History Grain made into beer before used in bread baking Primitive peoples derived much of their calories from beer and bread Washington’s army received 1 qt/day
History Continued Brewers art came from Pasteurs experiments with yeast. Sterilizing through pasteurization. Process used 22 years prior to being applied to milk Egyptians made beer from corn Pilgrims brought ale to America. Staple of the Puritan diet because it was safer than water
Beer Defined Generic term for all fermented beverages made from malted grain. Minimum Etoh content of 0.5% and no maximum
Beer Facts Average operation carries up to 20 bottled brands and up to 5 tap beers. 45% of all beer sold in U.S. is in a restaurant or bar. Beer consumption in the U.S. in 2010- 220,958,853 gal. Per capita consumption of 28.9 gal. (based on 21+ population) OH- 31.3 gal. #20 in U.S. Compared to 2003 beer consumption in the U.S. has dropped 5.5%. Compared to 1990 dropped 16% (35.4 gal) What are the top 5 beer drinking states and bottom five?
2012 Top 5 Beer Drinking States New Hampshire- 43 gal/person North Dakota- 42.2 gal/person Montana- 40.6 gal/person South Dakota- 38 gal/person Nevada- 36.5 gal/person
Bottom 5 Beer Drinking States (from Beer Institute) Utah- 19.4 gal/person Connecticut- 22.1 gal/person New York- 22.6 gal/person New Jersey- 23.1 gal/person Maryland- 24.1 gal/person
How Beers Are Made Two major classes: Lagers and Ales Lager- Bottom fermented 37-49 F. Stored (lagered) to mellow for several weeks or months Ale- Top fermented 50-70 F. Aged for only a few days First type of beer Britain: Brewing done by female of house
Lager/Ale Taste Profile Lagers are smoother and thought to be more elegant. Over 80% of market. Ales are more hearty, full bodied and robust. Bocks and double bocks are dark and malty beers that are more ale like. Wheat beers are light in color and dry.
Beer Ingredients Barley Malt- flavor, head, body and color Water- Main ingredient Hops- bitter flavor
Beer Ingredients Yeast- fermentation Most brewers use dried or roasted malt. Cheap beers use malt extract. Roasting affects dryness and sweetness of beer as well as color
Beer Ingredients Continued Adjuncts- Rice & Corn. Give beer lighter color and flavor Premium beers use more barley malt. In Germany adjuncts are prohibited Bavarian Purity Order 1516- barley, water, yeast, hops Additives may be used to stabilize beer foam, prevent cloudiness, and increase shelf life
Process of Making Beer Hot Water Tank Malt Mash Tun Hops Copper Brewing Kettle Hopback Heat Exch Bottling Add Yeast to Fermenter Cask/Ke g
Process of Making Beer Mashing malt and hot water Converts starches to sugars Cooked 1-6 hours at 169 F Remaining liquid called wort goes to brew kettle Brewing Boil wort with hops for 1 to 2.5 hours Cool wort to 50-70 F for ale, 37-49 F for lager
Process of Making Beer Cont. Fermenting 1 week Less for ales more for lagers CO2 may be collected and stored Lagering Makes beer more mellow Near freezing temps. For weeks or months Stainless steel or glass lined tanks
Process of Making Beer Cont. Lagering Some beers are given additional fermenting wort (krausening) If not krausened add CO2 Filtered, kegged, bottled, or canned Canned & bottled beers pasteurized Bruised beer- warmed and cooled Unpasteurized beer must be refrigerated
Video Clip: How Beer is Made http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FttkHVBu2IA
Types of Beer- Lagers Pilsner- Most popular (Bud, Miller, Coors) Original Pilsner- Pilsner Urquell Light beer- less calories
Types of Beer- Lagers Malt liquor- higher alcohol content Bock- strong, heavy, dark lager. 4 types of bock Steam beer Dry beer Ice beer
Types of Beer- Lagers Bock Types of Bock beer Traditional- Sweet relatively strong (6.3-7.2%), lightly hopped. Light copper to brown. Good off white head Aroma is malty and toasty. No detectable hops or fruitiness Taste is rich and toasty with a bit of caramel Maibock/Helles Bock Lighter in color with more hop presence Flavor is lest malty than traditional bock drier/hoppier
Types of Beer- Lagers Bock Types of Bock beer Doppelbock- stronger version of traditional bock (7-12%) Liquid bread- high in alcohol and sweet Dark gold to dark brown Aroma is intensely malty with toasty notes Brewers add “-ator” to beer’s name Eisbock- removing ice from partially frozen barrels of beer. Partial freezing concentrates flavor and alcohol content
Types of Beer- Lagers Types of Bock beer Eisbock- removing ice from partially frozen barrels of beer. (9-13%) Partial freezing concentrates flavor and alcohol content Deep copper to dark brown Smooth with significant alcohol but not hot or sharp Rich, sweet flavor with hints of chocolate
Types of Beer- Lagers Steam beer- higher fermenting temps due to shortage of ice Dry beer- Less sweet Ice beer Name originated in Canada Beer is pumped through tank of ice crystals before filtration. Freezing allowed removal of compounds creating a smoother beer
Types of Beer- Ales General characteristics of Ales- fruity flavor, more body and hops flavors. Cream ale- hop and malt flavor subdued Light and refreshing- straw to pale golden color Undergo extended period of lagering after primary fermentation leading to a cleaner flavor Adjuncts used- corn and rice to lighten body and flavor Pale ale- copper colored and strong flavored
Types of Beer- Ales Pale ale- copper colored and strong flavored Yeastier and more hoppy than cream ale Used pale malt. Color is translucent rather than light. Term started in 1703. Beers made from malts dried with coke resulting in lighter color.
Types of Beer- Ales Types of Pale ales Amber ale- brewed with crystal malt to produce amber color American Pale Ale (APA)- Uses significant amount of American hops, typically Cascade. Sierra Nevada Pale Ale. Biere de Garde- “Keeping beer” brewed in Pas-de-Calais region of France
Types of Beer- Ales Types of Pale ales Burton Pale Ale- Burton upon Trent brewers made this. Bass Ale. Water influenced by Gypsum. English bitter- Customers used the term to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeable hopped beers Irish red ale- Smithwick’s. Can be used to describe a red beer such as Killian’s which is a lager.
Types of Beer- Ales Types of Pale ales- Strong pale ales American Strong Ale- 7% or higher alcohol May be double India Pale Ale Strong Ale- Brewed in England 5% or higher Scotch Ale- Originated in Edinburgh. McEwan’s Scotch Ale 8%.
Types of Beer- Ales India Pale Ale (IPA)- Hearty and hoppy. Super premium British ale. American IPA and Belgian Style IPA- origin of hops Double IPA- strong and very hoppy Bitter Ale- Copper colored high in flavor and low in alcohol
Types of Beer- Ales Porter- Dark colored style of beer named after street and river porters of London. Brewed with dark malts Stout- strongest porters 7-8%
Types of Beer- Ales Types of Stout Dry or Irish- toast or coffee like taste (Guinness) Imperial Stout- Style brewed in 18th century by Thrale’s brewery in London. 9-10% Milk Stout- contains lactose. Adds sweetness, body, and calories to the beer. Oatmeal Stout- up to 30% oats. Too many oats make bitter beer
Types of Beer- Ales Types of Stout Chocolate Stout- dark chocolate flavor through use of darker, more aromatic malt. Sometimes have chocolate added to them. Coffee Stout- Use black patent malt and sometimes coffee. Oyster Stout- Made with a handful of oysters
Types of Beer- Ales Wheat Beer (White beer) 60% wheat in malt Fruity tartness and are often laced with fruit such as cherries or raspberries Main varieties: weissbier, witbier, and lambic
Types of Beer- Ales Names and types of Wheat Beer (White beer) Weissbier, short weisse- Used in southern German state of Bavaria. Weisse is German for white. Weizenbier, short weizen- German for wheat Hefeweissbier or hefeweizen- “Hefe” means yeast. Beer is unfiltered and might have sediment.
Types of Beer- Ales Names and types of Wheat Beer (White beer) Kristallweissbier or kristalweizein- filtered weissbier Dunkels weissbier or dunkles weizen- dark wheat beer. Weizenbock is wheat beer made “Bock” style
Non-Alcoholic Beer Must be labeled non-alcoholic malt beverage Less than 0.5% alcohol Sometimes called near beer Sharps, O’Douls, Kaliber ½ calories of regular beer
Craft Breweries source: Brewers Association Growing while large breweries are shrinking 2010 sales volume up 11%, dollar volume up 12% Overall US beer sales down 1% First half 2011 craft brew sales up 15% Import beer sales up 5% 2010 craft beer sales were 4,95 of all beer sales (9,951,956 barrels) 2010 there were 1,753 craft breweries
Beer and Food Pairings Amber ale- vinaigrettes Fruity ales- spicy dishes Porters, brown ales- beef, game, other meats
2011 Ten favorite imports source: statista.com 7 Dos Equis XX Lager Especial 8 Newcastle Brown Ale 9 Heineken Premium Light Lager 10 Guinness
2011 Best Selling American Craft Beers source: beervana.blogspot.com 1 Sierra Nevada Pale Ale 2 Sam Adams Boston Lager 3 New Belgium Fat Tire 4 Shiner Bock 5 Widmer Hefeweizen 6 Sierra Nevada Torpedo
2011 Best Selling American Craft Beers source: beervana.blogspot.com 7 Sam Adams Light 8 Redhook IPA 9 Kona Longboard Lager 10 Deschutes Mirror Pond
2010 Best Selling American Craft Styles source: beervana.blogspot.com 1 IPA- 19.4% 2 Pale Ale- 18.0% 3 Amber Ale- 11.5% 4 Amber Lager- 9.9% 5 Wheat- 7.6% 6 Bock- 4.3% 7 Fruit beer- 3.6% 8 Pale lager- 3.4%
2010 Five Largest Microbreweries in America source: metafilter.com 1 Boston Brewing Company, Boston, MA 2 Sierra Nevada Brewing Company, Chico, CA 3 New Belgium Brewing Company, Fort Collins, CO 4 Spoetzl Brewery, Shiner, TX 5 Pyramid Breweries, Seattle, WA
Storing and Caring for Beer Beer has shelf life Canned and bottled 3-4 months Rotate Storage 40-70 F Unpasteurized beer 36-38 F all times Keep out of sun Store beer upright Untapped draft beer 30-45 days
Quality of Beer Frozen beer will precipitate solids when frozen and thawed Proper CO2 pressure 12-15 PSI Don’t store beer with food Beer lines must be cleaned and sanitized Don’t let beer lines dry out
Serving Beer Glass must be free from oil, lint How to pour a beer
Video Clip: How to Pour a Beer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b88pSBIpL-M
Video Clip: How to Tap a Keg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JGAdw2tDWZY