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Psychology 1

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This presentation includes questions and answers regarding certain topics in Psychology 1

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Psychology 1

  1. 1. Give and explain external factors affecting perception. Give examples  External Factors also known as exogenous factors, they also influence the perception of a person. Perception is affected by the characteristics of perceived object, an event or a person. These include size, intensity, frequency, status etc.
  2. 2. INTENSITY The intensity of stimulus implies that the more intense the stimulus audio or visual, the more is the likelihood it will be perceived For example.. While reading a passage, a person comes across a few lines printed in bold letters. He automatically pays more attention to these lines. The principle that the higher the intensity of external stimulus, the more likely it will be perceived is not always valid.
  3. 3. SIZE  The bigger the size of the perceived stimulus, the higher is the probability that it will be noticed. Dominance is established by size and it overrides other things and thereby enhances perceptual selection.  For example….  A full page advertisement may induce more attention than a small advertisement in some corner of the newspaper.
  4. 4. Contrast  Stimuli that contrast with the surrounding environment are more likely to be selected for getting attention. A contrasting effect can be caused by color, or any unusual factor.  Examples…detectives use plain clothes in order to avoid being recognized as such..the use of uniforms by policeman, army men and medical doctors.
  5. 5. CLOSURE  It is possible for an individual to “complete” an “incomplete” stimulus presented to him.  Example….. With one look at an incomplete form, generally, he perceives the circle, the square or triangle.
  6. 6. REPETETION  Repeated stimuli have more impact on performances than a single statement. Repetition has the advantage of being catching attention. Perhaps, it is because of this that supervisors tend to repeat direction regarding job instructions several times for even simple tasks to hold the attention of their workers. Advertisers while putting T.V. or radio advertisements repeat the brand name they are advertising.
  7. 7. MOTION  The factor of motion implies that the individuals attend to changing objects in their field of vision than to static objects. It is because of this advantage that advertisers involve signs, which include moving objects in their campaigns. At an unconscious level the animals in the jungle make use of this principle. A tiger lying in wait is motionless until his prey is nearer him and then jumps at an appropriate moment.
  8. 8. Continuity Stimuli that maintain a flow of regularity are better perceived than discontinuous irregular stimuli.
  9. 9. MOVEMENT  Moving stimuli are more likely to attract attention than stationary ones. However, slow movement may get more attention than a stimulus with the usual speed of movement..  Example. Slow movement used in flashbacks of basketball games to emphasize the commission of fouls, and slow driving of a reputedly driver will get attention and be easily perceived.
  10. 10. Change in stimulus Change in the characteristics of the stimulus as a result of lighting and movement may aid in the easier perception of an object. Examples.. Illuminations in billboards, changes in packing, variations in advertising jingles..all call attention that lead to focused perception.
  11. 11. Give and explain internal factors affecting perception. Give examples  Motivation- we tend to perceive more those objects or stimuli that are consistent with our motives. Perception of stimuli that do not fit into our motives is remote.  Example. One who reads the Filipino comics in an effort to understand why many Filipinos read will perceive reading the comics as purposive and informative. Another may see it from a different perspective and consider comics as a waste of time.
  12. 12. Past experiences  Experiences that are rewarding and punishing tend to color our perception.  Set – defined as a temporary tendency or expectancy to respond in a certain way or fashion. Example: a television advertisement is unlikely to get your attention when you are sleepy
  13. 13. Interests and attitudes  People attend to those aspects of their environment that they are interested in. Example: in the zoo, the zoologists may be interested in the animals themselves, while the student of human behavior may be more interested in the people who go there.
  14. 14. ATTENTION  Human beings can only be aware of a very limited number of stimuli. When we say “we cannot do two things at a time, what we mean is that we cannot pay attention to two stimuli at the same time effectively.
  15. 15. Physical characteristics of the individual  One who is good looking may perceive others as ugly and vice versa.  A five footer may perceive himself as short in comparison with a six-footer. But the six footer may likewise, consider himself short compared with someone much taller than he.
  16. 16. NEEDS AND DESIRES  The needs and desires of people play a vital role in perception. People at different levels of needs and desire perceive the same thing differently. Power seekers are more likely to notice power related stimuli. Socially oriented individuals pay attention to interpersonal stimuli. That is to say expectancy, motives or interest also affect people perception.
  17. 17. Give theories that explain forgetting. Explain the theory and give examples.  Interference – it was assumed that memory can be disrupted or interfered with by what we have previously learned or by what we will learn in the future. This idea suggests that information in long term memory may become confused or combined with other information during encoding thus distorting or disrupting memories. Interference theory states that forgetting occurs because memories interfere with and disrupt one another, in other words forgetting occurs because of interference from other memories.
  18. 18. INTERFERENCE THEORY (LTM) PROACTIVE INTERFERENCE RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE  (Pro=forward) occurs when you cannot learn a new task because of an old task that had been learnt. When what we already know interferes with what we are currently learning – where old memories disrupt new memories  (retro=backward) occurs when you forget a previously learnt task due to the learning of a new task. In other words, later learning interferes with earlier learning – where new memories disrupt old memories.
  19. 19. RETRIEVAL FAILURE THEORY(LTM)  Retrieval failure is where the information is in long term memory, but cannot be accessed. Such information is said to be available(i.e. it is still stored ) but not accessible (i.e. it cannot be retrieved). It cannot be accessed because the retrieval cues are not present. When we store a new memory we also store information about the situation and these are known as retrieval cues. When we come into the same situation again, these retrieval cues can trigger the memory of the situation. Retrieval cues can be:  External/Context – in the environment, e.g. smell, place etc.  Internal/State – inside of us, e.g. physical, emotional, mood, drunk etc.
  20. 20. TRACE DECAY THEORY OF FORGETTING (STM)  This theory relates to both short term memory and long term memory, and also relates to lack of availability.  This theory suggests short term memory can only hold information for between 15 and 30 seconds unless it is rehearsed. After this time the information decays (fades away). This explanation of forgetting in short term memory assumes that memories leave a trace in the brain. A trace is some form of physical and/ or chemical change in the nervous system.
  21. 21.  Trace decay theory states that forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of the memory trace. Trace decay theory focuses on time and the limited duration of short term memory.
  22. 22. Enumerate ways of improving memory. Describe and give examples for each
  23. 23. CHUNKING  It is grouping items together which can be remembered only as one bit of information. Then all you need to remember is the key word or retrieval cue that will trigger the other items of information in each chunk.  For example: VEGETABLES FRUITS MEATS Cabbage Bananas Chicken Peas Oranges Beef Tomatoes Papaya pork
  24. 24. Mnemonic devices  Another way is by the use of mnemonic devices or memory tricks to aid memory. Acronyms are also used as mnemonic devices. Knowing the first letters of the words that make up the name of an organization helps in recalling the words; for instance, UNESCO for “United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
  25. 25. OVERLEARNING  We need to practice the information over and over again until it becomes firmly fixed in our brain. This process of overlearning can help us retain information longer. Frequent review will also give the same effect because it allows us to organize information into more meaningful units.
  26. 26.  Organization of text materials To organize any material in memory as it is being read for the first time, it is suggested that one should first understand the structure of the material (e.g., scanning the table contents) Organization of lecture notes Lecture notes are better remembered if the main points are jotted down rather than trying to note all the details of lecture.
  27. 27. Give conditions affecting effective learning. Give examples for each  Motivation  Mental set  Emotion  Rehearsal
  28. 28. MOTIVATION  Our motives urge us to approach or withdraw from a particular goal or activity.  For instance, an interest in music will draw us to membership in a choral group.
  29. 29. MENTAL SET  Merely “reading a lesson” is not an efficient way to learn. To be efficient, study must be purposeful and directed toward specific goals.  For example. Your goal may be to search for answers to study questions given by your professor or to attempt to condense the material in your own words for an oral report.
  30. 30. EMOTION  When involved in learning, emotions can facilitate or block retention.
  31. 31. Describe thoroughly at least four relaxation techniques
  32. 32. Differentiate between illusion and hallucination. Give examples for each.
  33. 33. Define stress. Sources of stress and effects of stress on physical, emotional or mental health
  34. 34. Describe the theory of multiple intelligence. Give the kinds of intelligences. Describe and give examples of each.
  35. 35. KINDS OF INTELLIGENCES  Linguistic intelligence – involves sensitivity to spoken and written language, the ability to learn languages, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically; and language as a means to remember information. Writers, poets, lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence.
  36. 36.  Logical-mathematical intelligence – consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out mathematical operations and investigate issues scientifically. In Howard Gardner’s words, it entails the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.  Musical intelligence – involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones and rhythms. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence.
  37. 37.  Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence – entails the potential of using one’s whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related.  Spatial intelligence – involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas.
  38. 38.  Interpersonal intelligence – is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people. It allows people to work effectively with others. Educators, salespeople, religious and political leaders and counselors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.  Intrapersonal intelligence- entails the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears and motivations. In Howard Gardner’s view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves, and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives.
  39. 39.  Naturalistic - this area has to do with the nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings.  Existential – some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a possible additional type.
  40. 40. What is motivation? Explain the stages of motivation cycle.  Motivation is the word derived from the word ’motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. In the work goal context the psychological factors stimulating the people’s behaviour can be -  desire for money  success  recognition  job-satisfaction  team work, etc  Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal- oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.  It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something.
  41. 41.  Motivation is an internal process that actively guide and maintains behavior. It helps to explain cause of behavior. People engage in various activities even if they are not rewarded. Motives are the center of our lives which direct what we think, feel and act. The word motivation comes from Latin word “movere” which means “to move”. Motivation emphasizes on internal and external forces that leads us to move. It is synonymously used with word desire, wants, whishes, aims, goals, need etc. Motivation being hypothetical construct, like other cognitive processes cannot be seen or touched but can be referred form observed behaviors.
  42. 42.  1. Need: the physical or psychological deprivation in the body creates the needs. It is the lack of what we want. When the stimuli remains constant we don’t feel need. The tendency to restore a balanced condition in the body is known as Homeostasis. It is characterized by physiological functioning. The aroused condition motivates the organism to imitate behavior to remedy the need. For example, the person who is hungry needs food. Similarly, a person may desire for power. This shows motivational need has two categories: physiological (primary) or psychological (secondary). Physiological needs are basic necessities without which organism cant live, for example need for food, rest, oxygen, water etc. psychological need are related to the individual happiness and wellbeing. For example, love, power, prestige, recognition, status etc.
  43. 43.  2. Drive: an internal motivational state that is created by a need is a drive. For example, a hungry person seeks for food to satisfy his or her need. Drives are the action oriented component or the motion to fulfill the desire of the motivated behavior. Search for food by a hungry person can be translated into hunger drive. Drive can activate more than one response. Drive is the internal tension state that builds up until they are satisfied.
  44. 44.  3. Incentive: the third concept that moves around the motivational cycle is incentive. Incentive is the appropriate object or situation toward which motivated behavior is directed. Incentive eases a need and reduces a drive. It can provide satisfaction for the aroused drive. For example, food is the incentive for the hungry person. It can be anything we have learned to value like money, status, and the approval of the others. Incentives control much of human behavior. An organism will approach positive incentive, and avoid negative incentives. For example cooked food is the positive incentive for the hungry person and chocolate is negative incentive as it will not satisfy the hunger of the person. Incentive either directs behavior towards or away forms them.
  45. 45.  4. Reward: once the organism has obtained the incentive it drives pleasantness or satisfaction, which is the reward. Reward restores the homeostatic condition. It brings readjustment. It the reward is achieved, the individual feels inspired, and his or her performance will improve. For example, food is reward for hungry person who feels relieved and satisfied with it. Chocolates may not be his reward as it will not satisfy his hunger. If a person is fully satisfied the homeostasis sate is achieved for that particular need.  We know that person has unlimited wants, needs or desire. As soon as one need is satisfied another crops up. The person starts to work (or get motivated) to fulfill that want this leads to start of new motivation cycle. Thus this cycle never stops it goes on and on. If the need moving in a cycle is not fully satisfied, it moves again to find its need. As a result every individual is dominated by the motivation.
  46. 46. What is emotion? Give and describe the changes during an emotional experiences  Emotions – is one of the most important aspects of our behavior. It is what makes life interesting, exciting, and meaningful. It adds color and variety to our lives and breaks up the drab monotony of routine.
  47. 47. 1. PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EMOTION  Neural responses  Changes in heart rate and blood supply  Changes in respiration  Duct gland responses  Endocrine gland responses  Other bodily changes
  48. 48. 2. OBSERVABLE CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR
  49. 49. 3. SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCES IN EMOTIONS
  50. 50. Enumerate and explain ways of achieving emotional control.  Avoid emotion provoking situations.  Change the emotion-provoking situations  Increase skills for coping with the situation  Re-interpret skills for coping with the situation  Keep working toward your goal
  51. 51.  Find substitute outlets  Develop a sense of humor.
  52. 52. Differentiate between type A and type B personality pattern. Give characteristics of each.  Type A Personality  The following are the characteristics of the type A personality  Type A’s has got a severe sense of time urgency. They are always running and can hardly relax. If they sat without doing something useful they may end up feeling guilty  Type A’s are over achievers, they usually get themselves involved in many different unrelated activities and perform well in them all.  Type A's biggest problem is stress, they are usually overwhelmed by the amount of tasks they have to do. These tasks are usually a huge list that they planned for themselves.  Type A is usually competitive and has a high challenging spirit.
  53. 53.  Type B Personality  Type B personality is almost the opposite of Type A. This type of person is relaxed by nature and has no sense of time urgency  Type Bs have got no problems relaxing or sitting without doing anything  Type Bs may delay the work they have to the last moment and they usually don't get stressed that easily.  Type B could be an achiever too but his lack of sense of time urgency helps him much in not feeling stressed while doing his tasks.
  54. 54.  Similarities and Differences  Type A and Type B personalities can have benefits as well as negative effects on one's life. Type A personality is prone to strokes, depression, low self-esteem, and inability to handle failure.  Type B personality may find themselves unsatisfied with their achievements in life in the long run because with low risk comes lower rewards.  Understanding the hostility that goes along with a Type A personality is the first step towards making changes to ease internal stress and stress inducers and to making a conscious effort to find balance in everyday life.
  55. 55.  Type A Personality People falling under this category will have characteristics that portray them as people with a lot of time urgency and impatience. Money and finances mean a lot to them, so much so, that even their relationships, they think, should be based on money. These people prioritize their work over all their relationships, since they are so particular about time and the way they spend their time. They have the urge to do something productive all the time or else may be engulfed with guilt of wasting time. A good thing about these people are that they are achievers in everything that they get themselves into, they have the ability to succeed even in ventures they know nothing about due to their competitiveness and challenging spirit. You will find such people planning out their time and also adhering to the plan most of the time. Other characteristics include aggressiveness and a short tempered nature, they are achievement oriented and have a great deal of trouble relaxing and taking it easy. Type B Personality The type B personality people are quite the opposite of the type A personality people. These people are patient to a large extent, are easygoing and take things slowly and steadily. They do not believe in hurrying into things, take time to think and ponder before acting and may also delay their work to the last minute. These people love to socialize and be in the company of both known and unknown people. They often manage to grab quite a lot of attention wherever they go and seek comfort more than success while working. They are considerate, caring and approachable and know how to maintain their relationships well. They also know how to maintain a balance between their professional and personal life, which leads them to be lot more satisfied with their lives.
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