should be neither too easy nor too difficult. In order for students to feel a sense of accomplishment (the fifth PERMA element), students need some degree of challenge, and in order for students to succeed at this challenge they need support from peers and teachers,
  47. 47. Sejumlah Rekomendasi DISAMPAIKAN KEPADA FAKULTAS PSIKOLOGI, UNIVERSITAS KRISTEN MARANATHA, BANDUNG, JAWA BARAT.
  48. 48. Terima kasih Dr. Juneman Abraham, S.Psi. http://about.me/juneman

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