French revolution

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4th ESO, Ciencias Sociales

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French revolution

  1. 1. LOUIS XVI execution
  2. 2.  THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION  Deficit crisis  French soldiers who helped came inspired Signing of the Declaration of Independence
  3. 3.  Enlightenment:  Liberty  Equality  Reason  Progress John Locke (1632-1704)
  4. 4.  DEFICIT CRISIS AND BAD HARVESTS ◦ Seven Years´s War ◦ Squandering ◦ Bad harvests since 1878 ◦ Tax exemptions
  5. 5. BANCKRUPTCY LUOIS XVI required moneyasked the privilegeds for pay taxes refused
  6. 6.  LOUIS XVI was forced to call the Estates General (1st time since 1614):
  7. 7.  Representatives from the third estate demanded that voting by the population. Representatives of the privilegeds demanded each estate had one vote: majority.
  8. 8. The third estate left the Estates General They met at a tennis court The Third Estate declared itself to be NATIONAL ASSEMBLYThe members of this meet swore not to separate until France had a CONSTITUTION
  9. 9. National assembly was threatened by the Armythe people of Paris supporting the AssemblySTORMING OF THE BASTILLE: 14 July 1789
  10. 10. Colours of ParisColours of theBourbon family
  11. 11.  1791: CONSTITUTION:  France became a constitional monarch  Separation of powers:  Executive: KING  Legislative: LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY  National sovereignty  Equal justicie under law  Limited suffrage
  12. 12.  ELECTIONS: limited suffrage: political parties:  ROYALIST  LA PLAINE: moderate majority  REPUBLICANS:  Moderates: misnamed GIRONDINS  Radical: JACOBINS supported by Sans Culottes  Extremist: MONTAGNARDS
  13. 13. LOUIS XVI attemped to escape.He and his family were stopped. First time: THE REPUBLIC is possible.
  14. 14.  Monarchies of Europe considered intervene:  EMPEROR OF AUSTRIA (Marie Antoinette´s brother) Legislative Assembly preemptively declared war on Austria: april 1792 AUSTRIA vs FRANCE PRUSSIA
  15. 15.  Initial battles of the war: DISASTERSANS COLOTTESLA COMMUNE RIOTS IN PARISPEOPLE OF PARIS 10 august 1792 assaulted the Tuileries Palace The King took refuge in the Legislative Assembly
  16. 16. Suspend the KingLEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY just 1/3 of the deputies were Decreed the convocation of present, most of the a NATIONAL Jacobins. CONVENTION elected by universal male suffrage
  17. 17. SEPTEMBER MASSACRES 2 september 1792: Prussian army invaded France Mob Killed 1500 (Sans Culottessupported by Jacobins prisioners and Montagnards)
  18. 18. 1ST ERUPEAN ELECTIONS WITH UNIVERSAL MALE SUFFRAGE NATIONAL CONVENTION: legislative power
  19. 19. The National Convention proclaimed: FRENCH FIRST REPUBLIC
  20. 20.  January 1793: LOUIS XVI was executed by guillotine European monarchies declared war on France
  21. 21.  War went badly Price increase Sans culottes riots Counter-revolutionary activities
  22. 22. Mop and La Commune sorrounded the National Convention Demanded the arrest of the “Girondins”The National Convention surrendered to the threat
  23. 23. Canons aim to the National Convention
  24. 24.  Jacobins controlled the Convention They created: COMMITEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY  led by ROBBESPIERRE  de facto executive goverment  no power to the Legislative assembly  really: DICTATORSHIP
  25. 25.  Levée en masse Law of the Maximus: price controls Cult of reason: closed the churchs
  26. 26.  Levée en masse ◦ obligatory military service. ◦ 300.000 men from all the departments of France. ◦ some departments refused to the Levée:  WAR IN THE VENDÉE  REVOLT IN LYON
  27. 27.  Law of the Maximum:  setting price limit  trying to establishing a managed economy  consequences:  killing those hid food: TERROR  shortage
  28. 28. CULT OF REASON was replaced byCULT OF THE SUPREME BEING became a state religion by Robbespierre
  29. 29.  Almost 200.000 people were killed: ◦ 1st: counter- revolutionary ◦ 2nd: counter-jacobins ◦ 3rd: counter- Robbespierre
  30. 30. July 1794 COUP D´ETAT (moderates) Jacobins and Robespierre were guillotined
  31. 31. European absolutism Frenchconservative French absolutismbourgeoisie French extremism
  32. 32.  Limited suffrage Separation of powers  Executive: THE DIRECTORY COUNCIL OF FIVE HUNDRED  Legislative: bicameral COUNCIL OF ANCIENTS
  33. 33. European kingdomsWAR Absolutist threats POWER TO THE ARMY Radical threats
  34. 34. The most famous militar was a young officer from Corsica NAPOLEON BONAPARTEVictories in Italy (1797) and Egypt (1798) Napoleon crossing the Alps, David
  35. 35. Bonaparte with the support of moderate group: End of DIRECTORYCOUP D´ETAT Start of CONSULATE

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