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Human body systems & functions


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Human body systems & functions

  1. 1. Human Body Systems & Functions Profa.Juliris Navarro JNF - COPYRIGHT
  2. 2. Integumentary System THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM IS THE SKIN. Is regulates body temperature, acts as a sensory receptor to internal and external stimuli, excretes waste from the body trough sweat, and absorbs vitamin D and calcium from sunlight to nourish the body. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  3. 3. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM The heart and circulatory system (blood vessels, including arteries, veins and capillaries) make up the cardiovascular system. It delivers blood to all the body’s tissues, carrying nutrients and oxygen to every cell within the body and removing waste products ( such as carbon dioxide). Oxygen rich blood is carried to the parts of the body through the arteries. The veins carry blood back to the heart. The Pulmonary Vein carries blood to the lungs where carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen. - COPYRIGHT JNF
  4. 4. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM The circulatory system is composed of the heart and the blood vessels and provides cells within the body with nutrients (via blood). Pulmonary circulation is the loop from the heart to the lungs and back again. While System Circulation (what we usually think of as our circulatory system) sends blood from the heart to all the other parts of our bodies and back again. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  5. 5. LYMPHATIC SYSTEM The lymphatic system works with the circulatory system to distribute fluids and nutrients throughout the body, and rids the body of unnecessary substances through a clear to yellow fluid referred to as “lymph” which contains white blood cells, proteins and fats. It also aids the immune system in removing and destroying waste, debris, dead blood cells, pathogens, toxins, and cancer cells, and drains excess fluids and protein to prevent edema. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  6. 6. LYMPHATIC NODES The role of the lymph nodes is to filter lymph before it can return to the circulatory system. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  7. 7. URINARY SYSTEM The urinary system or urinary tract includes the urethra, the bladder, two ureters, and two kidneys. It is the system that produces, stores, and eliminates urine. The male and female urinary system only differs in the length of the urethra. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  8. 8. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM This is a system of glands that produce and secrete hormones. Hormones regulate the body’s growth, metabolism, sexual development, and function. The major glands that make up the endocrine system are the thyroid, parathyroid glands, pituitary, hypothalamus, adrenal glands, pineal body and reproductive glands ( ovaries and testes). JNF - COPYRIGHT
  9. 9. NERVOUS SYSTEM This is a complex system consisting of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that regulates and coordinates body activities. It sends and receives information via electrical signals carried by the nerves and interprets that information in the brain. The CNS is mad up of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS is made up of our nerves, sense organs (eyes, ears, etc.) and other neural elements ( receptors in muscles, skin, joints, etc.). JNF - COPYRIGHT
  10. 10. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM This is the system by which both male and female humans reproduce. It is sometimes called the genital system as it is made up of the organs in the pelvic region that contribute toward the reproductive process. The organs of the female reproductive system include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, and mammary glands. The male reproductive system includes the testes, scrotum, penis, vas deferens and prostate. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  11. 11. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The male reproductive system includes the testes, scrotum, penis, vas deferens and prostate. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  12. 12. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The main organs of the digestive system consist of the mouth, tongue, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, anus, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. This system is responsible for ingesting and digesting food, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating waste. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  13. 13. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM This system is responsible for delivering oxygenated blood to al parts of the body. Through breathing, the body inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide, warms and moisturizes the air, and filters debris. The main organs of the respiratory system include the pharynx, larynx, nasal cavity, oral cavity, trachea, lungs, bronchus, bronchioles, and alveoli. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  14. 14. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM This is the system that gives the human body form and stability and enables movement. It consist of bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage, and other connective tissue. Connective tissue assists in the support function of this system and is made of elastic fibers and collagen, a protein substance. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  15. 15. SPINE ( Vertebral Column) Strong, flexible group of bones which provides structure for the upper body. It encloses and protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and serves as an attachment for ribs. (Also known as Spinal Column) Five regions of the spine: 1. Cervical 2. Thoracic 3. Lumbar 4. Sacral 5. Coccygeal (coccyx) JNF - COPYRIGHT
  16. 16. CERVICAL VERTEBRAE Uppermost part of the spine. C1 –C7 (neck bones) JNF - COPYRIGHT
  17. 17. THORACIC VERTEBRAE This is the mid- section of the spine (mid back), and makes up the largest part of the spinal column. Found below the Cervical, and above the Lumbar regions. T1 – T12 Articulate with (attach to) the 12 pairs of ribs. (Formerly known as Dorsal Spine) JNF - COPYRIGHT
  18. 18. LUMBAR VERTEBRAE Below the thoracic spine. L1 – L5 Strongest and larges of spinal bones. (lower back, small of back) The load of body weight is increased at the lower end of spine, therefore it is a common place for backaches, injury and pathology. This is the area where the sciatic nerve lies ( the large nerve that branches down into the legs) and pain in this region (sciatica) can radiate from the back all the way down to the foot. JNF - COPYRIGHT
  19. 19. REFERENCES MOSBY’S DICTIONARY of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions 9th Edition JNF - COPYRIGHT