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CSC1100 - Chapter10 - Information System


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CSC1100 - Chapter10 - Information System

  1. 1. Discovering Computers 2008 Chapter 10 Information System Development 1
  2. 2. 2Chapter 12 Objectives List the phases in the system development cycle Describe the various tools used in object modeling Identify the guidelines for system development Explain the activities performed in the design phase Discuss the importance of project management,feasibility assessment, documentation, and data and information gathering techniques Recognize the develop programs activity is part of the system development cycle Explain the activities performed in the planning phase Discuss the activities performed in the implementation phase Discuss the purpose of the activities performed in the analysis phase Discuss the purpose of the activities performed in the operation, support, and security phaseDescribe the various tools used in process modeling
  3. 3. 3What is the System Development Cycle?What is an information system (IS)? Hardware, software, System—Set of data, people, and components that interact procedures that work to achieve common goal together to produce quality information Businesses use many types of systems
  4. 4. 4The System Development Life CycleWhat are the phases of the system development cycle? Phase 2. Analysis Conduct preliminary investigationPhase 1. Planning Perform detailed analysis activities: Phase 3. Design Review project Acquire hardware requests Study current system and software, if Prioritize project Determine user requirements necessary requests Recommend solution Develop details of Allocate resources system Form project development team Phase 4. Implementation Phase 5. Operating, Support, Develop programs, if and Security necessary Perform maintenance Install and test new system activities Train users Monitor system performance Convert to new system Assess system security
  5. 5. 5What is the System Development Cycle?What are guidelines for system development? Arrange tasks into phases (groups of activities) Involve users (anyone for whom system is being built) Develop clearly defined standards (procedures company expects employees to follow)
  6. 6. 6What is the System Development Cycle?Who participatesin the systemdevelopment lifecycle?
  7. 7. 7What is the System Development Cycle? Responsible for designing and developing information system SYSTEMS ANALYST SA is the contact between users and IT professionals
  8. 8. 8What is the System Development Cycle?What is the project team? Formed to work on project from beginning to end Consists of users, systems analyst, and other IT professionals Project leader —one member of the team who manages and controls project budget and schedule
  9. 9. 9What is the System Development Cycle?What is project management? Process of planning, scheduling, and controlling activities during system development cycle Project leader identifies elements for projectGoal, objectives, and expectations, Time estimates for Required activities collectively called each activity scope Activities that can Cost estimates for each activity Order of activities take place at same time
  10. 10. 10What is the System Development Cycle?What is a Gantt chart? Popular tool used to plan and schedule large, complex projects
  11. 11. 11What is the System Development Cycle?What is project management software? Program used by project leaders to plan, schedule, and control development projects
  12. 12. 12What is the System Development Cycle?What is feasibility? Operational Measure of how feasibility suitable system FOUR (4) development feasibility will be to the tests: company Schedule feasibility Economic feasibility (also called Technical cost/benefit feasibility feasibility)
  13. 13. 13What is the System Development Cycle?What is documentation? Collection and summarization of data and information Includes reports, diagrams, programs, and other deliverables Project notebook contains all documentation for single project
  14. 14. 14What is the System Development Cycle?What are SIX (6) data and informationgathering techniques? Review documentation Observe Questionnaire Interview Joint-application design (JAD) session Research
  15. 15. 15What Initiates the System Development Cycle?What are some reasons to create or modify aninformation system? To correct problem To improve in existing system existing system Outside group may Competition can mandate change lead to change
  16. 16. 16What Initiates the System Development Cycle?What is a request for system services? Formal request for new or modified information system Also called project request
  17. 17. 17Planning PhaseWhat is the planning phase? Begins when steering committee receives project request Steering committee— committee— decision- decision-making body for the company Function of committee: Form project Review and development Prioritize Allocate approve project team for each project requests resources requests approved project
  18. 18. 18Analysis PhaseWhat is the analysis phase? Conduct preliminary Perform detailed investigation, also analysis called feasibility study
  19. 19. 19Analysis PhaseWhat is the preliminary investigation? Determine exact nature of problem or improvement and whether it is worth pursuing Findings are presented in feasibility report, also known as a feasibility study
  20. 20. 20Analysis PhaseWhat is detailed analysis? 1. Study how current system works 2. Determine user’s wants, needs, and requirements 3. Recommend solution Sometimes called logical design
  21. 21. 21Analysis PhaseWhat is process modeling? Technique that describes processes that transform inputs into outputs Also called structured analysis and design Entity- Entity-relationship diagrams Three tools used for process modeling Data flow diagrams Project dictionary
  22. 22. 22Analysis PhaseWhat is an entity-relationship diagram (ERD)? Tool that graphically shows connections among entities in system
  23. 23. 23Analysis PhaseWhat is a data flow diagram (DFD)? Tool that graphically shows flow of data in system
  24. 24. 24Analysis PhaseWhat is a project dictionary? Contains all Helps keep track Variety of the documentation of huge amount techniques to and deliverables of details in enter items in of project system project dictionary Structured English Decision tables Decision trees Data dictionary
  25. 25. 25Analysis PhaseWhat is Structured English? Used to explain details of process
  26. 26. 26Analysis PhaseWhat is a decision table? Lists variety of conditions and actions that correspond to each condition
  27. 27. 27Analysis PhaseWhat is a decision tree? Shows conditions and actions graphically
  28. 28. 28Analysis PhaseWhat is a data dictionary? Stores name, description, and other details about each data item
  29. 29. 29Analysis PhaseWhat is object modeling? Combines data with Object—an item that can the processes that act contain both data and on data into single procedures that read or unit called an object manipulate the data Sometimes called object-oriented (OO) analysis and design Uses Unified Modeling Language (UML)—graphical tool (UML) for documenting system
  30. 30. 30Analysis PhaseWhat is a use case diagram? Graphically shows how actors interact with information system Actor—user or other entity Use case— function that actor can perform
  31. 31. 31Analysis PhaseWhat is a class diagram? Graphically shows classes and subclasses in system Class is group of objects— Can have lower levels called subclasses
  32. 32. 32Analysis PhaseWhat is thesystem proposal? Assesses feasibility of each alternative solution Presented to Recommends steering the most committee, feasible which decides solution for how system will the project be developed
  33. 33. 33Analysis PhaseWhat are possible solutions? Horizontal market software—meets software needs of many companies Buy packaged software—prewritten software available for purchase Vertical market software—designed software for particular industry Write own custom software—software developed at user’s request Outsource—have outside source develop software
  34. 34. 34Design PhaseWhat is the design phase? Acquire hardware and software Develop all details of new or modified information system
  35. 35. 35Design PhaseWhat is a detailed design? Detailed design specifications for components in proposed solution Sometimes called physical design Includes several activities Database Input and Program design output design design
  36. 36. 36Design PhaseWhat is needed to acquire new hardware and software? Identify all hardware and software requirements of new or modified system Identify technical Solicit vendor specifications proposals Test and evaluate vendor proposals Make a decision
  37. 37. 37 Design Phase What are three basic documents used to summarize technical specifications? Vendor quotes Identifies Request for quotation (RFQ) price(s) for product(s) listed you want product(s) Vendor selects Request for proposal (RFP) product(s) that meet(s) your requirements and then quotes Less formal method price(s) that uses standardClick to view Web form to requestLink, click Chapter 12, Click information aboutWeb Link from leftnavigation, then click Request for information (RFI) product or serviceRequest for Proposalsbelow Chapter 12 p. 639 Next
  38. 38. 38 Design Phase What is a turnkey solution? Complete system provided by value-added reseller Value-added reseller (VAR) purchases products from manufacturer and then resells them, offering additional services with product Authorized VARs must meet certain manufacturer- specified requirementsp. 639 Fig. 12-18 Next
  39. 39. 39 Design Phase How do systems analysts test software products? References from vendor Talk to current users of product Product demonstrations Trial version of software Benchmark test measures performanceClick to view WebLink, click Chapter 12, ClickWeb Link from leftnavigation, then clickBenchmark Testsbelow Chapter 12 p. 640 Fig. 12-19 Next
  40. 40. 40Design PhaseWhat is a mockup? Sample of input or output that contains actual data
  41. 41. 41 Design Phase What is a layout chart? Input or output that contains programming-like notations for data itemsp. 641 Fig. 12-21 Next
  42. 42. 42 Design Phase What is an inspection? Step-by-step review by Used to review detailed project team and users design specifications of any system development before they are given cycle deliverable to programming team Used throughout entire Identifies any errors system development and allows IT personnel cycle to review a variety to correct them of deliverablesp. 643 Next
  43. 43. 43Design PhaseWhat is a prototype? Working model of proposed system Beginning a prototype too early may lead to problems
  44. 44. 44Design PhaseWhat is computer-aided software engineering (CASE)? Software tools designed to support activities of system development cycle Project repository—Stores diagrams, specifications, Graphics—Enables drawing Prototyping—Creates descriptions, programs, and of diagrams models of proposed system other deliverables Code generators—Create Quality assurance—Analyzes actual computer programs deliverables for accuracy from design specifications Housekeeping—Establishes user accounts and provides backup and recovery functions
  45. 45. 45 Design Phase What is integrated computer-aided software engineering (I-CASE)? Integrated case productsp. 642 - 643 Fig. 12-22 Next
  46. 46. 46Implementation PhaseWhat is the implementation phase? Purpose is to construct, or build, new or modified system and then deliver it to users Convert to new system Train users Install and test new system Develop programs
  47. 47. 47Implementation PhaseWhat is the program development cycle? Programmers write programs from Analyze requirements specifications Follows six steps Document Design solution solution Test Validate solution design Implement design
  48. 48. 48Implementation PhaseWhat are the four types of tests performed by systemdevelopers? Unit Test Systems test Verifies each Verifies all programs individual program in application work works by itself together Integration Test Acceptance Test Verifies application Verifies the new works with other system works with applications actual data
  49. 49. 49Implementation PhaseWhat is training? Showing users exactly how they will use new hardware and software in system
  50. 50. 50Implementation PhaseWhat are conversion strategies? Used to change from old system to new system
  51. 51. 51Operation, Support, and Security PhaseWhat is the operation, support, and security phase phase? Provides ongoing assistance after system is implemented Conduct post-implementation system review—meeting to find out if information system is performing according to expectations Perform Maintenance Activities Monitor System Performance Assess System Security
  52. 52. 52 Operation, Support, and Security Phase What is a computer security plan? Summarizes in writing all of the safeguards that are in place to protect a company’s information assets For each risk, Identify all identify theClick to view Web Identify all security risksLink, click Chapter 12, safeguardsClick Web Link from left information that maynavigation, then click that existComputer Security Plan assets of an cause anbelow Chapter 12 to detect, organization information prevent, and loss recover from a lossClick to view WebLink, click Chapter 12, ClickWeb Link from leftnavigation, then click ICSAbelow Chapter 12 p. 646 Next
  53. 53. 53Summary of Information System Development Phases in the system development cycle Activities that occur during the entire system development cycle Guidelines for system developmentChapter 9 Complete