Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs                              BASICS OF FLOUR MIXTURES Pour batters – equal parts liquid...
Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs                            WHEAT FLOUR • Flour – any finely ground cereal grain • Gluten...
Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs                               Types of Flour Bread Flour – bakers; strong structure; no...
Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs                               Use of Flour in Baked Products • Gluten – water and flour...
Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs                              FUNCTIONS OF OTHER INGREDIENTS Eggs –moisten, develop glut...
Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs                             MIXING TECHNIQUES  Creaming – mixing fat and sugar; light a...
Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs                              BAKING• Non-stick spray, greased, paper; non-stick cookie s...
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Chapter%2015%20 basics%20of%20batters%20and%20doughs

  1. 1. Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs BASICS OF FLOUR MIXTURES Pour batters – equal parts liquid and flour; pancakes Soft batters – twice as much flour as liquid; muffins Soft doughs – three times as much flour as liquid; biscuits Stiff doughs – 6-8 times as much flour as liquid; pastry dough Wheat – basis of high-quality batter and dough products
  2. 2. Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs  WHEAT FLOUR • Flour – any finely ground cereal grain • Gluten – key protein complex in wheat flour; elastic and cohesive natures of batter and doughs; distinctive  Milling – grinding and refining; steaming  Bleaching and Maturing – added to freshly milled flour  Enrichment – much of the vitamins, mineral and nutrients are lost during milling; these are added back in • Labels must indicated enrichment; most states require enrichment of flour and bakery products
  3. 3. Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs Types of Flour Bread Flour – bakers; strong structure; not available for home All-purpose Flour – “family flour”; bleached or unbleached Cake Flour – soft wheat; tenderness and fine texture to cakes Pastry Flour – commercial bakers – not available for home Whole Wheat Flour – entire wheat grain, bran; more chewy Self-Rising Flour – acid salt, baking soda, salt – biscuits (South) Gluten Flour – added wheat gluten; chewy texture to breads Other Flours – rye flour – rye bread
  4. 4. Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs   Use of Flour in Baked Products • Gluten – water and flour mixed together and increased resistance to mixing and elasticity. Provides structure • Too little gluten – crumbly and difficult to serve • Too much gluten – tough, chewy, reduced volume Celiac Disease – autoimmune; gluten damages lining of the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients Gluten-free products – no legal definition yet; read labels • Starch – gelatinization; considerable swelling
  5. 5. Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs FUNCTIONS OF OTHER INGREDIENTS Eggs –moisten, develop gluten, stability, flavor, color, texture Sugar – sweeten, browning, tenderness and volume Salt – enhance flavors, regulate growth of yeast in doughs Leavening Agents – increase volume; desired texture Liquids – development of gluten; gelatinize starch, steam Fats and Oils – tenderize, flavor, color
  6. 6. Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs  MIXING TECHNIQUES  Creaming – mixing fat and sugar; light and fluffy  Beating – rapid agitation; add air, develop gluten  Stirring – gentle mixing to blend thoroughly  Folding – gentle motion with minimal disruption  Cutting in – solid fats into particles; pastry blender  Kneading – mixing together with hands or dough hook
  7. 7. Ch. 15 Basic of Batters & Doughs BAKING• Non-stick spray, greased, paper; non-stick cookie sheets• Rack position in the oven – center rack is ideal• Preheating – cold oven, cold start• Opening the door during baking• Testing for doneness:• Toothpick – center• Foam cakes – touch test – spring back• Yeast breads, pastries, cookies – time and appropriate browning

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