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  1. 1. The Renaissance Period
  2. 2. Dark Ages/Medieval times 400- 1200 AD • Not much recorded history. • Growth of mankind limited as people were bound physically and mentally by their “place” in society. • The church had become as powerful or more powerful than the king and Government.
  3. 3. Feudal System A Political, Economic, and Military system where people were bound to the land they were born, and others exchanged their services to protect and serve the king. King and Queen Great Lords Ladies KnightsServants Peasants serfs
  4. 4. Feudal System
  5. 5. The Middle Ages as a historical period, has clearly defined dates agreed on by historians BEGAN in 476 (fall of the Roman empire in the West) and ended on 1492 (discovery of the New World by Columbus). The renaissance and Enlightenment were intellectual and cultural movements in the Arts and Sciences, and may NOT be historical periods, so there are no universally agreed on dates for their beginning and end among historians. Renaissance BEGAN as 1291 (first known works by Giotto); military historians would put the start date much later,1453 and the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks, and the ENDED with the Hundred Years War between England and France, the publication of 'Discourse on the Method' (1637) by Descartes, or his 'Meditations on First Philosophy' (1641) or in 1688 with the Glorious Revolution in England. The same is true of the Enlightenment BEGAN with either of the 2 works by Descartes mentioned above, some as the Restoration in England (1660) or the Glorious Revolution. Some see the Enlightenment as lasting from 1700 - 1800, 1715 - 1789, 1715 - 1815, or combinations of any of these. Middle Ages is 476 - 1492. Renaissance any of the years 1291- 1641 Enlightenment 1688 - 1789
  6. 6. “Out of the Dark Ages” Renaissance --> Enlightenment • Also known as the age of Exploration and the advancements in the Arts. • Paved the way for the Scientific Revolution 1500-1600. Discoveries/inventions (compass, clock, blood pressure, microscope, heliocentric theory, etc..)
  7. 7. Renaissance (1300- 1500 AD) • Renaissance “ rebirth” facilitated by the invention of the printing press. • Okay for people to think again, use reason to figure things out. • 1520 AD, Martin Luther’s break from the Catholic Church and the medieval dogma, --> 95 theses --> Protestant Reformation
  8. 8. Basic Definition Renaissance: movements following the Middle ages that centered on revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome. The word Renaissance comes from the Latin Word renasci, meaning “to be born again.”
  9. 9. The Beginning • The Renaissance began in Italian cities because of their access to trade routes. • Trade brought wealth to Italy
  10. 10. The Renaissance was a time where… • Classical Greco-Roman ideas were revived –These ideas were preserved through the middle ages by the Byzantine Empire.
  11. 11. The Renaissance I. A Cultural Explosion in Europe • Started in the 1400s A.D. • Europeans became wealthier, mainly through increased trade • This gave them the ability to spend money on culture: art, architecture, books, drama, science, exploration, etc. • Europeans increasingly felt that they might be able to rebuild advanced civilizations to match those of the ancient Greeks and Romans (re – birth)!
  12. 12. II. Age of Exploration When the world became interconnected and interdependent
  13. 13. The New Daring of European Renaissance Thinkers Led to Amazing Accomplishments • Most notably, it led to the discovery of both a ‘New World’ and a set of scientific laws explaining the physical world • Think about the importance of each: – Europeans discovered two whole continents not even known by their Greek and Roman idols – the size of the world was suddenly twice as large – The careful use of a scientific method of thinking based on reason led scientists to ‘rewrite’ the structure of the universe, solving lots of mysteries that had always puzzled humanity • Humans now had a nearly perfect understanding of all motion on earth and in the heavens • Clearly, humans were opening a new era of limitless possibilities
  14. 14. Pre-Renaissance Post-Renaissance
  15. 15. III. Humanism An age of reborn interest in the arts, education, and the classical culture of ancient Greece and Rome.
  16. 16. • Wealthy Patrons supported the arts and education • Humanism spread throughout Western Europe.
  17. 17. IV. Printing Press- invented in 1448 by Johann Gutenberg. • Arguably the greatest invention of all time. • First major text reproduced was the Holy Bible in 1456. • With more people reading the bible not dependent on priests interpretation. • Martin Luther questioned the authority of the Pope in 1520. • Started the Protestant Movement.
  18. 18. Printing Press
  19. 19. • Printing Press –Helped develop… •1. Increase in literacy rates •2. Secular (World) ideas spread •3. Books are circulated to public –Ex. Shakespeare’s sonnets
  20. 20. V. The Church Many of the new ideas and enlightened thinkers during the Renaissance period challenged the absolute authority of the Church.
  21. 21. Protestant Reformation • Martin Luther – A German Monk –Challenges the practices of the Roman Catholic Church –Wrote the 95 Theses to criticize indulgences. –Believed the Bible should be the authority of the church. –Believed people are right with God through faith – not works.
  22. 22. Protestant Ideas Spread • Martin Luther rejects the pope’s authority • As a result, Protestant sects spread throughout Europe • King Henry VIII of England breaks away from the Catholic Church
  23. 23. Response- The Roman Catholic Church threatened Luther to take back his ideas and criticism of the Church. The Church also challenged several other enlightened thinkers.
  24. 24. VI. Scientific Revolution: A period from the 1500’s and 1600’s where many scientific theories and discoveries were made.
  25. 25. Johannes Kepler: (1600) He proved mathematically that the planets rotate around the Sun and that Copernicus was right. Sun
  26. 26. Geocentric Theory: Middle Age theory that the sun rotated around the earth and was the center of the universe. Earth Sun
  27. 27. Copernicus: (1530) Polish churchman and astronomer who questioned that the earth was the center of the universe and came up with the heliocentric theory.
  28. 28. Heliocentric Theory: Theory that the earth rotates around the sun. Earth Sun
  29. 29. Isaac Newton: (1690) Discovered the laws of motion, gravity, inertia and invented calculus. He proposed that these were natural laws that existed everywhere.
  30. 30. Rene Descartes: Mathematics and logic was more important than just observation. Reason could prove scientific theories… “I think therefore I am”.
  31. 31. Galileo Galilei was threatened to be killed by the Church if he did not take back his discoveries. Age old beliefs, like the earth being the center of the universe, were proven wrong through inventions like the telescope.
  32. 32. Galileo Galilei: (1630) Saw the moons around Jupiter and supported the Heliocentric theory. He published his findings but was persecuted by the Church and recanted.
  33. 33. Roman Inquisition pressuring Galileo
  34. 34. THE PROBLEM? For Many Europeans Impressed by their Accomplishments, European Social Systems Seemed Antiquated (old or out-dated) • These thinkers wanted to find ‘a Newton for the social sciences’ – In other words, a thinker who might unlock the secret natural laws of harmonious government • This movement was known as the Enlightenment
  35. 35. THE ENLIGHTENMENT The age of reason, where people began to apply scientific laws and reason to human behavior, government, society, economics, and religion.
  36. 36. Basic Characteristics The power of human reason Self-confidence and Individuality
  37. 37. The cultural effect of the Enlightenment • Spreading knowledge and free public discussion to everyone!!! • Wrote for a larger audience, because of the expansion of literacy  Printing Press • Created a public debate of issues
  38. 38. • Encyclopedia published (mid 1700’s) that challenged the church, government, torture , taxes and war. • “Enlightened Despotism” an educated Monarchy that governed by the principles of the enlightenment. (Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Locke) • Apply reason to explain Human Nature and Politics --> Philosophes (thinkers)
  39. 39. Time of intellectual debate and growth Increased study of individual rights (all should have individual rights) These Ideas inspired the American & French Revolution
  40. 40. VII. European Governments at the Time of the Enlightenment Were Primarily Absolute Monarchies • The power of these gov’s came from Divine Right • This often seemed random or absurd to thinkers familiar with the accomplishments of human reason in other fields • Examples – In England, over the space of two hundred years, kings were Catholic, then one became a Protestant, then his heir became Catholic, then Protestant again, then Catholic, then the people killed the king because they didn’t like him and their was a period of military rule, then another king took power who was Protestant, then a Catholic took over, and then people got rid of their king again (without killing him, this time) and got a Protestant again. • So, could God not make up his mind about what religion he wanted England to be? Doesn’t this seem like an absurd way to run society, especially a society that can cross the oceans and describe the cosmos? • Yes.
  41. 41. A Political Change in England The Magna Carta was signed by King John This document limited the powers of the King (Monarch) The Magna Carta would later be used to guarantee rights to all people.
  42. 42. English Parliament The Parliament was made up government officials who represented the people. The Parliament would later help balance the power of the King
  43. 43. Petition of Right in 1628 King had to follow same laws as citizens Can only be taxed with representation Can only be put in prison with a lawful reason
  44. 44. English Bill of Rights Stated the king would share power with Parliament Stated the rights granted to all citizens
  45. 45. Revolution A quick turn around or change in a government system or organization. American & French Revolutions inspired others to seek independence
  46. 46. Thomas Hobbes: (English) He believed war was unnecessary if you had a strong leader who had total power to keep law and order or a social contract. “People were wicked”
  47. 47. John Locke: (English) All people have “natural rights” of life, liberty and property. Government was to protect these, if it didn’t overthrow it.
  48. 48. John Locke Wrote Two Treatises of government Believed governments should protect the natural rights of life, liberty, & Property Government based on consent of people
  49. 49. Voltaire: French writer who used humor to target the clergy and government. He supported tolerance and free speech.
  50. 50. Montesquieu: French lawyer who fought for the separation of powers in government-- executive, legislative and judicial.
  51. 51. Montesquieu • Wrote the Spirit of the Laws • Believed government should have a separation of powers • Government should have checks and balances
  52. 52. Rousseau: Believed man was born good and society (gov. & religion) corrupted him. The “Noble Savage” or man in nature was perfect.
  53. 53. Rousseau • Wrote The Social Contract • Believed the government shouldn’t violate individuals’ rights by law.
  54. 54. Diderot: Published volumes of writings he called “Encyclopedia”. It was very similar to our modern encyclopedias.
  55. 55. Thomas Jefferson 1743-1826• 1776 –Thomas Jefferson Drafts The Declaration of Independence • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. • Later became the 3rd President of the United States
  56. 56. James Madison 1751-1836 • Person most accredited for the actual writing of the US Constitution The power of the government must come from the people. • 4th President of US
  57. 57. Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) • South America's greatest generals. • His victories over the Spaniards won independence for Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. • “The Liberator”
  58. 58. Enlightenment Products • Steps toward building the democracies that exist today. Basic rights for man. • Set up the Revolutionary period: Glorious Revolution 1688 American Revolution 1776 French Revolution 1789 Can people be trusted to govern themselves? What is the role of government?