Rht 4400 ch 7 other wines sparkling fortified dessert(1)
Chapter 7: Other Wines:Sparkling, Fortified & Dessert
Sparkling Wines: Asti Spumante and Champagnes History Discovered by Dom Perignon more than 300 years ago. 2nd fermentation. Name comes from the Champagne district in France. USA champagne is any sparkling white wine.
Sparkling Wines: Asti Spumante and Champagnes Majority of champagnes are non vintage or classic champagne. Must set aside 20% of each years wine production for non-vintage use.
Fortified Wines Wines with added alcohol in the form of brandy. Examples: Sherry, Vermouth, Port Cannot use word fortify on label 16-24% is fortified wine
Types of Fortified Wines Aperitif- aromatic herbs and spices Term comes from the Latin derivative the means to open. Examples: Dry and Sweet Vermouth. Dry is French and sweet is Italian
Types of Fortified Wines Dessert- Sweet, rich, and heavy. Examples: Port, Sherry, Madeira, Marsala, Muscatel Sherry and Marsala can be dry and served as an aperitif. Fortified wines served chilled or room temp. Sweet: chilled, Dry: room temp.
Sherry and Port Port- add neutral brandy during fermentation Port types Ruby- dark and fruity. Lower quality wine made into ruby port. Aged 3 years. Least expensive Vintage Character Ports- High quality blended from several vintages. Lightest and fruitiest
Port Types Continued Tawny Port Pictured Late Bottled Vintage Port (LBV)- Aged 4-6 yrs. Tawny Port- Named after color. Aged up to 40 yrs. More delicate distinct nutty aroma. White Port- ferments longer than ruby or tawny which makes it drier. Aperitif. Vintage- Grapes of particular year. 2% of all ports. Most $.
Port Types Continued Second Label Vintage Ports- Very good but not vintage Single Quinta Ports- Similar to single vineyard reserve wine.
Video Clip Port http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s1JrrhLSqLg
Madeira Comes from island of Madeira 350 miles from Morocco. Portuguese word for Island of Wood. Brandy added and wine heated to 120 F. Heat and oxidation give wine a nutty, caramel quality.
Five Levels of Madeira Malmsey- Sweetest. Named after grape Malvasia. Honey flavor with overtones of chocolate and figs. Bual- Bual grape. Medium-sweet to sweet. Fruit and butter Rainwater- Newest style. Made by accident when shipper’s Madeira became waterlogged in heavy rain.
Five Levels of Madeira Verdelho- Medium dry to semi-dry. Gentle, smooth, smoky flavor and is great for cooking. Sercial- Driest from Sercial grape.
Video Clip Madiera Wine Co. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UFkRjhoF5XU
Marsala Youngest of the major fortified wines. Grapes indigenous to Sicily. Named after port city of Marsala. Classified according to sweetness, color, and class or ranking.
Marsala Sweetness Classifications Secco- dry, 4% maximum residual sugar Semisecco- semi dry, 10% maximum residual sugar. Dolce- Sweet. More than 10% residual sugar.
Marsala Color Classifications Oro- gold Ambra- Amber. Wine reduced 1/3 original volume Mixture of semidried grapes and alcohol (sifone) added to give it sweetness. Rubino- Ruby. Can be mixed with up to 30% white grapes.
Marsala Quality Classifications Marsala fine- Aged at least 1 year, minimum alcohol 17%. Marsala Superiore- Aged at least 2 years, minimum alcohol 18%. If aged 4 years in wood, can add word riserva to the label. L.P.- London Particular S.O.M.- Superior Old Marsala G.D.- Garidaldi Dolce.
Marsala Quality Classifications Cont. Marsala Vergine- Limited to secco in level of sweetness. Aged 5 yrs, minimum alcohol content is 18%. If aged 10 years can add stravechhio or reserva to label.
Sherry Sherry- brandy added after fermentation. Air touches wine and oxidizes it. It is a blend. Use several vintages called the solera system.
How Sherry is Made Solera system- ages and matures sherry that allows producer to maintain same stly from year to year. 1st row filled with first year’s wine production 2nd year 1/3 of first year’s wine removed and replaced with the second year’s production. Date indicates year the solera started. Oxidation very important.
Seven Styles of Sherry Finos Fino- Lightest. Pale, dry, and fragrant. Thick yeast blanket called flor must form on top of sherry. Serve chilled Manzanilla- saltiness Amontillado- Flor is thinner and has more age to it and tends to be dry.
Seven Styles of Sherry Olorosos- Oloroso- aged for many years. Can be dry or sweet. Palo Cortado- Lighter in flavor Cream sherries- sweet dessert wine PX- Pedro Ximenez grapes. Very sweet. Blended or topping for ice cream. Sherries usually dessert or apertif wine.
Video Clip Sherry http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0fqyj8a2Xuc&featur
Serving Wines- Wine at Bar Served in 8-9 oz glass 5-6 oz serving Hold glass by stem Proper temp. 40-50 F for whites and roses 55-70 for reds Ordered on rocks still use wine glass
Serving Wines- Table Service Proper table setting Wine glass to right of water glass Arrange in order of service with first at the right Use 8-9 oz glass Dessert wines served in small after dinner glass
Serving Wines White wine Keep white wine in cool place and chill as ordered Crushed ice in bottom of wine cooler, put bottle in and surround with crushed ice Red wine Open at table and allow to breathe before pouring
Serving Wine at the Table Present wine for hosts approval Open bottle Insert corkscrew slightly off center Place cork in front of host Pour 1 oz in host’s glass Pour wine going counter clockwise
Serving Wine at the Table Return wine to cooler (white) Place wine next to host (red)
Serving Champagne Always served well chilled Try not to agitate 45 degree angle. Hold cork firmly and twist bottle in one direction Keep bottle at angle for at least 5 sec. Have empty glass in front of you
Serving Champagne Serve in 2 motions 1st brings froth When subsides fill glass 2/3 full Put bottle back into cooler
Decanting Old Wines Reds 5 or more years old and rare white wines develop sediment. Decanter placed on table with a lighted candle positioned behind shoulder of bottle Server pours wine slowly in single motion until sediment approaches neck. Remainder of wine is discarded.
Video Clip: Decanting Old Wines http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HyRRtS8OzNc&feature=related
Developing a Wine List Should have three house wines- White, rose, and red Look at clientele Look at menu Price compatibility- ¼ as much as average check. Availability Taste wines
Writing a Wine List Consistent with the theme of the restaurant Arranging the list Group according to type Short description with suggested food pairings Number the wine Train servers
Food Pairings Food and wine share certain things Flavor- Herbal notes in Sauvignon Blanc complement vegetable dishes. Chardonnays go well with butter sauces. Texture- feel heavy or smooth in mouth, puckery (tannins). Concentration of flavor- spicy Gewurztraminer with Indian Food.
Food Pairings Food and wine share certain things Older more complex the wine, simpler the food. Cheese: Choose a bold flavorful wine
Sample White Wine Descriptions/Food Pairings Sauvignon Blanc- medium bodied, dry. Grassy, fresh, zesty Pastas, curries, salsas, asparagus, vegetable dishes, salads, olive oil based dishes, tomato sauce
Sample White Wine Descriptions/Food Pairings Chenin Blanc- medium bodied, off dry to semi-sweet. Honey, apples, apricots Braised chicken, sushi and oriental dishes, poultry, pork cooked with fruit
Sample White Wine Descriptions/Food Pairings Riesling- light bodied, semi-sweet to off-dry. Fruity/honey Crab, appetizers, prosciutto and melon, pork, foods marinated in sweet/sour sauces, turkey
Sample White Wine Descriptions/Food Pairings Gewürztraminer- spicy, lychee nut, and ginger Smoked foods, Asian food, strong cheeses.
Sample White Wine Descriptions/Food Pairings Sancerre- Fish and poultry. Very dry Chablis- Light wine very dry to semi sweet. Poultry and fish Pouilly Fuisse (poo-yay fwee-SAY)very dry white burgundy Cheese, fish, poultry
Sample Red Wine Descriptions/Food Pairings Cabernet Sauvignon- full bodied, tannic and dry. Blackcurrant fruit, dark chocolate Beef, lamb, duck
Sample Red Wine Descriptions/Food Pairings Merlot- full-bodied, less tannic than cabernet. Plum, blackberry, coffee Same foods as cabs plus braised beef, pizza, hearty pastas
Sample Red Wine Descriptions/Food Pairings Zinfandel- medium bodied, dry blueberry/blackberry Beef, lamb, venison, roast turkey, stews