Give and explain external factors
affecting perception. Give examples
External Factors also known as exogenous
factors, they also influence the perception of
a person. Perception is affected by the
characteristics of perceived object, an event
or a person. These include size, intensity,
frequency, status etc.
The intensity of stimulus implies that the more intense
the stimulus audio or visual, the more is the likelihood
it will be perceived
For example.. While reading a passage, a person comes
across a few lines printed in bold letters. He
automatically pays more attention to these lines.
The principle that the higher the intensity of external
stimulus, the more likely it will be perceived is not
The bigger the size of the perceived stimulus, the
higher is the probability that it will be noticed.
Dominance is established by size and it overrides other
things and thereby enhances perceptual selection.
A full page advertisement may induce more attention
than a small advertisement in some corner of the
Stimuli that contrast with the surrounding
environment are more likely to be selected for getting
attention. A contrasting effect can be caused by color,
or any unusual factor.
Examples…detectives use plain clothes in order to
avoid being recognized as such..the use of uniforms by
policeman, army men and medical doctors.
It is possible for an individual to “complete” an
“incomplete” stimulus presented to him.
Example….. With one look at an incomplete form,
generally, he perceives the circle, the square or
Repeated stimuli have more impact on
performances than a single statement. Repetition
has the advantage of being catching attention.
Perhaps, it is because of this that supervisors tend
to repeat direction regarding job instructions
several times for even simple tasks to hold the
attention of their workers. Advertisers while
putting T.V. or radio advertisements repeat the
brand name they are advertising.
The factor of motion implies that the individuals
attend to changing objects in their field of vision than
to static objects. It is because of this advantage that
advertisers involve signs, which include moving
objects in their campaigns. At an unconscious level the
animals in the jungle make use of this principle. A
tiger lying in wait is motionless until his prey is nearer
him and then jumps at an appropriate moment.
Stimuli that maintain a flow of regularity are better
perceived than discontinuous irregular stimuli.
Moving stimuli are more likely to attract attention
than stationary ones. However, slow movement may
get more attention than a stimulus with the usual
speed of movement..
Example. Slow movement used in flashbacks of
basketball games to emphasize the commission of
fouls, and slow driving of a reputedly driver will get
attention and be easily perceived.
Change in stimulus
Change in the characteristics of the stimulus as a result
of lighting and movement may aid in the easier
perception of an object.
Illuminations in billboards, changes in packing,
variations in advertising jingles..all call attention that
lead to focused perception.
Give and explain internal factors
affecting perception. Give examples
Motivation- we tend to perceive more those objects or
stimuli that are consistent with our motives.
Perception of stimuli that do not fit into our motives is
Example. One who reads the Filipino comics in an
effort to understand why many Filipinos read will
perceive reading the comics as purposive and
informative. Another may see it from a different
perspective and consider comics as a waste of time.
Experiences that are rewarding and punishing tend to
color our perception.
Set – defined as a temporary tendency or expectancy to
respond in a certain way or fashion.
Example: a television advertisement is unlikely to get
your attention when you are sleepy
Interests and attitudes
People attend to those aspects of their environment
that they are interested in.
Example: in the zoo, the zoologists may be interested in
the animals themselves, while the student of human
behavior may be more interested in the people who go
Human beings can only be aware of a very limited
number of stimuli. When we say “we cannot do two
things at a time, what we mean is that we cannot pay
attention to two stimuli at the same time effectively.
Physical characteristics of the individual
One who is good looking may perceive others as ugly
and vice versa.
A five footer may perceive himself as short in
comparison with a six-footer. But the six footer may
likewise, consider himself short compared with
someone much taller than he.
NEEDS AND DESIRES
The needs and desires of people play a vital role
in perception. People at different levels of
needs and desire perceive the same thing
differently. Power seekers are more likely to
notice power related stimuli. Socially oriented
individuals pay attention to interpersonal
stimuli. That is to say expectancy, motives or
interest also affect people perception.
Give theories that explain forgetting.
Explain the theory and give examples.
Interference – it was assumed that memory can be
disrupted or interfered with by what we have
previously learned or by what we will learn in the
future. This idea suggests that information in long
term memory may become confused or combined with
other information during encoding thus distorting or
disrupting memories. Interference theory states that
forgetting occurs because memories interfere with and
disrupt one another, in other words forgetting occurs
because of interference from other memories.
INTERFERENCE THEORY (LTM)
PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE
(Pro=forward) occurs when
you cannot learn a new task
because of an old task that
had been learnt. When what
we already know interferes
with what we are currently
learning – where old
memories disrupt new
when you forget a previously
learnt task due to the
learning of a new task. In
other words, later learning
interferes with earlier
learning – where new
memories disrupt old
RETRIEVAL FAILURE THEORY(LTM)
Retrieval failure is where the information is in long term
memory, but cannot be accessed. Such information is said
to be available(i.e. it is still stored ) but not accessible (i.e.
it cannot be retrieved). It cannot be accessed because the
retrieval cues are not present. When we store a new
memory we also store information about the situation and
these are known as retrieval cues. When we come into the
same situation again, these retrieval cues can trigger the
memory of the situation. Retrieval cues can be:
External/Context – in the environment, e.g. smell, place
Internal/State – inside of us, e.g. physical, emotional,
mood, drunk etc.
TRACE DECAY THEORY OF FORGETTING
This theory relates to both short term memory and
long term memory, and also relates to lack of
This theory suggests short term memory can only hold
information for between 15 and 30 seconds unless it is
rehearsed. After this time the information decays
(fades away). This explanation of forgetting in short
term memory assumes that memories leave a trace in
the brain. A trace is some form of physical and/ or
chemical change in the nervous system.
Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a
result of the automatic decay or fading of the memory
trace. Trace decay theory focuses on time and the
limited duration of short term memory.
Enumerate ways of
Describe and give examples
It is grouping items together which can be
remembered only as one bit of information. Then all
you need to remember is the key word or retrieval cue
that will trigger the other items of information in each
VEGETABLES FRUITS MEATS
Cabbage Bananas Chicken
Peas Oranges Beef
Tomatoes Papaya pork
Another way is by the use of mnemonic devices or
memory tricks to aid memory. Acronyms are also used
as mnemonic devices. Knowing the first letters of the
words that make up the name of an organization helps
in recalling the words; for instance, UNESCO for
“United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
We need to practice the information over and over
again until it becomes firmly fixed in our brain. This
process of overlearning can help us retain
information longer. Frequent review will also give the
same effect because it allows us to organize
information into more meaningful units.
Organization of text materials
To organize any material in memory as it is being read
for the first time, it is suggested that one should first
understand the structure of the material (e.g.,
scanning the table contents)
Organization of lecture notes
Lecture notes are better remembered if the main points
are jotted down rather than trying to note all the
details of lecture.
Give conditions affecting effective
learning. Give examples for each
Our motives urge us to approach or withdraw from a
particular goal or activity.
For instance, an interest in music will draw us to
membership in a choral group.
Merely “reading a lesson” is not an efficient way to
learn. To be efficient, study must be purposeful and
directed toward specific goals.
For example. Your goal may be to search for answers to
study questions given by your professor or to attempt
to condense the material in your own words for an oral
When involved in learning, emotions can facilitate or
Describe thoroughly at least four
Differentiate between illusion and
hallucination. Give examples for each.
Define stress. Sources of stress and effects of
stress on physical, emotional or mental health
Describe the theory of multiple intelligence. Give the kinds of
intelligences. Describe and give examples of each.
KINDS OF INTELLIGENCES
Linguistic intelligence – involves sensitivity to spoken
and written language, the ability to learn languages,
and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain
goals. This intelligence includes the ability to
effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically
or poetically; and language as a means to remember
information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are
among those that Howard Gardner sees as having
high linguistic intelligence.
Logical-mathematical intelligence – consists of the
capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out
mathematical operations and investigate issues
scientifically. In Howard Gardner’s words, it entails the
ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think
logically. This intelligence is most often associated
with scientific and mathematical thinking.
Musical intelligence – involves skill in the
performance, composition, and appreciation of
musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to
recognize and compose musical pitches, tones and
rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical
intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence – entails the potential
of using one’s whole body or parts of the body to solve
problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to
coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees
mental and physical activity as related.
Spatial intelligence – involves the potential to
recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more
Interpersonal intelligence – is concerned with the
capacity to understand the intentions, motivations
and desires of other people. It allows people to work
effectively with others. Educators, salespeople,
religious and political leaders and counselors all need
a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.
Intrapersonal intelligence- entails the capacity to
understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears
and motivations. In Howard Gardner’s view it involves
having an effective working model of ourselves, and to
be able to use such information to regulate our lives.
Naturalistic - this area has to do with the nurturing
and relating information to one’s natural
Existential – some proponents of multiple intelligence
theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a
possible additional type.
What is motivation? Explain the
stages of motivation cycle.
Motivation is the word derived from the word ’motive’ which means needs,
desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating
people to actions to accomplish the goals. In the work goal context the
psychological factors stimulating the people’s behaviour can be -
desire for money
team work, etc
Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-
oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a
glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.
It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate
behavior. In everyday usage, the term motivation is frequently used to describe
why a person does something.
Motivation is an internal process that actively guide
and maintains behavior. It helps to explain cause of
behavior. People engage in various activities even if
they are not rewarded. Motives are the center of our
lives which direct what we think, feel and act. The
word motivation comes from Latin word “movere”
which means “to move”. Motivation emphasizes on
internal and external forces that leads us to move. It is
synonymously used with word desire, wants, whishes,
aims, goals, need etc. Motivation being hypothetical
construct, like other cognitive processes cannot be
seen or touched but can be referred form observed
1. Need: the physical or psychological deprivation in the
body creates the needs. It is the lack of what we want.
When the stimuli remains constant we don’t feel need. The
tendency to restore a balanced condition in the body is
known as Homeostasis. It is characterized by physiological
functioning. The aroused condition motivates the
organism to imitate behavior to remedy the need. For
example, the person who is hungry needs food. Similarly, a
person may desire for power. This shows motivational need
has two categories: physiological (primary) or
psychological (secondary). Physiological needs are basic
necessities without which organism cant live, for example
need for food, rest, oxygen, water etc. psychological need
are related to the individual happiness and wellbeing. For
example, love, power, prestige, recognition, status etc.
2. Drive: an internal motivational state that
is created by a need is a drive. For example, a
hungry person seeks for food to satisfy his or
her need. Drives are the action oriented
component or the motion to fulfill the
desire of the motivated behavior. Search for
food by a hungry person can be translated
into hunger drive. Drive can activate more
than one response. Drive is the internal
tension state that builds up until they are
3. Incentive: the third concept that moves around the
motivational cycle is incentive. Incentive is the
appropriate object or situation toward which
motivated behavior is directed. Incentive eases a need
and reduces a drive. It can provide satisfaction for the
aroused drive. For example, food is the incentive for
the hungry person. It can be anything we have learned
to value like money, status, and the approval of the
others. Incentives control much of human behavior.
An organism will approach positive incentive, and
avoid negative incentives. For example cooked food is
the positive incentive for the hungry person and
chocolate is negative incentive as it will not satisfy the
hunger of the person. Incentive either directs behavior
towards or away forms them.
4. Reward: once the organism has obtained the incentive it
drives pleasantness or satisfaction, which is the reward.
Reward restores the homeostatic condition. It brings
readjustment. It the reward is achieved, the individual feels
inspired, and his or her performance will improve. For
example, food is reward for hungry person who feels
relieved and satisfied with it. Chocolates may not be his
reward as it will not satisfy his hunger. If a person is fully
satisfied the homeostasis sate is achieved for that particular
We know that person has unlimited wants, needs or desire.
As soon as one need is satisfied another crops up. The
person starts to work (or get motivated) to fulfill that want
this leads to start of new motivation cycle. Thus this cycle
never stops it goes on and on. If the need moving in a cycle
is not fully satisfied, it moves again to find its need. As a
result every individual is dominated by the motivation.
What is emotion? Give and describe the changes
during an emotional experiences
Emotions – is one of the most important aspects of our
behavior. It is what makes life interesting, exciting, and
meaningful. It adds color and variety to our lives and
breaks up the drab monotony of routine.
1. PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN
Changes in heart rate and blood supply
Changes in respiration
Duct gland responses
Endocrine gland responses
Other bodily changes
Enumerate and explain ways of
achieving emotional control.
Avoid emotion provoking situations.
Change the emotion-provoking situations
Increase skills for coping with the situation
Re-interpret skills for coping with the situation
Keep working toward your goal
Find substitute outlets
Develop a sense of humor.
Differentiate between type A and type B
personality pattern. Give characteristics of each.
Type A Personality
The following are the characteristics of the type A personality
Type A’s has got a severe sense of time urgency. They are always
running and can hardly relax. If they sat without doing
something useful they may end up feeling guilty
Type A’s are over achievers, they usually get themselves involved
in many different unrelated activities and perform well in them
Type A's biggest problem is stress, they are usually overwhelmed
by the amount of tasks they have to do. These tasks are usually a
huge list that they planned for themselves.
Type A is usually competitive and has a high challenging spirit.
Type B Personality
Type B personality is almost the opposite of Type A.
This type of person is relaxed by nature and has no
sense of time urgency
Type Bs have got no problems relaxing or sitting
without doing anything
Type Bs may delay the work they have to the last
moment and they usually don't get stressed that easily.
Type B could be an achiever too but his lack of sense of
time urgency helps him much in not feeling stressed
while doing his tasks.
Similarities and Differences
Type A and Type B personalities can have benefits as
well as negative effects on one's life. Type A personality
is prone to strokes, depression, low self-esteem, and
inability to handle failure.
Type B personality may find themselves unsatisfied
with their achievements in life in the long run because
with low risk comes lower rewards.
Understanding the hostility that goes along with a
Type A personality is the first step towards making
changes to ease internal stress and stress inducers and
to making a conscious effort to find balance in
Type A Personality
People falling under this category will have characteristics that portray them as people with
a lot of time urgency and impatience. Money and finances mean a lot to them, so much so,
that even their relationships, they think, should be based on money. These people prioritize
their work over all their relationships, since they are so particular about time and the way
they spend their time. They have the urge to do something productive all the time or else
may be engulfed with guilt of wasting time. A good thing about these people are that they
are achievers in everything that they get themselves into, they have the ability to succeed
even in ventures they know nothing about due to their competitiveness and challenging
spirit. You will find such people planning out their time and also adhering to the plan most
of the time. Other characteristics include aggressiveness and a short tempered nature, they
are achievement oriented and have a great deal of trouble relaxing and taking it easy.
Type B Personality
The type B personality people are quite the opposite of the type A personality people. These
people are patient to a large extent, are easygoing and take things slowly and steadily. They
do not believe in hurrying into things, take time to think and ponder before acting and may
also delay their work to the last minute. These people love to socialize and be in the
company of both known and unknown people. They often manage to grab quite a lot of
attention wherever they go and seek comfort more than success while working. They are
considerate, caring and approachable and know how to maintain their relationships well.
They also know how to maintain a balance between their professional and personal life,
which leads them to be lot more satisfied with their lives.