Chapter 8 & 9: The Brewery,      Lagers & Ales
History   Grain made into beer before used in bread baking   Primitive peoples derived much of their calories    from be...
History Continued   Brewers art came from Pasteurs experiments with    yeast.       Sterilizing through pasteurization. ...
Beer Defined   Generic term for all fermented beverages    made from malted grain.       Minimum Etoh content of 0.5% an...
Beer Facts   Average operation carries up to 20 bottled brands and up to    5 tap beers.   45% of all beer sold in U.S. ...
2012 Top 5 Beer Drinking States   New Hampshire- 43 gal/person   North Dakota- 42.2 gal/person   Montana- 40.6 gal/pers...
Bottom 5 Beer Drinking States (from Beer Institute)   Utah- 19.4 gal/person   Connecticut- 22.1 gal/person   New York- ...
How Beers Are Made   Two major classes: Lagers and Ales       Lager- Bottom fermented 37-49 F. Stored        (lagered) t...
Lager/Ale Taste Profile   Lagers are smoother and thought to be    more elegant. Over 80% of market.   Ales are more hea...
Beer Ingredients   Barley Malt- flavor, head, body and color   Water- Main ingredient   Hops- bitter flavor
Beer Ingredients   Yeast- fermentation   Most brewers use dried or roasted malt. Cheap    beers use malt extract.      ...
Beer Ingredients Continued   Adjuncts- Rice & Corn. Give beer lighter color and flavor       Premium beers use more barl...
Process of Making Beer   Hot Water Tank                   Malt                                                 Mash Tun   ...
Process of Making Beer   Mashing malt and hot water       Converts starches to sugars       Cooked 1-6 hours at 169 F  ...
Process of Making Beer Cont.   Fermenting       1 week       Less for ales more for lagers       CO2 may be collected ...
Process of Making Beer Cont.   Lagering       Some beers are given additional fermenting wort        (krausening)      ...
Video Clip: How Beer is Made   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FttkHVBu2IA
Types of Beer- Lagers   Pilsner- Most popular (Bud, Miller, Coors)       Original Pilsner- Pilsner Urquell   Light beer...
Types of Beer- Lagers   Malt liquor- higher alcohol content   Bock- strong, heavy, dark lager. 4 types of bock   Steam ...
Types of Beer- Lagers Bock   Types of Bock beer       Traditional- Sweet relatively strong (6.3-7.2%), lightly        ho...
Types of Beer- Lagers Bock   Types of Bock beer       Doppelbock- stronger version of traditional        bock        (7-...
Types of Beer- Lagers   Types of Bock beer       Eisbock- removing ice from partially frozen barrels of        beer. (9-...
Types of Beer- Lagers   Steam beer- higher fermenting temps      due    to shortage of ice   Dry beer- Less sweet   Ice...
Types of Beer- Ales   General characteristics of Ales- fruity    flavor, more body and hops flavors.   Cream ale- hop an...
Types of Beer- Ales   Pale ale- copper colored and strong flavored       Yeastier and more hoppy than cream ale       U...
Types of Beer- Ales   Types of Pale ales       Amber ale- brewed with crystal malt to        produce amber color       ...
Types of Beer- Ales   Types of Pale ales       Burton Pale Ale- Burton upon Trent brewers made this.        Bass Ale. Wa...
Types of Beer- Ales   Types of Pale ales- Strong pale    ales        American Strong Ale- 7% or higher         alcohol  ...
Types of Beer- Ales   India Pale Ale (IPA)- Hearty and    hoppy. Super premium British    ale.       American IPA and Be...
Types of Beer- Ales   Porter- Dark colored style of beer named after    street and river porters of London.       Brewed...
Types of Beer- Ales   Types of Stout       Dry or Irish- toast or coffee like        taste (Guinness)       Imperial St...
Types of Beer- Ales   Types of Stout        Chocolate Stout- dark chocolate         flavor through use of darker,       ...
Types of Beer- Ales   Wheat Beer (White beer)       60% wheat in malt       Fruity tartness and are often laced with fr...
Types of Beer- Ales   Names and types of Wheat Beer    (White beer)       Weissbier, short weisse- Used in        southe...
Types of Beer- Ales   Names and types of Wheat    Beer (White beer)       Kristallweissbier or        kristalweizein- fi...
Non-Alcoholic Beer   Must be labeled non-alcoholic malt    beverage       Less than 0.5% alcohol       Sometimes called...
Craft Breweries                    source: Brewers Association   Growing while large breweries are shrinking       2010 ...
Beer and Food         Pairings   Amber ale- vinaigrettes   Fruity ales- spicy dishes   Porters, brown ales- beef,    ga...
Beer and Food Pairings   Lagers- seafood   Stout- nutty, chocolaty    desserts
2012 Ten best selling beers by       market share source: saveonbrew.com   1 Bud light- 19.2%   2 Budweiser- 12%   3 Mi...
2012 Ten best selling beers by       market share source: saveonbrew.com   7 Busch- 2.8%   8 Busch light- 2.8%   9 Hein...
2011 Ten favorite imports source: statista.com   1 Corona Extra   2 Heineken   3 Corona Light   4 Modelo Especial   5...
2011 Ten favorite imports source: statista.com   7 Dos Equis XX Lager Especial   8 Newcastle Brown Ale   9 Heineken Pre...
2011 Best Selling American Craft       Beers source: beervana.blogspot.com   1 Sierra Nevada Pale Ale   2 Sam Adams Bost...
2011 Best Selling American Craft       Beers source: beervana.blogspot.com   7 Sam Adams Light   8 Redhook IPA   9 Kona...
2010 Best Selling American Craft       Styles source: beervana.blogspot.com   1 IPA- 19.4%   2 Pale Ale- 18.0%   3 Ambe...
2010 Five Largest Microbreweries in       America source: metafilter.com   1 Boston Brewing Company, Boston, MA   2 Sier...
Storing and Caring for Beer   Beer has shelf life       Canned and bottled 3-4 months       Rotate   Storage       40...
Quality of Beer   Frozen beer will precipitate solids when frozen and    thawed   Proper CO2 pressure 12-15 PSI   Don’t...
Serving Beer   Glass must be free from oil, lint   How to pour a beer
Video Clip: How to Pour a Beer   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b88pSBIpL-M
Video Clip: How to Tap a Keg   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGAdw2tDWZY
Questions?Rich Neumann (neumann@ohio.edu)
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Rht 4400 ch 8 & 9 the brewery, lagers & ales(1)

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Rht 4400 ch 8 & 9 the brewery, lagers & ales(1)

  1. 1. Chapter 8 & 9: The Brewery, Lagers & Ales
  2. 2. History Grain made into beer before used in bread baking Primitive peoples derived much of their calories from beer and bread Washington’s army received 1 qt/day
  3. 3. History Continued Brewers art came from Pasteurs experiments with yeast.  Sterilizing through pasteurization.  Process used 22 years prior to being applied to milk Egyptians made beer from corn Pilgrims brought ale to America. Staple of the Puritan diet because it was safer than water
  4. 4. Beer Defined Generic term for all fermented beverages made from malted grain.  Minimum Etoh content of 0.5% and no maximum
  5. 5. Beer Facts Average operation carries up to 20 bottled brands and up to 5 tap beers. 45% of all beer sold in U.S. is in a restaurant or bar. Beer consumption in the U.S. in 2010- 220,958,853 gal.  Per capita consumption of 28.9 gal. (based on 21+ population)  OH- 31.3 gal. #20 in U.S. Compared to 2003 beer consumption in the U.S. has dropped 5.5%. Compared to 1990 dropped 16% (35.4 gal) What are the top 5 beer drinking states and bottom five?
  6. 6. 2012 Top 5 Beer Drinking States New Hampshire- 43 gal/person North Dakota- 42.2 gal/person Montana- 40.6 gal/person South Dakota- 38 gal/person Nevada- 36.5 gal/person
  7. 7. Bottom 5 Beer Drinking States (from Beer Institute) Utah- 19.4 gal/person Connecticut- 22.1 gal/person New York- 22.6 gal/person New Jersey- 23.1 gal/person Maryland- 24.1 gal/person
  8. 8. How Beers Are Made Two major classes: Lagers and Ales  Lager- Bottom fermented 37-49 F. Stored (lagered) to mellow for several weeks or months  Ale- Top fermented 50-70 F. Aged for only a few days  First type of beer  Britain: Brewing done by female of house
  9. 9. Lager/Ale Taste Profile Lagers are smoother and thought to be more elegant. Over 80% of market. Ales are more hearty, full bodied and robust. Bocks and double bocks are dark and malty beers that are more ale like. Wheat beers are light in color and dry.
  10. 10. Beer Ingredients Barley Malt- flavor, head, body and color Water- Main ingredient Hops- bitter flavor
  11. 11. Beer Ingredients Yeast- fermentation Most brewers use dried or roasted malt. Cheap beers use malt extract.  Roasting affects dryness and sweetness of beer as well as color
  12. 12. Beer Ingredients Continued Adjuncts- Rice & Corn. Give beer lighter color and flavor  Premium beers use more barley malt.  In Germany adjuncts are prohibited  Bavarian Purity Order 1516- barley, water, yeast, hops Additives may be used to stabilize beer foam, prevent cloudiness, and increase shelf life
  13. 13. Process of Making Beer Hot Water Tank Malt Mash Tun Hops Copper Brewing Kettle Hopback Heat Exch Bottling Add Yeast to Fermenter Cask/Ke g
  14. 14. Process of Making Beer Mashing malt and hot water  Converts starches to sugars  Cooked 1-6 hours at 169 F  Remaining liquid called wort goes to brew kettle Brewing  Boil wort with hops for 1 to 2.5 hours  Cool wort to 50-70 F for ale, 37-49 F for lager
  15. 15. Process of Making Beer Cont. Fermenting  1 week  Less for ales more for lagers  CO2 may be collected and stored Lagering  Makes beer more mellow  Near freezing temps. For weeks or months  Stainless steel or glass lined tanks
  16. 16. Process of Making Beer Cont. Lagering  Some beers are given additional fermenting wort (krausening)  If not krausened add CO2 Filtered, kegged, bottled, or canned  Canned & bottled beers pasteurized  Bruised beer- warmed and cooled Unpasteurized beer must be refrigerated
  17. 17. Video Clip: How Beer is Made http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FttkHVBu2IA
  18. 18. Types of Beer- Lagers Pilsner- Most popular (Bud, Miller, Coors)  Original Pilsner- Pilsner Urquell Light beer- less calories
  19. 19. Types of Beer- Lagers Malt liquor- higher alcohol content Bock- strong, heavy, dark lager. 4 types of bock Steam beer Dry beer Ice beer
  20. 20. Types of Beer- Lagers Bock Types of Bock beer  Traditional- Sweet relatively strong (6.3-7.2%), lightly hopped.  Light copper to brown. Good off white head  Aroma is malty and toasty. No detectable hops or fruitiness  Taste is rich and toasty with a bit of caramel  Maibock/Helles Bock  Lighter in color with more hop presence  Flavor is lest malty than traditional bock drier/hoppier
  21. 21. Types of Beer- Lagers Bock Types of Bock beer  Doppelbock- stronger version of traditional bock (7-12%)  Liquid bread- high in alcohol and sweet  Dark gold to dark brown  Aroma is intensely malty with toasty notes  Brewers add “-ator” to beer’s name  Eisbock- removing ice from partially frozen barrels of beer.  Partial freezing concentrates flavor and alcohol content
  22. 22. Types of Beer- Lagers Types of Bock beer  Eisbock- removing ice from partially frozen barrels of beer. (9-13%)  Partial freezing concentrates flavor and alcohol content  Deep copper to dark brown  Smooth with significant alcohol but not hot or sharp  Rich, sweet flavor with hints of chocolate
  23. 23. Types of Beer- Lagers Steam beer- higher fermenting temps due to shortage of ice Dry beer- Less sweet Ice beer  Name originated in Canada  Beer is pumped through tank of ice crystals before filtration.  Freezing allowed removal of compounds creating a smoother beer
  24. 24. Types of Beer- Ales General characteristics of Ales- fruity flavor, more body and hops flavors. Cream ale- hop and malt flavor subdued  Light and refreshing- straw to pale golden color  Undergo extended period of lagering after primary fermentation leading to a cleaner flavor  Adjuncts used- corn and rice to lighten body and flavor Pale ale- copper colored and strong flavored
  25. 25. Types of Beer- Ales Pale ale- copper colored and strong flavored  Yeastier and more hoppy than cream ale  Used pale malt. Color is translucent rather than light.  Term started in 1703. Beers made from malts dried with coke resulting in lighter color.
  26. 26. Types of Beer- Ales Types of Pale ales  Amber ale- brewed with crystal malt to produce amber color  American Pale Ale (APA)- Uses significant amount of American hops, typically Cascade. Sierra Nevada Pale Ale.  Biere de Garde- “Keeping beer” brewed in Pas-de-Calais region of France
  27. 27. Types of Beer- Ales Types of Pale ales  Burton Pale Ale- Burton upon Trent brewers made this. Bass Ale. Water influenced by Gypsum.  English bitter- Customers used the term to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeable hopped beers  Irish red ale- Smithwick’s. Can be used to describe a red beer such as Killian’s which is a lager.
  28. 28. Types of Beer- Ales Types of Pale ales- Strong pale ales  American Strong Ale- 7% or higher alcohol  May be double India Pale Ale  Strong Ale- Brewed in England 5% or higher  Scotch Ale- Originated in Edinburgh. McEwan’s Scotch Ale 8%.
  29. 29. Types of Beer- Ales India Pale Ale (IPA)- Hearty and hoppy. Super premium British ale.  American IPA and Belgian Style IPA- origin of hops  Double IPA- strong and very hoppy Bitter Ale- Copper colored high in flavor and low in alcohol
  30. 30. Types of Beer- Ales Porter- Dark colored style of beer named after street and river porters of London.  Brewed with dark malts Stout- strongest porters 7-8%
  31. 31. Types of Beer- Ales Types of Stout  Dry or Irish- toast or coffee like taste (Guinness)  Imperial Stout- Style brewed in 18th century by Thrale’s brewery in London. 9-10%  Milk Stout- contains lactose. Adds sweetness, body, and calories to the beer.  Oatmeal Stout- up to 30% oats. Too many oats make bitter beer
  32. 32. Types of Beer- Ales Types of Stout  Chocolate Stout- dark chocolate flavor through use of darker, more aromatic malt. Sometimes have chocolate added to them.  Coffee Stout- Use black patent malt and sometimes coffee.  Oyster Stout- Made with a handful of oysters
  33. 33. Types of Beer- Ales Wheat Beer (White beer)  60% wheat in malt  Fruity tartness and are often laced with fruit such as cherries or raspberries  Main varieties: weissbier, witbier, and lambic
  34. 34. Types of Beer- Ales Names and types of Wheat Beer (White beer)  Weissbier, short weisse- Used in southern German state of Bavaria. Weisse is German for white.  Weizenbier, short weizen- German for wheat  Hefeweissbier or hefeweizen- “Hefe” means yeast. Beer is unfiltered and might have sediment.
  35. 35. Types of Beer- Ales Names and types of Wheat Beer (White beer)  Kristallweissbier or kristalweizein- filtered weissbier  Dunkels weissbier or dunkles weizen- dark wheat beer.  Weizenbock is wheat beer made “Bock” style
  36. 36. Non-Alcoholic Beer Must be labeled non-alcoholic malt beverage  Less than 0.5% alcohol  Sometimes called near beer  Sharps, O’Douls, Kaliber  ½ calories of regular beer
  37. 37. Craft Breweries source: Brewers Association Growing while large breweries are shrinking  2010 sales volume up 11%, dollar volume up 12%  Overall US beer sales down 1%  First half 2011 craft brew sales up 15%  Import beer sales up 5%  2010 craft beer sales were 4,95 of all beer sales (9,951,956 barrels)  2010 there were 1,753 craft breweries
  38. 38. Beer and Food Pairings Amber ale- vinaigrettes Fruity ales- spicy dishes Porters, brown ales- beef, game, other meats
  39. 39. Beer and Food Pairings Lagers- seafood Stout- nutty, chocolaty desserts
  40. 40. 2012 Ten best selling beers by market share source: saveonbrew.com 1 Bud light- 19.2% 2 Budweiser- 12% 3 Miller lite- 8.6% 4 Coors light- 7.8% 5 Natural light- 4.2% 6 Corona extra- 4.0%
  41. 41. 2012 Ten best selling beers by market share source: saveonbrew.com 7 Busch- 2.8% 8 Busch light- 2.8% 9 Heineken- 2.4% 10 Miller high life- 2.3%
  42. 42. 2011 Ten favorite imports source: statista.com 1 Corona Extra 2 Heineken 3 Corona Light 4 Modelo Especial 5 Stella Artois Lager 6 Tecate
  43. 43. 2011 Ten favorite imports source: statista.com 7 Dos Equis XX Lager Especial 8 Newcastle Brown Ale 9 Heineken Premium Light Lager 10 Guinness
  44. 44. 2011 Best Selling American Craft Beers source: beervana.blogspot.com 1 Sierra Nevada Pale Ale 2 Sam Adams Boston Lager 3 New Belgium Fat Tire 4 Shiner Bock 5 Widmer Hefeweizen 6 Sierra Nevada Torpedo
  45. 45. 2011 Best Selling American Craft Beers source: beervana.blogspot.com 7 Sam Adams Light 8 Redhook IPA 9 Kona Longboard Lager 10 Deschutes Mirror Pond
  46. 46. 2010 Best Selling American Craft Styles source: beervana.blogspot.com 1 IPA- 19.4% 2 Pale Ale- 18.0% 3 Amber Ale- 11.5% 4 Amber Lager- 9.9% 5 Wheat- 7.6% 6 Bock- 4.3% 7 Fruit beer- 3.6% 8 Pale lager- 3.4%
  47. 47. 2010 Five Largest Microbreweries in America source: metafilter.com 1 Boston Brewing Company, Boston, MA 2 Sierra Nevada Brewing Company, Chico, CA 3 New Belgium Brewing Company, Fort Collins, CO 4 Spoetzl Brewery, Shiner, TX 5 Pyramid Breweries, Seattle, WA
  48. 48. Storing and Caring for Beer Beer has shelf life  Canned and bottled 3-4 months  Rotate Storage  40-70 F Unpasteurized beer 36-38 F all times  Keep out of sun  Store beer upright  Untapped draft beer 30-45 days
  49. 49. Quality of Beer Frozen beer will precipitate solids when frozen and thawed Proper CO2 pressure 12-15 PSI Don’t store beer with food Beer lines must be cleaned and sanitized Don’t let beer lines dry out
  50. 50. Serving Beer Glass must be free from oil, lint How to pour a beer
  51. 51. Video Clip: How to Pour a Beer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b88pSBIpL-M
  52. 52. Video Clip: How to Tap a Keg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGAdw2tDWZY
  53. 53. Questions?Rich Neumann (neumann@ohio.edu)

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