Imperialism: Japan and China MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES POWER and AUTHORITY Japan tries If it wasn’t for Japans attempt to try -Amau Declaration -Imperialism persuading China to become an and imperialize China, China - Anti Comitern Pact imperialized country. But due to wouldn’t be as successful as they are -Three All Campain their stubbornness, Japan had to now. - Hundred Regiments battle force China into imperializing. SETTING THE STAGE Industrialization stirred ambitions in many European and Asian nations. Industrialization brought in steam engine machines which require a huge amount of resources in order to produce them. This caused many countries to invade into other countries territory to obtain the natural resources needed. The process of capturing another country or territory by a stronger country is called imperialism. By the 1930’s imperialism has impacted many nations in Asia including Japan and China. Even though Japan was a small country, they were a strong nation with a strong and intelligent military, which made them capable of imperializing China with the idea of turning China into a better and stronger country. Imperializing China In the early 1900’s, before the domination of China, China was a peaceful country which only believed in their own government. They did not take in any ideas from the outside countries not even industrialization. Therefore China had a wide variety of natural resources that hasn’t been used. Due to their large number of natural resources, China was one of the countries the Europeans wanted to imperialize in order to gain control of their huge population and land mass. But the Japanese has already made their move into China to protect their fellow Asian country from being imperialized by the Europeans. Motivations for Japan There were many reasons as for why Japan wanted to conquer China. One of the reasons being that they wanted to stop the Europeans from imperializing China and making it their own country (Brooman, “China”). Even though Japan knew that Europe was a strong country with military advantages, they didn’t back down. The Japanese emperor decided that they were going to move forward and conquer China so that they would become a stronger country. Not only would this benefit China, by imperializing China it would also benefit the Japanese people because they now would have a larger territory and China could provide them with the natural1 Chapter 1
resources for their nation because Japan has become an industrialized country (Brooman, “China”). During that period of time, Japan was known to be a weak and small country. No one seemed to show any interest in their country so they wanted to increase on nationalism of their country to prove that even though they are a small country, they are still a strong and united country (Brooman, “China”). The Process of Imperializing During the process of imperializing China, the Japanese had to go through war against China because of China’s belief of only believing in their own ideas. In order to imperialize the country, Japan had to use force to enforce it on the Chinese people leading to unnecessary deaths during the process. During that process, Japan seized control of Manchuria because of its large land of 192,000 square kilometers. The territory is more than three times as large as our own empire, not counting Korea and Formosa, but it is inhabited by only one third as many people. The attractiveness of the land does not arise from the scarcity of the population alone; its wealth of forestry, minerals and agricultural products is also unrivalled elsewhere in the world.↓ The Japanese PRIMARY SOURCEpeople conquered “In order to exploit these resources…we created especially in South Manchuria Rail Waythe northern Company. The investment involved in our undertaking in railways, shipping, mining,countries of China forestry, steel manufacture, agriculture, and in cattle raising… amount, to no less thanwas lacking the 440 million yen”. Prime Minister of Japan, Baron Tanaka (Brooman, “China”).guidance to makethe country better. In order for China to give up their authority to control their land, the Japanese had to capture many provinces and railways in order to get the advantage in the country. In July 1937, the Japanese had no choice but to launch attacks on the provinces of China, capturing their large occupied cities, important railways, airfields, ports and roads, and also the Nanjing capital , this was called the Nanjing incident (Brooman, “Roads”). While occupying North China, the Japanese government announced in the Amau Declaration of 1934 that Japan had special rights in China as well as GEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER: Interpreting maps ‘responsibility for maintaining peace 1. Location What was China’s Location relative to the in East Asia’. In other words, Japan nearest Japanese territory? would not allow other countries to 2. Region What other countries did Japan take control of? interfere in China and East Asia. Imperialism: Japan and China 2 (Brooman, “Roads”)
China Resistance The Chinese people disagrees with the way the Japanese people do things so they set up small forces called Imperialism in China, communist to regain control of their country. 1930-1945 The Communist at War Many resistance movements occurred during this time. But one of the most effective acts 1930 of the communist was one of their offensive plans the Japanese undertook in 1940 called the Hundred Regiments 1931 (Japan) Battle in which they attacked Japan’s railway Manchuria Incident communications through north China, paralyzing Japanese traffic to and from the south (Brooman, “China”). This put Japan at a huge disadvantage, not being able to communicate from one city to another was a huge problem. The one by one the communist took out small parts of the 1934 (Japan) Japanese army and managed to gain back their power. 1935 Amau Declaration MAIN IDEA Japan Regains Control A year after Japan was defeated byWhat strategy was the communist, Japan managed to get back on their feet andit that made China they thought of a plan that would outsmart the communist incapable of every way. This plan was called the Three All Campaign,recapturing China? which was a plan to help them recapture China. Even though China’s plan successfully accomplished what they aimed for, this greatly disappointed the Chinese local workers, farmers, and peasants. 1940 (China) Three All Campaign Fails The Three All Campaign achieved its 1940 Hundred goal but fails to satisfy the needs of the Chinese peasants Regiments causing them to hate the Japanese people even more. In Battle 1945, the Chinese peasant agreed on helping the communist 1941 (Japan) attack the Japanese military and is willing to support them Three All Campaign more than ever before. In July 1945, as the Japanese withdrew from southern China back into Manchuria, which enabled the communist to advance into the areas that the 1945 (China) Japanese people had left. By the end of World War II, Japan Japan withdrew 1945 had left China, but not empty handed; they were smart from Southern enough to obtain Formosa (modern time called Taiwan) and China back into as a result of imperializing China became a more successful Manchuria country than ever. 3 Chapter 1
The Effects of Imperialism on Imperialism had a huge impact on the country of China leading to many effects causing a China change in China. It greatly impacted on many lives in the country of China and the nation. If it wasn’t for Japan’s attempt to imperialize China, China wouldn’t be as successful as it is now. But not only did it impact China, this also impacted Japan in many ways. MAIN IDEA Effects on China There were two types of Chinese people, the communist and the non- communist. The communist were the group of people who tried to fight against Japan, andWhat was the the non communist didn’t likegreatest effect of the communist so they didn’tthe two countries? follow their ways. But in order to stop Japan from imperializing the country, the two groups had to cooperate in order to stop the Japanese from colonizing their country (Brooman, “Roads”). China also lost many of their men from resisting imperialism by Japan. These deaths wouldn’t have occurred if China didn’t resist.( China and Japan Rival Giants) ↓The communist leaders who lead Effects on Japan The Japanese people were able to accomplish many of their goals, one being the Chinese people to improve on their nationalism. They were known as a small and weak country after the into war during the World War I. But now they have proved to the whole world that not only they are intelligent, Hundred they had the military power that enabled them to capture China and many other Asian Regiments Battle countries (Brooman, “Roads”). Even though Japan was thrown out of China, during the years they took over the country, they took over many provinces in China, which helped them adapt to their culture and give them ideas (Brooman, “Roads”). During the years they were in control, Japan managed to obtain enough natural resources for their industrialized equipment to support the nation. (Brooman, “Roads”) Imperialism: Japan and China 4
Work CitedBrooman, Josh. Roads to War. England: Longman Inc, 1989.Brooman, Josh. China since 1900. England: Longman Inc, 1988.Beck, Roger B. Modern World History patterns of interaction. Boston: Houghton – Mifflin, 2005.China and Japan Rival Giants BBC News. 15 Oct. 2009. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/ shared/spl/hi/asia_pac/05/china_japan/html/history.stm>.Defeat Japanese Imperialism 3 Aug. 2009. Fog Eye. 2 Nov. 2009. <http://fogeye.blogbus.com/logs/39064551.html>.Hundred Regiment Campaign. 15 Aug. 2005. 2 Nov. 2009. <http://english.people.com.cn/200508/ 15/eng20050815_202518.html>.