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Chapter%2014%20 leavening%20agents


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Chapter%2014%20 leavening%20agents

  1. 1. Ch. 14 Leavening AgentsAIRAny baked product will receive some leavening action from air; notthe most affective in increasing volume, but must be present.• Amount of Manipulation – increased mixing increases the amount of air incorporated into a product; not for beating of egg whites• Viscosity of the Batter – creaming combination of fat and sugar; temperature and proportions are also important; temp of batter• Nature of the Ingredients – foams – egg foams; yolk, whole egg, and whites; sugar added adds stability, oil is detrimental• Bench Time – period of time the mixture is either being mixed or standing prior to baking - time is the enemy when using air for leavening; mixing times kept short
  2. 2. Ch. 14 Leavening AgentsSTEAM• Provides remarkable increase in volume; popovers, cream puffsCARBON DIOXIDE• Can be generated in batters and doughsBiological Agents• Yeast – uses various sugar as sources of energy for growth and survival – metabolizes the sugars and creates carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol - fermentation• Active dry yeast – long shelf life; 6 months to 2 years – rehydrate with water 100 – 115 degrees F• Quick-rise active yeast – save an hour in making bread• Proofing – doubling the volume through fermentation
  3. 3. Ch. 14 Leavening Agents• Bacteria and Yeast – sourdough bread; San FranciscoChemical Agents• Separate Ingredients – baking soda, sour milk, sour cream, vinegar, lemon juice, cream of tartar, honey, molasses, fruit juices• Do not delay baking as gasses are lost while sitting• Baking Powder – reliable and consistent 60 parts cream of tartar - acid 30 parts baking soda – alkaline salt 10 parts potato starch – absorbent• Double-acting baking powder – most common in retail; two acid salts – one reacts at room temperature and one when heated