A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations


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Task Models describe how to perform activities to reach users' goals. Task models represent the intersection between user interface design and more systematic approaches. Task models can be represented at various abstraction levels. When designers want to specify only requirements regarding how activities should be performed, they consider only the main high-level tasks. On the other hand, when designers aim to provide precise design indications then the activities are represented at a small granularity, thus including aspects related to the dialogue model of a user interface (which defines how system and user actions can be sequenced). In this paper a comparative analysis of selected models involving multiple users in an interaction is provided in order to identify concepts which are underexplored in today’s multi-user interaction task modeling. This comparative analysis is based on three families of criteria: information criteria, conceptual coverage, and expressive¬ness. Merging the meta-models of the selected models enables to come up with a broader meta-model that could be instantiated in most situations involving multi-user interaction, like workflow information systems, CSCW.

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A Comparative Analysis of Task Modeling Notations

  1. 1. A comparative analysis of task modeling notations Dra. Josefina Guerrero García Dr. Juan Manuel González Calleros Dr. Jean Vanderdonckt * Facultad de Ciencias de la Computación Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla *Université catholique de Louvain Email: jguerrero@cs.buap.mx juan.gonzalez@cs.buap.mx
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • Overview of task models • A multi-user interaction meta-model • Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction (1/4) • Task models describe how to perform activities to reach user´s goals. • Task models represent the intersection between user interface design and more systematic approaches. • A number of task modeling notations have been developed in HCI communities, often with different goals and different strengths.
  4. 4. Introduction (2/4) Task Modeling are the hearth of Model Driven Development of UIs Final User Interface (FUI) WindowWindow Concrete User Interface (CUI) AIC facet=control AbstractIndividual Container Abstract User Interface (AUI) textInputtextInput buttonbutton buttonbutton AIC facet=control AIC facet=control Task & Domain (T&D)
  5. 5. Introduction (3/4) • A comparative analysis of selected models involving multiple users interaction is provided in order to identify concepts which are underexplored in today´s multiuser interaction task modeling.
  6. 6. Introduction (4/4) • The goals are: ▫ To provide a conceptual understanding of the most significant models involving multiple users and their related concepts. ▫ To establish semantic mappings between the different models so as to create a transversal understanding of their underlying concepts independently of their peculiarities. ▫ To rely on these semantic mappings to develop a multi-user model editor that accommodates any type of input.
  7. 7. Overview of task models (1/7) • Our method for uniforming task models consists of four major steps: 1. selection of individual task models, 2. identification of the concepts within each model, 3. representation of those concepts into a meta- model, 4. consolidation of these meta-models into one single meta-model (called multi-user interaction model).
  8. 8. Overview of task models (2/7) • The following criteria were used: ▫ The task models should be integrated in a development methodology as a core or side component and tool supported. ▫ The task models should be widespread and accepted within the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) community. ▫ The selected models should be supported by theoretical studies to assess their soundness and experimental studies for effective case studies.
  9. 9. Overview of task models (3/7) • Each model was decomposed into constituent concepts using an entity-relationship method and UML representation. • A syntactical uniforming has been conducted to provide a single way of referring to different concepts where possible. • For concepts having different definitions a semantic uniforming is needed (semantic mappings between concepts having different aims and scopes).
  10. 10. Overview of task models (4/7) • To maximize the semantic scope of the uniformed task meta-model, the union of the concepts present in each particular task meta- models was preferred rather than the intersection. • We use Separation of concern principle, which assumes that only concepts relevant to a similar domain of discourse should be kept in a particular model, thus avoiding mixing different concepts into a single model.
  11. 11. Overview of task models (5/7) • Task modeling notations reviewed AMBOSS GTA (Groupware Task Analysis) ANSI/CEA-2018 HTA (Hierarchical Task Analysis) CTT (ConcurTaskTree) TKS (Task Knowledge Structure) Diane+ TOOD (Task Object-Oriented Description) GOMS UsiXML
  12. 12. • ANSI/CEA-2018 meta-model Task Model +about: URI Binary Task +id: ID +description: string +precondition: string +postcondition: string input +name: string +type: string +modified: string output +name: string +type: string concept +verb: string step +name: string +task: string +requires: string +ordered: boolean applicable binding +slot: string +value: string TaskModelScript +task: QName +model: URI +init: boolean +platform: token +deviceType: token +applicable: string Task Relationship sequential Choice role +name: string +type: ceaDataType +slot: ceaSlotName optional iteration Unary TemporaryRelationships agent theme instrument location Decomposition Concurrency 1..* 1..* TaskScript +init: boolean +platform: token +deviceType: token +applicable: string 1..* 0..* 0..* 0..* Overview of task models (6/7)
  13. 13. • CTT meta-model TaskModel Task +id: string +name: string +type: string +category: string +frequency: string +platform: string +description: string +precondition: string +duration: time TaskRelationshipsRole +id: string +name: string TemporalRelationshipsDecomposition Object +name: strig +type: string +class: string +accesMode: string +cardinality: string Action +id: string +name: string +type: string Binay Unary Choice OrderIndependence Inerleaving Synchronization Disabling SuspendResume SequentialEnabling SequentialEnablingInformqtionPassingCooperative 1..* 1..* Optional Iterative 0..1 0..* 1..* 1..* Overview of task models (7/7)
  14. 14. Task Modeling Operators
  15. 15. CTT Diane+ AMBOSS ANSI/C EA-2018 GOMS GTA HTA TKS TOOD UsiXML Abstraction Multi-user interaction meta-model UsiXML MDDUI: A multi-user interaction meta-model (1/8) GUI AR 3DUI VocalUI HapticUI Physical UI Multimo dalUI
  16. 16. None Moderate High Dynamicity Color is useful for identifying the concepts used in the design and implementation of the workflow editor
  17. 17. A multi-user interaction meta-model (3/8)
  18. 18. Marco de Referencia A multi-user interaction meta-model (4/8)
  19. 19. Paso 1 A multi-user interaction meta-model (5/8)
  20. 20. Paso 2 A multi-user interaction meta-model (6/8)
  21. 21. Paso 3 A multi-user interaction meta-model (7/8)
  22. 22. A multi-user interaction meta-model (8/8)
  23. 23. Conclusion (1/2) • Task models show a variety of concepts and relationships, we analyzed them in order to identify concepts which are underexplored in today´s multi-user interaction task modeling. • After the analysis of task models, a multi-users interaction meta-model was generated in order to cover the principal characteristics required to work with multiplicity entities playing a role.
  24. 24. Conclusion (2/2) • Our meta-model tries to cover the principal aspect required to support group work, it include process, tasks, task operators (including collaboration relationship), actions, objects, resources, groups (as an attribute), organizational units, jobs, agendas, goals and rules (both of them as attributes). • In a future work, we would like to integrate in our comparative analysis other task models that are focused on multi-users interaction. Also, it would be interested to integrate a task analysis part, until now
  25. 25. Join us BUAP http://www.facebook.com/UsiXML @usixml
  26. 26. For more information and downloading, http://www.lilab.eu User Interface eXtensible Markup Language http://www.usixml.org http://www.usixml.eu Register as a member of the UsiXML End-User Club at http://www.usixml.eu/end_user_club
  27. 27. Contact Dra. Josefina Guerrero-García jguerrero@cs.buap.mx Dr. Juan Manuel González-Calleros juan.gonzalez@cs.buap.mx @Juan__Gonzalez