1. Discuss the painting of Carlos “Botong” Francisco in 1962 commissioned by UNILAB Founder Jose Campos
Discuss the indigenisation movementThat Bayanihan is not only centered in the Tagalog speaking nation
1. ThatBayanihan is an old word
The three root words of the Bayanihan: Usually made during harvest time
The first thing to be said about values is that they are objects of our intentional feeling. Intentional feeling is different from the sensory feelings of the five senses, from bodily vital feeling (tiredness, illness, health) and from psychic feeling (sorrow, joy). By their very nature, intentional feelings are feeling of something, they are oriented towards values. Spiritual feelings such as bliss and despair are essentially intentional being directed towards the value of the holy, but other feelings like preferring, love and hatred are likewise oriented towards values. Values are given to us in intentional feeling. We “know” values by feeling them, they do not wait for our rational justification in order to appear in our lives. Ateneo’s value of service, of being a person for others.
Our life attains a quality because values constantly present themselves to us, and intervene in our life as instigators of action, as a prospect for commitment, as a reason and standard for behavior and expression, norms and principles of conduct, and as criteria for aesthetic appreciation and economic utility. Values are essentially qualities but they should not be mistaken for goods, though goods are carriers or bearers of values. It is also important to stress here the immutability of values, for values especially higher values, call upon the person and when the person fails to respond to a value, it is not the value that is destroyed but the person himself. Like, justice as a value, calls on the person to be just, and if he does not respond to this call by being just, it is not the value of justice that is destroyed but the person himself. A value gives itself in an object to be desired, but once the goal is attained, it affirms itself in the form of another demand. It is in this sense that we can speak of the universality of values – they exercise an influence on the totality and unity of our life.More especially, values generate an ought-to-be and an ought-to-do. For instance, because justice is a value, justice ought to exist and I ought to be just. Values, in other words, ground our obligations, beliefs, ideals and attitudes, without being identical with them.
How then do we experience values? The key to this question is to be found in the notion of the human being as a person, for in the real sense only man and woman can experience values. A person is the seat of the spirit, and sprit transcneds nature. As spirit, the person is not part of nature but apart from it.Through Freedom, which is inherent in a person, the person is the unity of diverse act, past, present and future, and as such there is what we called opennes to reality. With this man is a being in dialogue with the world. The being of responsibility, and freedom is the precondition for the person’s response to the other, whether another human, nature, thing, event or God. Unlike the animal which a biological need compels with the force of a natural phyiscal law to satisfy need necessities, values call for a free response from the person. There is no experience of value if value is not recognized as such, consented to and willed by the human being. Values appear in the human being’s engagment with the world, in his openness to reality. The experience of value is at once the experience of person. Values then are not created but discovered by the person in his involvement with the world. The person is the unity of diverse acts, but among these diverse acts, there are three that characterize the person uniquely: Loving and hating are the fundamental primordial acts of the person to which all our other acts are reducible to them. In this sense, a person is what he is by what he loves and hates. Both love and hatred are movements of the heart oriented towards values. Love and hatred are similar in that as movements, they open up a hieracrchy of values.
Love directs us to higher values whereas hatred directs us to a lower ones. Pilipino word “mahal” also means “esteem” or “of high value”. At the lowest rank are sensory values (the values of the pleasant and the unpleasnt, technical values, and luxury values). Next in rank are the vital values of noble and vulgar, the values of civilization. Higher than vital and sensory values, both of which are related to the ego, are the spiritual values of justice/injustice, truth/falsehood, and the aesthetic values of beauty and ugliness. The highest values are the holy and unholy. Both spirtual and holy values refer to our being a person or spirit. Hatred is a disorder of the heart because it wrongly reverses the order of the rank of values. In determining what is morally good and evil, we have to determine the DEED. A deed is good if it prefers a higher value or positive value in place of a lower or negative one. On the other hand, a deed is evil if it prefers a lower or negative value in place of a higher or positive one. Without the deed and the person who performs it, no moral good or evil occurs. In this sense, moral values are personal values – they originate from persons. But to the extent that good is the realization of higher values, the spiritual and the holy which refer to our being persons, and to the extent that evil is the realization of lower values, the sensory and the vital which refer to our likeness to the animal, THEN GOOD enhances our PERSONHOOD while EVIL degrades our humanity. The moral acts of good and evil then are based on the person and not on any moral authority. Obligation, as we said earlier, is based on value and not the other way around. Values generate an ‘OGHT” through being MODELED IN A PERSON: without a person to model them there would be no norms or obligations. In the case of moral values, nothing can make a person good but the intuition of the example of a good person whose love, in turn, invites one to follow. Christ love to the sinner Mary Magdalen and thereby effecting her moral conversion. Modle persons are the primary vehicle of value transformation in our moral world.
Studies shows after re-examining Filipino values and identified difficulties faced, we have this what we called a sense of community and social responsibility. Psyhologitst, anthropologists, sociologsts and other scholars and researchers usually categorize the Filipino culture as collectivstic. Collectivistic cultures can be characterized as those groups of people who emphaise the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other, which are often typically expressed by a strong desire among such individuals to fit in, prioritize the group’s goals over one’s personal goals and maintain harmonious relationships with other people. In contrast with the western value which is an individulaistic cultures, tend to emphaiseindividulality that is often expressed by the desire to be unique, to stand out and to rise above the rest, as well as to pursue one’s personal goals and become “your own perosn”The true meaning of Kapwa is completely opposite of others because such term connotes a separation of one’s self from other people. In contrast, Kapwa more accurately translated as “both” or “fellow being” and refers to the unity or oneness of a person with other people. It is the recognition that one shares an identitu of shared inner self, with others and that one is not and should not be separated from others. Pakiramdam is another concept and value that in English can be most accurately translated to “feeling” or “intuition”. It refers to feeling the needs, desires, intentions, motivations, moods, emotions, or other internal characteristics and states of other people. PAKIRAMDAM has been defined as a shared inner perception that is driven by a heightened sense of awareness and sensitivity an ability to be highly symphethic or emphatic making filipinoswihpakiramdam exceptionally adept at accurately sensing subtle, non-verbal and invisible cues from other people.
Pakiramdam connects the core value of Kapwa to the surface values. Pakiramdam serves as the processor or the pivot that allows a person to express Kapwa and behave according to Kapwa. In other words, if one does not have the ability to feel for others and their internal states and characteristics, then it will be impossible for that person to also have and display shame, feel a sense of gratitude, or put other desires ahead of one’s own (pakikisama). The person may still have Kapwa but it is impossible to appropriately express and display Lapwa through the surface values without Pakiramdam. Masamangtao – not displaying the surface value – it is alright
Indeed a person who is considered to ave no Kapwa is the worst person in the Filipino worldview. Not having Kapwa is the worst a person can be because they have now lost their personhood or pagkatao,. Kapwa is the essence and the foundation of the Filipino value system, and that this core value determines the extent to which a person is a person – or a human. Therefore Kapwa is the most important value and concept that anyone with Filipino heritage must understand, have amd display, as it is the core of what makes a filipino a filipino and what makes a human a human in the filipino indigenous perspective. Without kapwa, one ceases to be a filipino….
While it may appear that responsibility sharing does not stand out as a dominant value in indigenous psychological research, responsibility – a cocern for the welfare of others – is actually embedded in pakikipagkapwa, which is integral to Philippine culture. In terms of circle of responsibility, the family takes centre stage in philippine society and close family ties remain a source of strength (germany). Responsibility in the philippine context implies accountability, duty, obligation and answerability in the discharge of this duty or trust. The tagalog words ….
1. How will an organization deveop and sustain a particular culture? It is generally accepted that culture is built over time and given various experiences of oganization members. Although culture may not necessarily be intentionally built, in the recent years organizations have sought to define their vision, mission and values. This suggests a purposive attempt to build a culture they believe is necessary for them to meet their vision and mission.
LESSON 3: FILIPINO VALUES: BAYANIHAN
SUSTAINING AND IMPROVING PERFORMANCE THROUGH BAYANIHAN
OUTLINEI. WHAT IS BAYANIHAN?II. IS BAYANIHAN A UNIVERSAL VALUE?
BAYANIHAN “Bayanihan is derived from the root word Bayani first appeared in 1745 in a manuscript titled “Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala” by P. Juan de Noceda and P. Pedro de Sanlucar which means Obra Comun or group work.” Magpabayani is another related word.
BAYANIHAN “Bayanihan is working together so that the community will reap and share in a bountiful harvests. Bayanihan is working together to achieve a common noble purpose and equitably sharing the fruits of labor.”
BAYANIHAN “Bayanihan embodies mutual assistance and self-help among equals or togetherness in a common effort” (Sylvia Guerrero). It is a different assistance for it connotes heroism (bayani) regardless of existing ‘social ranking and structures, leadership roles, and authority relationships.’” (Aguiling-Dalisay)
BAYANIHAN “The spirit that binds us together as one nation cannot be that of a class conflict, as Marxism would have it, or Adam Smith’s capitalist principle of laissez faire (each one for himself), but the power which has transported, even in pre-Hispanic times, one whole house on the shoulders of people committed to help a friend in need: the spirit of Bayanihan, the word expressive of our Solidarity – working together as one nation. Raul J. Bonoan, S. J.”
Understanding the Universality of Filipino Values• Values are objects to our intentional feelings as differentiated from our Sensory, Bodily-Vital Feeling Stakes and from Psychic Feelings.• Values are known by feeling them, they do not wait for our Rational Justification in order to appear in our lives.
Understanding the Universality of Filipino Values• Quality of Life is Attained because Values are – Instigators of our Actions – Prospect for Commitment – Reason and Standard for Behavior and Expression – Norms of Conduct – Criteria for Aesthetic Appreciation and Economic Utility• Values ground our Obligations, Beliefs, Ideals and Attitudes
Understanding the Universality of Filipino Values• How do we experience Values? HUMAN BEING AS A PERSON• Three Characteristics of a Person 1) The Act of Reflection 2) The Act of Abstraction 3) The Act of Loving• Most Important Trait: A person is being capable of Loving
Understanding the Universality of Filipino Values• Hierarchy of Values• A Deed is good if it prefers a higher value• Model Persons are the primary vehicle of value transformation in our moral world.
Understanding the Universality of Filipino Values• Filipino Indigenous Values a) Captive vs. Nationalist Consciousness b) The use of Ethno-linguistic and Psycho-Linguistics in the study of Filipino Value –Familial and Community Relationships and belief in God and the Spirit world –Filipino culture as Collectivistic
Understanding the Universality of Filipino Values• Core Filipino Values: KAPWA and PAKIRAMDAM – KAPWA : “is a recognition of shared identity, an inner self shared with others” – PAKIKIPAGKAPWA : “being one with another” – PAKIKIRAMDAM : “the pivotal value of the shared inner person, feeling for another, being aware, sensitive and attentive to the “subtle cues and non-verbal behaviors” of the other person.”
Understanding the Universality of Filipino Values• Core Filipino Values: KAPWA and PAKIRAMDAM –Surface Values (Collectivistic Tendencies and free standing concepts): HIYA, UTANG NA LOOB and PAKIKISAMA –Community Building: Bayanihan
Understanding the Universality of Filipino Values• Core Filipino Values: KAPWA and PAKIRAMDAM • Impossible to display Kapwa through the Surface Value without Pakiramdam • Without Kapwa, one ceases to be a Filipino. One also ceases to be Human.
Understanding the Universality of Filipino Values• Core Filipino Values: KAPWA and PAKIRAMDAM – Embedded in PAKIKIPAGKAPWA: Human Responsibility and Volunteerism DIALECT RESPONSIBILITY TAGALOG May pananagutan CEBUANO Matubag ILOKANO Sumungbat/akinrebbeng HILIGAYNON Ang manabat
Understanding the Universality of Filipino Values• Core Filipino Values: KAPWA and PAKIRAMDAM – Embedded in PAKIKIPAGKAPWA: Human Responsibility and Volunteerism CEBUANO VOLUNTEERISM TUNGOD Ownership PAHINUNGOD Offer, Volunteerism KATUNGOD Right KATUNGDANAN Duties TAGTUNGOD Owner HINUNGDAN Reason For TUNGDAN Must
• How are we going to sustain an Organizational Culture? – Development of an Organizational Culture – Importance of ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE for Good Relations, Good Services to the Customers and strengthen Customer Loyalty.• Building a BAYANIHAN Culture through the concept of CREATE
C. R. E. A. T. E.COMMUNICATE •Defining Bayanihan Culture •Disseminating information through various mediaROLE MODEL •Develops standards of Leadership •Telling organizational stories of Leaders •Advocacy of LeadersENGAGE •Co-Determination and Subsidiarity •Organizing socialization activities and eventsALIGN SYSTEMS •Realign Performance Management Selection. Rewards SystemsAND STRUCTURESTRAIN •Build employee competencies to perform desired behaviorsEVALUATE •Assess current-culture and culture building efforts
• CHALLENGES AND SUCCESSES – Expansion of the organization will develop misunderstanding over what Bayanihan means. – Bayanihan is traditionally: Non- confrontational, humane, and focused on smooth interpersonal relationship – Bayanihan Culture is prone to: Accommodation, Conflict Avoidance and generous and undeserved rewards just to keep the peace. – Influx of new talents carrying different cultures.
• POSSIBLE LEARNINGS 1. Organizational Culture of Bayanihan, which is a local culture, is easier than others to instill. 2. Building Bayanihan cannot happen overnight, mechanism shall be formulated to sustain its development 3. Requires Systems Approach: CREATE 4. Bayanihan may work to the advantage of the organization in the past and in the present, it can also be a hindrance to change needed in the future.