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  • This chapter examines a variety of approaches to performance management including activities involved in managing performance, specific approaches to performance management, various sources of performance information, errors that commonly occur during the assessment of performance, ways of giving performance feedback effectively and intervening when performance must improve and legal and ethical issues affecting performance management.
  • After reading and discussing this chapter, you should know:
  • After reading and discussing this chapter, you should know:
  • In this chapter we examine a variety of approaches to performance management. Although many employees dread the annual “performance appraisal” meeting at which a boss picks apart the employee’s behaviors from the past year, performance management can potentially deliver many benefits—to individual employees as well as to the organization as a whole. Effective performance management can tell top performers they are valued, encourage communication between managers and their employees, establish consistent standards for evaluating employees, and help the organization identify its strongest and weakest employees. To meet these objectives, companies must think of effective performance management as a process, not an event.
  • If the performance management system created competition among team members, I would. Make collaboration a criterion to be evaluated. Nothing, competition is good. Increase the specificity of the feedback. Focus on personal traits rather than behaviors. Answer: A
  • Performance management includes several activities. These are shown in Figure 8.1 . Using this performance management process helps managers and employees focus on the organization ’s goals. Figure 8.1 shows the six steps in the performance management process. As shown in the model, feedback and formal performance evaluation are important parts of the process; however, they are not the only critical components. An effective performance management process contributes to the company ’ s overall competitive advantage and must be given visible support by the CEO and other senior managers. This support ensures that the process is consistently used across the company, appraisals are completed on time, and giving and receiving ongoing performance feedback is recognized as an accepted part of the company ’ s culture.
  • Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three purposes: Strategic -. It does this by helping to link employees’ behavior with the organization’s goals. Performance management starts with defining what the organization expects from each employee. It measures each employee’s performance to identify where those expectations are and are not being met. This enables the organization to take corrective action, such as training, incentives, or discipline. Performance management can achieve its strategic purpose only when measurements are truly linked to the organization’s goals and when the goals and feedback about performance are communicated to employees Administrative- Performance management can also support decision making related to employee retention, termination for poor behavior, and hiring or layoffs. Because performance management supports these administrative decisions, the information in a performance appraisal can have a great impact on the future of individual employees. Developmental- Even employees who are meeting expectations can become more valuable when they hear and discuss performance feedback. Effective performance feedback makes employees aware of their strengths and of the areas in which they can improve. Discussing areas in which employees fall short can help the employees and their manager uncover the source of problems and identify steps for improvement. Although discussing weaknesses may feel uncomfortable, it is necessary when performance management has a developmental purpose.
  • For performance management to achieve its goals, its methods for measuring performance must be good. Selecting these measures is a critical part of planning a performance manage system. Several criteria determine the effectiveness of performance measures: Fit with strategy Validity Reliability Acceptability Specific feedback
  • Figure 8.2 shows two sets of information. The circle on the left represents all the information in a performance appraisal; the circle on the right represents all relevant measures of job performance. The overlap of the circles contains the valid information. Information that is gathered but irrelevant is “contamination.”
  • Sarah is a computer programmer whose job mainly consists of independently coding software. If interpersonal and teamwork skills were weighted heavily on his job performance measure it would suffer from Criterion contamination Criterion deficiency Unreliability Answer: A
  • Organizations have developed a wide variety of methods for measuring performance. These are listed on this slide, compared and discussed on the slides which follow. Many organizations use a measurement system that includes a variety of these measures.
  • Organizations have developed a wide variety of methods of measuring performance. Table 8.1 compares the methods/approaches to measuring performance in terms of our criteria for effective performance management.
  • The performance appraisal method may require the rater to compare one individual ’s performance with that of others. This method involves some sort of ranking, in which some employees are best, some are average, and others are worst. The usual techniques for making comparisons are: Simple ranking Forced distribution Paired comparison
  • Instead of focusing on arranging a group of employees from best to worst, performance measurement can look at each employee ’s performance relative to a uniform set of standards. The measurement may evaluate employees in terms of: Attributes (characteristics or traits) believed desirable Behaviors measurements that identify whether the employee behaved in desirable ways
  • Figure 8.3 shows an example of a graphic rating scale that uses a set of ratings from 1 to 5. A drawback of this approach is that it leaves to the particular manager the decisions about what is “excellent knowledge” or “commendable judgment” or “poor interpersonal skills.” The result is low reliability, because managers are likely to arrive at different judgments.
  • To get around the reliability problem of the graphic rating scale, some organizations use mixed-standard scales, which use several statements describing each trait to produce a final score for that trait. The manager scores the employee in terms of how the employee compares to each statement. Figure 8.4 is an example of a mixed-standard scale. The key in the middle section of Figure 8.4 tells how to use the pluses, zeros, and minuses to score performance. Someone who excels at every level of performance (pluses for high, medium, and low performance) receives a score of 7 for that trait. Someone who fails to live up to every description of performance (minuses for high, medium, and low) receives a score of 1 for that trait. The bottom of Figure 8.4 calculates the scores for the ratings used in this example.
  • Ask students: “How would the performance measurements of a car dealer differ from those of an auto mechanic?”
  • One way to overcome the drawbacks of rating attributes is to measure employees ’ behavior. To rate behaviors, the organization begins by defining which behaviors are associated with success on the job. Which kinds of behavior help the organization achieve its goals? The appraisal for asks the manager to rate an employee in terms of each of the identified behaviors. Techniques used include: Critical incident method Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) Behavioral observation scale (BOS) Organizational Behavior modification (OBM)
  • The scale in Figure 8.5 shows various performance levels for the behavior of “preparing for duty” for a patrol officer. The statement at the top (rating 7) describes the highest level of preparing for duty. The statement at the bottom describes behavior associated with poor performance. These statements are based on data about past performance. The organization gathers many critical incidents representing effective and ineffective performance, then classifies them from most to least effective. When experts about the job agree the statements clearly represent levels of performance, they are used as anchors to guide the rater. Although BARS can improve interrater reliability, this method can bias the manager ’ s memory. The statements used as anchors can help managers remember similar behaviors, at the expense of other critical incidents.
  • Figure 8.6 provides a simplified example of a BOS for measuring the behavior “overcoming resistance to change.” A major drawback of this method is the amount of information required. A BOS can have 80 or more behaviors, and the manager must remember how often the employee exhibited each behavior in a 6- to 12-month rating period. This is taxing enough for one employee, but managers often must rate 10 or more employees. Even so, compared to BARS and graphic rating scales, managers and employees have said they prefer BOS for ease of use, providing feedback, maintaining objectivity, and suggesting training need
  • Performance measurement can focus on managing the objective, measurable results of a job or work group. An MBO system has three components: Goals are specific, difficult, and objective. 2. Managers and their employees work together to set the goals. 3. The manager gives objective feedback through the rating period to monitor progress toward the goals. MBO can have a very positive effect on an organization’s performance
  • In Table 8.2 the goals listed in the second column provide two examples for a bank. The two right-hand columns are examples of feedback given after one year.
  • The performance management system at XYZ company currently is perceived as unfair and is time consuming for managers. Which of the following systems is the most likely and least likely used, respectively. Paired comparisons, Results Results, Forced distribution Behavioral, Attributes Attributes, Comparative Answer: A
  • To get as complete an assessment as possible, some organizations combine information from most or all of the possible sources, in what is called a 360-degree performance appraisal.
  • Several kinds of errors and biases commonly influence performance measurements.
  • performance measurements are not completely objective, and errors can occur. People observe behavior, and they have no practical way of knowing all the circumstances, intentions, and outcomes related to that behavior, so they interpret what they see. In doing so, observers make a number of judgment calls, and in some situations may even distort information on purpose. Therefore, fairness in rating performance and interpreting performance appraisals requires that managers understand the kinds of distortions that commonly occur.
  • Bill rates all of his employees very low except for Jan. Jan gets above average ratings because she consistently comes to work on time. The rating errors Bill makes are _______ and _______, respectively. Leniency; Horn Strictness; Halo Similar-to-me; Central Tendency Horn; Strictness Answer: B
  • Sometime raters intentional distort their ratings for personal gain. One technique to minimize appraisal politics is to hold calibration meetings.
  • Once the manager and others have measured an employee ’s performance, this information must be given to the employee. Only after the employee has received feedback can he or she begin to plan how to correct any shortcomings.
  • Ask students, “ What other factors are important for a feedback session? ” The manager should create the right context for the meeting. The location should be neutral. If the manager’s office is the site of unpleasant conversations, a conference room may be more appropriate. In announcing the meeting to an employee, the manager should describe it as a chance to discuss the role of the employee, the role of the manager, and the relationship between them. Managers should also say (and believe) that they would like the meeting to be an open dialogue. Managers should also enable the employee to be well prepared. The manager should ask the employee to complete a self-assessment ahead of time.
  • Although research demonstrates that the problem-solving approach is superiors, most managers rely on the tell-and-sell approach. Managers can improve employee satisfaction with the feedback process by letting employees voice their opinions and discuss performance goals.
  • Employees and managers often dread feedback sessions, because they expect some level of criticism, and criticism feels uncomfortable. Six ways to structure communication about employee performance so that it feels more constructive, clear, honest, and fair: • Prevent surprises. Employees should have clear job descriptions and receive clear directions. Supervisors should be communicating regularly with employees about expectations and how well they are performing. Then when the formal feedback is delivered to an employee, it should be consistent with what the employee has been hearing since the previous review. • Use specific, concrete examples. Statements about “attitude” or “commitment” require some mind-reading, and employees may feel misunderstood. References to specific accomplishments and examples of behavior are more neutral. Specific comments are especially important to back up negative feedback. • Focus on goals. Compare the previous performance with the most recent measure to look for improvement. • Listen as well as talk. Employees who feel heard are more likely to believe that the review is fair and that their contributions are valued. • Be honest. If performance is not acceptable, don’t pretend that it is. Pretending is disrespectful of the employee and could get the organization in legal trouble if the employee is later let go and believes the company discriminated. Guessing at an answer related to an employee’s future is another way to create problems for the organization, as well as for the supervisor’s relationship with the employee. • Treat employees with respect. Also show respect by using polite language and looking for solutions rather than simply placing blame on employees when performance is less than desired.
  • When performance evaluation indicates that an employee ’s performance is below standard, the feedback process should launch an effort to correct the problem. As shown in Figure 8.7 , the most effective way to improve performance varies according to the employee’s ability and motivation. In general, when employees have high levels of ability and motivation, they perform at or above standards. But when they lack ability, motivation, or both, corrective action is needed. The type of action called for depends on what the employee lacks. Rewards and direct feedback help to maintain these employees ’ high motivation levels.
  • To protect against lawsuits, it is important to have a legally defensible performance management system. Legal Performance management processes are often scrutinized in cases of discrimination or dismissal. Ethical Employee monitoring via electronic devices and computers may raise concerns over employee privacy. Computer technology now supports many performance management systems. Congress has considered laws to regulate computer monitoring. Electronic monitoring provides detailed, accurate information, but employees may find it demoralizing, degrading, and stressful. It is essential that organizations protect the privacy of performance measurements, as they must do with other employee records.
  • In developing and using performance management systems, HR professionals need to ensure that these systems meet legal requirements, such as the avoidance of dis Such a system would be based on valid job analyses with the requirements for job success clearly communicated to employees. Performance measurement should evaluate behaviors or results, rather than traits. The organization should use multiple raters (including self appraisals and train raters in how to use the system. The organization should provide for a review of all performance ratings by upper-level managers and set up a system for employees to appeal when they believe they were evaluated unfairly. Along with feedback, the system should include a process for coaching or training employees to help them improve, rather than simply dismissing poor performers.
  • Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes. Effective performance management helps the organization with strategic purposes, that is, meeting business objectives. It does this by helping to link employees’ behavior with the organization’s goals. The administrative purpose of performance management is to provide information for day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, recognition, and retention or termination. The developmental purpose of performance management is using the system as a basis for developing employees’ knowledge and skills.
  • Performance information may come from an employee’s self-appraisal and from appraisals by the employee’s supervisor, employees, peers, and customers. Using only one source makes the appraisal more subjective. Organizations may combine many sources into a 360-degree performance appraisal.
  • Managers should prepare by establishing a neutral location, emphasizing that the feedback session will be a chance for discussion, and asking the employee to prepare a self-assessment. During the feedback session, managers should strive for a problem-solving approach and encourage employees to voice their opinions and discuss performance goals.
  • The system should include a process for coaching or training employees to help them improve, rather than simply dismissing poor performers. An ethical issue of performance management is the use of electronic monitoring. This type of performance measurement provides detailed, accurate information, but employees may find it demoralizing, degrading, and stressful. They are more likely to accept it if the organization explains its purpose, links it to help in improving performance, and keeps the performance data private.
  • Chapter 8 powerpoint

    1. 1. Copyright © 2014 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin CHAPTER 8 M ANAG ING EM PLO YEES’ PERFO RM ANCE FUNDAM ENTALS O F HUM AN RESO URCE M ANAG EM ENT 5 TH EDITIO N BY R.A. NO E, J.R. HO LLENBECK, B. G ERHART, AND P.M . W RIG HT
    2. 2. 8-2 Need to Know 1. Activities involved in performance management. 2. Purposes and criteria and methods for measuring effectiveness of performance management systems. 3. Sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. 4. Types of rating errors and how to minimize them. 1. Activities involved in performance management. 2. Purposes and criteria and methods for measuring effectiveness of performance management systems. 3. Sources of performance information in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. 4. Types of rating errors and how to minimize them.
    3. 3. 8-3 Need to Know 5. How to provide performance feedback effectively. 6. Ways to produce improvement in unsatisfactory performance. 7. Legal and ethical issues that affect performance management. 5. How to provide performance feedback effectively. 6. Ways to produce improvement in unsatisfactory performance. 7. Legal and ethical issues that affect performance management.
    4. 4. 8-4 Introduction  Performance management: process through which managers ensure that employees’ activities and outputs contribute to the organization’s goals.  This process requires:  Knowing what activities and outputs are desired  Observing whether they occur  Providing feedback to help employees meet expectations  Performance management: process through which managers ensure that employees’ activities and outputs contribute to the organization’s goals.  This process requires:  Knowing what activities and outputs are desired  Observing whether they occur  Providing feedback to help employees meet expectations
    5. 5. 8-5 Test Your Knowledge If the performance management system created competition among team members, I would A. Make collaboration a criterion to be evaluated. B. Nothing, competition is good. C. Increase the specificity of the feedback. D. Focus on personal traits rather than behaviors. If the performance management system created competition among team members, I would A. Make collaboration a criterion to be evaluated. B. Nothing, competition is good. C. Increase the specificity of the feedback. D. Focus on personal traits rather than behaviors.
    6. 6. 8-6 Figure 8.1: Steps in the Performance Management Process
    7. 7. 8-7 Purposes of Performance Management  Strategic Purpose - effective performance management helps the organization achieve its business objectives.  Administrative Purpose - ways in which organizations use the system to provide information for day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs.  Developmental Purpose - serves as a basis for developing employees’ knowledge and skills.  Strategic Purpose - effective performance management helps the organization achieve its business objectives.  Administrative Purpose - ways in which organizations use the system to provide information for day-to-day decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs.  Developmental Purpose - serves as a basis for developing employees’ knowledge and skills.
    8. 8. 8-8 Criteria for Effective Performance Management
    9. 9. 8-9 Figure 8.2: Contamination and Deficiency of a Job Performance Measure
    10. 10. 8-10 Test Your Knowledge Sarah is a computer programmer whose job mainly consists of independently coding software. Interpersonal and teamwork skills are included on performance appraisal. Measuring these skills most closely represents: A. Criterion contamination B. Criterion deficiency C. Unreliability Sarah is a computer programmer whose job mainly consists of independently coding software. Interpersonal and teamwork skills are included on performance appraisal. Measuring these skills most closely represents: A. Criterion contamination B. Criterion deficiency C. Unreliability
    11. 11. 8-11 Methods for Measuring Performance
    12. 12. 8-12 Table 8.1: Basic Approaches to Performance Measurement
    13. 13. 8-13 Measuring Performance: Making Comparisons
    14. 14. 8-14 Measuring Performance: Rating Individuals - Attributes Lists traits and provides a rating scale for each trait. Employer uses the scale to indicate extent to which an employee displays each trait. Lists traits and provides a rating scale for each trait. Employer uses the scale to indicate extent to which an employee displays each trait. Uses several statements describing each trait to produce a final score for that trait. Uses several statements describing each trait to produce a final score for that trait. Graphic Rating Scale Mixed-Standard Scale
    15. 15. 8-15 Figure 8.3: Example of a Graphic Rating Scale
    16. 16. 8-16 Figure 8.4: Example of a Mixed-Standard Scale
    17. 17. An employee’s performance measurement differs from job to job. For example, a car dealer’s performance is measured by the dollar amount of sales, the number of new customers, and customer satisfaction surveys. 8-17
    18. 18. 8-18 Measuring Performance: Rating Individuals - Behaviors Based on managers’ records of specific examples of employees acting in ways that are either effective or ineffective. Employees receive feedback about what they do well and what they do poorly and how they are helping the organization achieve its goals. Based on managers’ records of specific examples of employees acting in ways that are either effective or ineffective. Employees receive feedback about what they do well and what they do poorly and how they are helping the organization achieve its goals. Rates behavior in terms of a scale showing specific statements of behavior that describe different levels of performance. Critical-Incident Method Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
    19. 19. 8-19 Figure 8.5: Task- BARS Rating Dimension for a Patrol Officer
    20. 20. 8-20 Measuring Performance: Rating Individuals – Behaviors A variation of a BARS which uses all behaviors necessary for effective performance to rate performance at a task. A BOS also asks the manager to rate frequency with which the employee has exhibited the behavior during rating period. A variation of a BARS which uses all behaviors necessary for effective performance to rate performance at a task. A BOS also asks the manager to rate frequency with which the employee has exhibited the behavior during rating period. A plan for managing behavior of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement. A plan for managing behavior of employees through a formal system of feedback and reinforcement. Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS) Organizational Behavior Modification (OBM)
    21. 21. 8-21 Figure 8.6: Example of a Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS)
    22. 22. 8-22 Measuring Performance: Measuring Results  Management by Objectives (MBO): people at each level of the organization set goals in a process that flows from top to bottom, so that all levels are contributing to the organization’s overall goals.  These goals become the standards for evaluating each employee’s performance.  Management by Objectives (MBO): people at each level of the organization set goals in a process that flows from top to bottom, so that all levels are contributing to the organization’s overall goals.  These goals become the standards for evaluating each employee’s performance.
    23. 23. 8-23 Table 8.2: Management by Objectives: Two Objectives for a Bank
    24. 24. 8-24 Test Your Knowledge The performance management system at XYZ company currently is perceived as unfair and is time-consuming for managers. Which of the following systems is the most likely and least likely used, respectively. A. Paired comparisons; Results B. Results; Forced distribution C. Behavioral; Attributes D. Attributes; Comparative The performance management system at XYZ company currently is perceived as unfair and is time-consuming for managers. Which of the following systems is the most likely and least likely used, respectively. A. Paired comparisons; Results B. Results; Forced distribution C. Behavioral; Attributes D. Attributes; Comparative
    25. 25. 8-25 Measuring Performance: Measuring Quality The principles of total quality management (TQM), provide methods for performance measurement and management. With TQM, performance measurement combines measurements of attributes and results.  Subjective feedback  Statistical quality control The principles of total quality management (TQM), provide methods for performance measurement and management. With TQM, performance measurement combines measurements of attributes and results.  Subjective feedback  Statistical quality control
    26. 26. • Coaches provide feedback to their team just as managers provide feedback to their employees. • Feedback is important so that individuals know what they are doing well and what areas they may need to work on. • Coaches provide feedback to their team just as managers provide feedback to their employees. • Feedback is important so that individuals know what they are doing well and what areas they may need to work on. 8-26
    27. 27. 8-27 Sources of Performance Information  360-Degree Performance Appraisal: performance measurement that combines information from the employees’:  Managers  Peers  Subordinates  Self  Customers  360-Degree Performance Appraisal: performance measurement that combines information from the employees’:  Managers  Peers  Subordinates  Self  Customers
    28. 28. Performance management is critical for executing a talent management system and involves one-on-one contact with managers to ensure that proper training and development are taking place. 8-28
    29. 29. 8-29 Types of Performance Measurement Rating Errors Contrast errors: rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees. Distributional errors: rater tends to use only one part of a rating scale.  Leniency: the reviewer rates everyone near the top  Strictness: the rater favors lower rankings  Central tendency: the rater puts everyone near the middle of the scale Contrast errors: rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees. Distributional errors: rater tends to use only one part of a rating scale.  Leniency: the reviewer rates everyone near the top  Strictness: the rater favors lower rankings  Central tendency: the rater puts everyone near the middle of the scale
    30. 30. 8-30 Types of Performance Measurement Rating Errors  Rater bias: raters often let their opinion of one quality color their opinion of others.  Halo error: when bias is in a favorable direction. This can mistakenly tell employees they don’t need to improve in any area.  Horns error: when bias involves negative ratings. This can cause employees to feel frustrated and defensive.  Rater bias: raters often let their opinion of one quality color their opinion of others.  Halo error: when bias is in a favorable direction. This can mistakenly tell employees they don’t need to improve in any area.  Horns error: when bias involves negative ratings. This can cause employees to feel frustrated and defensive.
    31. 31. 8-31 Test Your Knowledge Bill rates all of his employees very low except for Jan. Jan gets above average ratings because she consistently comes to work on time. The rating errors Bill makes are _______ and _______, respectively. A. Leniency; Horn B. Strictness; Halo C. Similar-to-me; Central Tendency D. Horn; Strictness Bill rates all of his employees very low except for Jan. Jan gets above average ratings because she consistently comes to work on time. The rating errors Bill makes are _______ and _______, respectively. A. Leniency; Horn B. Strictness; Halo C. Similar-to-me; Central Tendency D. Horn; Strictness
    32. 32. 8-32 Political Behavior in Performance Appraisals  Distorting a performance evaluation to advance one’s personal goals  A technique to minimize appraisal politics is a calibration meeting:  Meeting at which managers discuss employee performance ratings and provide evidence supporting their ratings with the goal of eliminating influence of rating errors  Distorting a performance evaluation to advance one’s personal goals  A technique to minimize appraisal politics is a calibration meeting:  Meeting at which managers discuss employee performance ratings and provide evidence supporting their ratings with the goal of eliminating influence of rating errors
    33. 33. 8-33 Giving Performance Feedback Scheduling Performance Feedback  Performance feedback should be a regular, expected management activity.  Annual feedback is not enough.  Employees should receive feedback so often that they know what the manager will say during their annual performance review. Preparing for a Feedback Session  Managers should be prepared for each formal feedback session. Scheduling Performance Feedback  Performance feedback should be a regular, expected management activity.  Annual feedback is not enough.  Employees should receive feedback so often that they know what the manager will say during their annual performance review. Preparing for a Feedback Session  Managers should be prepared for each formal feedback session.
    34. 34. 8-34 When giving performance feedback, do it in an appropriate meeting place. Meet in a setting that is neutral and free of distractions.
    35. 35. 8-35 Giving Performance Feedback  Conducting the Feedback Session  During feedback sessions, managers can take any of three approaches: 1.“Tell-and-Sell” – managers tell employees their ratings and then justify those ratings. 2. “Tell-and-Listen” – managers tell employees their ratings and then let employees explain view. 3. “Problem-Solving” – managers and employees work together to solve performance problems.  Conducting the Feedback Session  During feedback sessions, managers can take any of three approaches: 1.“Tell-and-Sell” – managers tell employees their ratings and then justify those ratings. 2. “Tell-and-Listen” – managers tell employees their ratings and then let employees explain view. 3. “Problem-Solving” – managers and employees work together to solve performance problems.
    36. 36. 8-36 6 Ways to Structure communication
    37. 37. 8-37 Figure 8.7: Improving Performance
    38. 38. 8-38 Legal and Ethical Issues in Performance Management Legal  Performance management processes are often scrutinized in cases of discrimination or dismissal. Ethical  Employee monitoring via electronic devices and computers may raise concerns over employee privacy. Legal  Performance management processes are often scrutinized in cases of discrimination or dismissal. Ethical  Employee monitoring via electronic devices and computers may raise concerns over employee privacy.
    39. 39. 8-39 Legal Requirements for Performance Management Lawsuits related to performance management usually involve charges of:  Discrimination  Unjust dismissal To protect against both kinds of lawsuits, it is important to have a le g ally de fe nsible performance management system. Lawsuits related to performance management usually involve charges of:  Discrimination  Unjust dismissal To protect against both kinds of lawsuits, it is important to have a le g ally de fe nsible performance management system.
    40. 40. 8-40 Legal Requirements for Performance Management A le g ally de fe nsible performance management system:  Based on valid job analyses, with requirements for job success clearly communicated to employees.  Evaluates behaviors or results, rather than traits.  Multiple raters (including self-appraisals) used.  All performance ratings reviewed by upper-level managers.  Appeals mechanism for employees. A le g ally de fe nsible performance management system:  Based on valid job analyses, with requirements for job success clearly communicated to employees.  Evaluates behaviors or results, rather than traits.  Multiple raters (including self-appraisals) used.  All performance ratings reviewed by upper-level managers.  Appeals mechanism for employees.
    41. 41. 8-41 Summary  Performance management is the process through which managers ensure that employees’ activities and outputs contribute to the organization’s goals.  Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes: 1. Strategic purpose 2. Administrative purpose 3. Developmental purpose  Performance measures should fit with the organization’s strategy by supporting its goals and culture.  Performance management is the process through which managers ensure that employees’ activities and outputs contribute to the organization’s goals.  Organizations establish performance management systems to meet three broad purposes: 1. Strategic purpose 2. Administrative purpose 3. Developmental purpose  Performance measures should fit with the organization’s strategy by supporting its goals and culture.
    42. 42. 8-42 Summary • Performance information may come from an employee’s self-appraisal and from appraisals by the employee’s supervisor, employees, peers, and customers. • Using only one source makes the appraisal more subjective. • Organizations may combine many sources into a 360- degree performance appraisal. • Performance information may come from an employee’s self-appraisal and from appraisals by the employee’s supervisor, employees, peers, and customers. • Using only one source makes the appraisal more subjective. • Organizations may combine many sources into a 360- degree performance appraisal.
    43. 43. 8-43 Summary • Organizations can minimize appraisal politics by establishing a fair appraisal system, involving managers and employees in developing the system, allowing employees to challenge evaluations, communicating expectations, and having open discussion. • Performance feedback should be a regular, scheduled management activity, so that employees can correct problems as soon as they occur. • Organizations can minimize appraisal politics by establishing a fair appraisal system, involving managers and employees in developing the system, allowing employees to challenge evaluations, communicating expectations, and having open discussion. • Performance feedback should be a regular, scheduled management activity, so that employees can correct problems as soon as they occur.
    44. 44. 8-44 Summary • Performance feedback discussions should focus on behavior and results rather than on personalities. • Managers must make sure that performance management systems and decisions treat employees equally, without regard to race, sex, or other protected status. • A system is more likely to be legally defensible if it is based on behaviors and results, rather than on traits, and if multiple raters evaluate each person’s performance. • Performance feedback discussions should focus on behavior and results rather than on personalities. • Managers must make sure that performance management systems and decisions treat employees equally, without regard to race, sex, or other protected status. • A system is more likely to be legally defensible if it is based on behaviors and results, rather than on traits, and if multiple raters evaluate each person’s performance.

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