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Guidance And Advice On Setting Up A New Company
Introduction This report aims to provide guidance and advice on setting up a new company and also
considers the mechanisms for doing so. The report encompasses a range of key areas which are
considered in order to provide an understanding of how to incorporate a business entity of suitable
type and structure whilst also covering the registration process together with legal requirements.
Section 1 Legal status – There are fundamental differences between a Limited Company and a
Ordinary Partnership. Limited companies exist in their own right in law and as such are deemed to
be a separate legal entity from its owners, this means that companies can survive through death of or
change of owners a company's existence will only cease if it is formally wound up, liquidated or by
other order of the courts or Registrar of Companies. . In contrast Partnerships have no legal
existence outside of the self employed partners who make up the business and as such the
Partnership will end should one of the partners leave hence, by definition, a partnership has a limited
existence while a company is created to last forever. Liability – In an ordinary partnership members
are responsible for all debts accrued by the business and do not observe any protection should the
business fail and as such limited companies hold an advantage in that the Company shareholders
will only be liable for debt up to the value of their individual investment, this offers a degree of
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My Chosen Bussiness Legal Structure
SOLETRADER ''A sole trader is a company started and run by one individual. '' [http://www.e–
conomic.co.uk/accountingsystem/glossary/sole–trader] People who want to run and operate a
business ,want to have a total control, prefer to work on their own or employ often just one or two
employees, make all the decisions by themselves and do not want to invest much money into the
business are inclined to work as a Sole trader. This business is known as a 'one–man business' and
must be registered for VAT, must pay income Tax and NI and have a license if needed (sale of
alcohol or planning permission) . The Sole trader can be businesses like plumbers, bakers, or
hairdressers. The benefit of this is that the owners can keep all of the profit that the business makes.
They don't need to ask anybody before making any decisions and furthermore, they do not need to
publish their accounts. However, as there is only one person who operates and runs the business ,
the business and the owner are not separate. The Sole trader has Unlimited Liability , which means
that any business debt is also the owners' debt. They may work long hours or on weekends, do not
get sick pay , maternity or holiday cover and they are responsible for accounts, customer service or
returns. PARTNERSHIP It is defined in the Partnership Act (1890) as:– ''...an act of the UK
Parliament, which governs the rights and duties of business people who do business with a common
view of profit. It has a least membership of two
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Memorandum of Association
Types of Business Organisations
When we start to define a company it can be defined as generally a form of business organisation. In
the legal field, a company is specifically ‘a corporation, or less commonly, an association,
partnership or union that carries on a commercial or industrial enterprise. Generally a company may
be a corporation, partnership, association, joint – stock company, trust, fund or organised group of
persons, whether incorporated or not and (in an official capacity) any receiver, trustee in bankruptcy
or similar official or liquidating agent for any of the foregoing. More specifically we can state a
company as either one of four distinct business organisations, Sole Trader, Partnership, Private
company and Public ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In the set up of a private company there will be pre–emption clauses where if a member decides that
he/she wants to sell their shares then they must offer them to somebody already in the company
before going public.
An advantage of being in a private company is that there is limited liability indicated by ‘limited '
or ‘Ltd '. The member is liable for the amount not paid in shares but not for the company 's debts.
Public Company
A public company usually refers to a company that is permitted to offer its securities (stock, bonds)
for sale to the general public typically through a stock exchange. Usually, the securities of a public
company are owned by many investors while the shares of a private company are owned by
relatively few shareholders. Members of the public company also have limited liability as indicated
by the words ‘public limited company ' (PLC or plc) at the end of the company name. Under the
formation of a new business, members must be allocated a nominal value of shares (i.e. the least
value shares can be sold for) to a value of at least £50000 which can be partly paid from a value of
25% as long as there is proof there is an ability to pay the outstanding amount.
Basic Company Structure
The basic company model assumes a separation of ownership and control. Shareholders are able to
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Whether Facebook Can Benefit from the Changing Between...
Facebook is a social net working service, which is started in the United States by Mark Zuckerberg
with his friends in 2004. The website's membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard
students, but was expanded to other colleges, and gradually globalization. In 2012, the fonder of
Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg decide to convert the structure of Facebook from private limited
company to public limited company. Facebook values shares at £24 each, and that its shares would
began trading in New York on 18th of May 2012. It is seem that Facebook would be worth £66bn at
this price. The following will analyse whether Facebook can benefit from the changing between
private limited company to public limited company.
Ltd is the short for ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Facebook choose to be a Ltd company as it beginning, because Mark Zuckerberg and his classmates
aer students on that time. So they do not have enough money to set up a plc company. And the aim
of Mark Zuckerberg making facebook is that he just wants the make the distance of people become
closer than before. And make the communication of people convenient. There are many advantages
and disadvantages of Ltd and Plc. If a company chooses to be an Ltd, they can get money by selling
their shares despite they can only sell shares to friends and family. This might be easy for the
company to control the shares selling. That means Mark Zuckerberg only sell the shares of facebook
to his classmates and family before its flotation. So he can choose which people do his shareholder.
Ltd also can easier to attract investors because of the security of limited liability. The business is
continuity to exist even one of the owners died or sick. However, being an Ltd has negative effects
as well. The business cannot sell on the stock market means that they can not gather so much share
capitals. This is a reason why Mark Zuckerberg decided to sell the shares on the stock market. The
accounts of the business must be public, and the profit should share with the shareholders. The
decision making is not just by one person. Sometimes it is a good thing for solve problems, but there
is also a potential disagreement among shareholders. When a company
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Job Site At The Middle East Job Market Essay
Table of Contents
Introduction 1
Company Performance 4
SWOT Analysis 4
Porter's 5 Forces Analysis 5
BCG Matrix 5
Recruitment Vertical – Naukri.com 6
Real Estate 7
Matrimony 8
Education 12
Introduction
The Company was incorporated on May 1, 1995 under the Companies Act, 1956 as Info Edge
(India) Private Ltd. and converted into a Public Limited on April 27, 2006. Info Edge (India)
Limited (Info Edge) is India's premier on–line classifieds company in recruitment, matrimony, real
estate, education and related services.
Their businesses comprise the following:
Recruitment – This comprises online recruitment classifieds (www.naukri.com, India's leading job
site and www.naukrigulf.com a job site focused at the Middle East job market) and offline executive
search (www.quadranglesearch.com). Related sites in this business are a professional networking
site (www.brijj.com) and a fresher hiring site (www.firstnaukri.com).
Matrimony – This comprises online matrimony classifieds (www.jeevansathi.com) and 14 offline
Jeevansathi Match Points.
Real Estate – This comprises online real estate classifieds (www.99acres.com), a real estate
brokerage business (www.allcheckdeals.com), housed in a subsidiary named Allcheckdeals.com
India Private Limited.
Education – This comprises online education classifieds (www.shiksha.com).
The company, with a view to tap into the growing and vibrant Indian internet market, undertakes
investments in
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Difference Between Private Sector And Public Sector
1.1 Explain the differences between the private sector the public sector and the voluntary sector
The Private Sector
The private sector is usually composed of organizations that are privately owned and not part of the
government. For example, retail shops, credit unions, and local businesses will operate in the private
sector.
The Public Sector
The public sector is usually organisations that are owned and operated by the government. This
includes federal, local, national, or municipal governments (cities, towns, villages, counties,
districts, or metropolitan regions), depending on where you live. Privacy legislation usually calls
organizations in the public sector a public body or a public authority.
Some examples of public bodies are educational bodies, health care bodies, police and prison
services, and local and central government bodies and their departments.
The voluntary sector
The voluntary sector is very diverse, including multi–national charities, local community groups and
everything in between.
There are many types of voluntary organisations in the UK. Most are one of the 180,000 registered
charities, but there are also housing associations, credit unions, community interest companies,
trusts, local community groups and others.
Voluntary sector organisations' management and governance is similar to the private sector. The
board of trustee's act as directors.
Main Differences:
Legal Obligations
Publicly owned companies, because they are partially
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Classification of Company Status
Classification of company according to its public status Private company Private company means
any company incorporated as a private company by virtue of section 15. S15 state that if a company
having a share capital may be incorporated as a private company if its memorandum or articles
contain the following:– (a) There must be restrictions on the right of members to transfer their share.
(b) The members must not be more than fifty (50) not including: – Person who are in the
employment of the company; AND – Person who, having been formerly in the employment of the
company, were members of the company while in that employment and have continued to be
members after the employment ceased (c) Prohibits invite the public to subscribe for any shares in,
or debentures of the company. (d) Prohibits any invitation to the public to deposit money with the
company for fixed periods or payable at call, whether bearing or not bearing interest. Where, upon
the commencement of this Act, neither the memorandum nor articles of a company that is a private
company by virtue of paragraph (a) of the definition of 'private company' in subsection 4(1) contain
the restrictions, limitations and prohibitions required by subsection (1) to be included in the
memorandum or articles of a company that may be incorporated as a private company, the articles of
the company shall be deemed to include each such restriction, limitation or prohibition that is not so
included and a restriction on the right to
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Comparative Study of Company Law
Introduction Company law (also be referred to as the law of business associations) can be described
as the field of law concerned with the daily running of companies as well as business organizations.
It entails partnerships, corporations as well as some of the associations that always deal in economic
or charitable activity. Corporations are the highly prominent kinds of companies, they have separate
legal personality and its investors have limited liability for whichever losses that occur in the
company that is governed by corporate law. Companies that are widely spread with great monopoly
are always listed publicly on the stock exchanges in all part of the world. Depending on the form,
single individuals who are referred to as sole traders also have the opportunity to incorporate
themselves and limit their ability so that they have the chance of continuing with the business. These
various forms of companies rely on the particular law of their countries or the country of its
location. Company laws were originally derived from the common law of England though it has
significantly evolved in the 20th Century. Countries that practice common law address different
forms such as Limited Company, Corporation, Unlimited Company, Limited Partnership, Limited
Liability partnership, Partnership, Not–for–profit Corporation and Sole Proprietorship. Most of the
countries have forms of business entity that is unique to their country. Some of the examples being
limited liability
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How A Successful Business Is Business
A successful business is business that has good entrepreneurial skills which enables them to unite
production to the complex matters of demand. It also encourages them to improve on what they
produce such as the quality and how they produce the product to meet the demand in the future. For
example Apple, not only did they improve on the software they use but also the quality of the phone.
However a firm lacking in entrepreneurship skills would risk being forgotten if they fail to make the
right assumption of the market conditions and also produce goods and services where there is less
demand. Firms are distinguished by their form of ownership. There are three types of businesses;
sole trader, partnership and limited companies (public and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
There are two types of limited companies, private and public. A private limited company is fairly
small and profits are taken by the shareholders, as for a public limited company profits are also
taken by shareholders however they are larger. The current recession in the UK has improved
however banks will still be reluctant to lend loans to small businesses such as a sole trader, as profits
are made in the long term due to high start up costs. Products in the sole trader business are
homogenous; this means they are competing in a very competitive market therefore the business
needs to find a geographical location that has high demand for their products which will in turn
increase their chance of survival. Even if sole traders are successful with the loans, owners have to
stake their house and private assets. However for a limited company (public or private), loans are
given out more leniently as profits are gained more quickly as they have more ways of raising
finance such as sell shares. However for private limited companies there is a restriction on the
raising of capital via sales of shares, Public limited Companies can gain further funding by the sales
of shares, but this ability is lost to private limited companies whose shares are restricted. Similar to a
limited company where there are numerous shareholders, partnerships are able to put more money
into the business which will allow better flexibility and more
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Exploring the Types of Business Organisations Essay
Exploring the Types of Business Organisations There are two Business Sectors: Public Sector These
are businesses owned and run by the government. Some examples of Services provided in the public
sector are the postal service, schools, colleges, housing environment, some bus and train services,
fire, police, ambulance and local justice and social services. Their method of raising capital is
different as Private Sector businesses have to raise their own capital e.g. their own money, a bank
loan etc. The Public Sector business can get the money required from the Treasury or from local
rates. There is no individual owner in the Public Sector. Advantages: · Their main aim is to ... Show
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They are owned and run by one person; usually they may have an assistant to help them run the
business. Examples include corner shops, dressmaking and services such as hairdressing, plumbing,
painting and electrical work. Advantages: · The set up of the business requires no legal procedures ·
The owner gets to keep all profit made · Because the business is usually small, the sole trader has
close links with customers and suppliers · The sole trader can make all the decisions without having
to call together a committee meeting. Disadvantages: · The sole trader has unlimited liability, which
means that if the sole trader doesn't have enough money to pay their debts, they have to use their
personal money in order to able to cover the payments. In extreme cases, sole traders' cars houses
and other private possessions might have to be sold · Sole traders have to raise their own capital · If
the sole trader is ill or on holiday, there is no one to cover for him/her · Banks are less likely to lend
money to a sole trader because their businesses are small · It is difficult for sole traders to compete
with larger businesses as they cannot take advantage of economies of scales Partnership Partnerships
are mainly found in professional businesses such as doctors, surgeons, dentists, veterinary surgeons,
accountants and
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Analysis of J Sainsbury’s Essay
Analysis of J Sainsbury's
Unit 1– Business at work
Businesses exist to produce goods and services. If someone is thinking of starting up their own
business or becoming part of an existing business, they would have to have the knowledge of what
makes business work successfully and know how to how to apply that knowledge in the particular
area of business. For this unit I will be entering and exploring the world of business. For this unit I
will encounter and evaluate information provided by certain businesses and actually gather my own
information from at least one business. The business I have chosen to study is J Sainsbury's.
There are many types businesses in this world; these include Sole trader, Plc, Ltd, Partnership, Co–
op and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Wages to employees are usually low.
Consultancy, Builders, Market traders, Window cleaners, Restaurant and corner shops are all
examples of sole traders.
The disadvantages of sole traders are as follows:
· If you don't work, you don't earn, so it would be wise to just work as much as possible and not take
holidays all the time.
· There is more pressure if you are a sole trader compared to working in a corporate business like Bt
Cellnet.
· You wont be as well known because its harder to advertise a small sole trader company
· There are no free benefits like a company car.
· The owner of the sole trader company has to deal with all the problems for themselves.
· It is very hard to compete with large companies, but on the good side bigger companies usually
charge more than a smaller sole trader company
· Probably the disadvantage of a sole trader company is the fact that it will have 'unlimited liability'.
This means the owner is personally responsible for anything that goes wrong. The owner could have
their car or house taken away, this is why some businessmen with sole trader companies put there
house in their wives name.
· If things are bad the company could get
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A Comparative Analysis Between the Three Different Types...
Assignment Number: 1 11/26/2012 DIPLOMA IN FINANCIAL SERVICES OPERATIONS AND
COMPLIANCE Ms Maria Vella A comparative analysis between the three different types of
commercial partnerships 2012 INDEXT 1. A comparative analysis between the three different types
of commercial partnerships: a. the limitation of liability of the partners/members b. the different
rights of partners/members. 2. The notion of separate legal personality 3. Analysis the different
classes of shares of public/private companies and rights attached to them. 2 Ms. Maria Vella A
comparative analysis between the three different types of commercial partnerships 2012 A
partnership is a for–profit business association of two ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
There has to be at least one general partner and one limited partner. A person, including a limited
partner, who holds himself out as being a general partner, shall be held liable unlimitedly and jointly
and severally with the general partners for all the obligations contracted by the partnership. A
limited partner cannot take part in the management of a partnership en commandite. The liability of
the general partners is of a subsidiary nature in the sense that no action may be taken against them
unless the property of the partnership is first discussed. The provisions governing partnerships 'en
nom collectif ' apply to this kind of partnership unless inconsistent with the provisions relating to
partnerships 'en commandite '. In terms of the Maltese Income Tax Act, a partnership en
commandite with its capital divided into shares will be treated as a company for Maltese income tax
purposes. A partnership en nom collectif is transparent for tax purposes and the partners declare their
share of profit in their personal tax returns. Tax is therefore chargeable according to the applicable
personal tax rates. The commercial partnerships are deemed to be a 'company ' and are eligible for
all, or any treatment, fiscal incentives and benefits available to companies. All companies in Malta
are regulated by the Companies Act, 1995 which is based on UK legislation. A company has a legal
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A Public Company Of A Private Company
(a) From a public company to a private company. According to the CORPORATIONS ACT 2001
Section 162, 163 (and others) The possibility to change a public company to a private is in regards
to these features: If the public company is limited by shares, it can become to unlimited proprietary
company or a proprietary company limited by shares. If the public company is unlimited, it can
become to proprietary company limited by shares (within the last 3 years as a maximum time) or an
unlimited proprietary company.If the public company is a public no liability company, it can become
a proprietary company limited by shares. As a public company according to the section 113, must to
complete the requirements to become a proprietary company. When the change officially occurs, the
section 164 of the Corporations Act ASIC must be publish a notice in the Commonwealth Gazette
that states explaining the intention to change the company registration. After one month, the change
registration has to be notified and published in the Commonwealth Gazette. ( Australian
Government, 2001) The main advantages to change the registration from a public company to a
private company are: The possibility to plans in long term, the public company is focused en
quarterly results, when it occurs the yield is lower, instead the private company is able to pan the
growing in a long term bringing a clear objective , in this way the investors and managers can
evaluate and research to look the benefits. As a
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Franchise Essay
– MICHELL GEORGE
HOW IS A PRIVATE LTD. DIFFERENT FROM A FRANCHISE?
Franchise:
It is the authorization or a license given to an individual or a group by a government or company
allowing them to carry out commercial activities. Examples of franchise would be providing a
broadcasting service or acting as an agent for a company's product. Franchising is one of the three
strategies that businesses use to gain market share. Companies that want to give a good image of
their products to their customers, use franchising. It is also a method used to satisfy customer needs.
An advantage of franchising would be, having a certain level of independence.
Some real – life examples are:–
McDonald's
Johnny Rocket's
Dominos Pizza
7 – Eleven
Subway
Objectives:–
 ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
There are usually restrictions on where you operate, the products you sell and the suppliers you use.
You don't necessarily need business experience to run a franchise. Bad performances by other
franchisees may affect your franchise's reputation.
Private Limited Company:
A Private Ltd. is different from Sole Traders and Partnerships. It is owned by between 2 to 50
shareholders; often members of the same family. It has a separate legal identity – in the eyes of the
law. The 'Private' in Ltd. means that people have to be invited to own shares. They have limited
liability; this means if the company has debts, the owners can only lose the original money they
invested.
Some real – life examples are:–
Warburton's – The Baking Firm
New Look Retailers LTD – The Retail Store Chain
Objectives:–
 Optimizing profits
 Reporting financial data with clarity
 Selecting the proper organizational structure to limit liability and to protect company policies
A Private Company has a separate legal entity. It has a common seal and can enter into contracts by
affixing its seal. Members of the company can also enter into contract with the
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Valpak Case Study Essay
Case Study on Valpak
Company background
Valpak is a direct marketing company with their main office in St. Petersburg, Florida. They do
digital and print advertising and sell coupons pertaining to the customer's location with a wide
network of local franchises. They also support apps for smartphones.
Valpak is a large–scale company and has been in business for the past 48 years and is currently
owned by Cox target media. They operate in the U.S and Canada.
Valpak has a good IT department to manage the variety of routine work, operational work, consumer
needs and merchant needs. They also managed the accounts, finance, processing and sales related
work.
Transformation at Valpak
Initially their IT department found the idea of shifting to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
This architectural epic is mainly to implement consistent architecture in the organization. This is
essential to support the business needs and to evolve the portfolio similar to user stories evolving at
team level. Good architecture provides sound technological support and integration across the entire
organization.
For example, duplication of work and effort can be avoided by maintaining a good integrated
architecture at epic level. At Valpak, they had a architectural backlog which went through stages of
analysis and implementation.
They integration helped the business and development teams come together to make strategic
solutions. It helped them to collaborate and limit WIP. They found that architectural kanban would
be the best for their organization. So they had a big kanban architecture board where they discussed
about scalability, performance, reliability, requirements with regards to technological integration,
upgrade and shifts, other infrastructures required for smooth running of the projects and innovation.
They also made the board highly visible. This way the Kanban board helped not only the upper
management but also all the teams to see the epic flow. They also brough standup
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Unit 2 Travel And Tourism Report
Date: Friday 26th September 2014
Submission Date: Tuesday 30th September 2014
Unit 2: The Business of Travel and Tourism
2.1: The travel and tourism business environment
The Public Sector
The public sector consists of regulatory bodies, conservation groups and public sector organisation
which are funded by local, regional and central government, .
A good example of a localy funded organisation would be Dover 's local tourist information centre,
controlled and funded by Dover District Council and council tax revenues. The tourist information
centre is there to provide information about the local area such as attractions and events to tourists.
This would be of interest to domestic and inbound tourists.
An example of a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
A good example of this would be a small bed and breakfast owned and run by a husband and wife.
As a partnership, all partners have a percentage of desicion making rights relevent to their stake in
the business, with profits being distributed as an income to all partners, the percentage each partner
recieves is set out in the partnership agreement. The business is owned by the partners, each has a
stake, which will also be set out in the partnership agreement, relevent to the investment they have
made. This is a simple way to set up a business with minimal paper work involved although with
desicion making shared between partners, who are often close friends or relatives, disputes and
disagreements can be a problem. As a partnership is not a limited company, it does not benefit from
limited liability so all partners are responsible for any and all debt incurred. Another similar concept
is an LLP or limited liability partnership which has the same attributes as a partnership but with the
added security of limited liability meaning partners are only responsible for the amount they have
invested.
A sole trader refers to a self employed person who has sole ownership of a bussiness, and so,
assumes all responsibility with decision making and keeps all profits. A good example of this would
be a self employed tour operator, offering local city tours in London to in bound
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Commercial Essay
The partnership en nom collectif, the partnership en commandite and the company are the three
kinds of commercial partnerships which may be established under the Companies Act. Explain the
main features of each. Why do you think the company is the most widely used vehicle to do
business with? Introduction Commercial partnerships in Malta are regulated by The Maltese
Companies Act which came into effect on the 1st January 1995 in order "to regulate...limited
liability companies and other commercial partnerships". In fact, when one wants to set up a
commercial partnership in Malta the Act provides a number of possible legal structures. The Act
stipulates that, "A commercial partnership may be of the following kinds: a partnership ... Show
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What has been said with regard to the partnership name when dealing with the partnership en nom
collectif applies also to the characteristics of the partnership en commandite. In addition Article 53
of the Act states that "a person who holds himself out as being a general partner shall be held liable
unlimitedly and jointly and severally with the general partners for all the obligations contracted by
the partnership." Therefore, if a partner makes believe that he is a general partner, then he will be
treated as such. Furthermore, Article 53(2) of the Act provides that "the inclusion in the partnership
name of the name of a person who is not a partner shall be taken into account by the Court in
determining whether such person is holding himself out as being a partner." Therefore the
partnership name can only include the name of the general partner, otherwise if a limited person
added his name, he would be deemed to be holding himself out as being a general partner. These
same provisions are applicable also to a partnership en nom collectif through Article 18 of the
Companies Act. The co–existence in the partnership of one or more general and one or more
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Sources of Finance
Sources of finance
What are the main sources and finance for UK firms and why?
All firms need some kind of financing. Access to finance may differ considerably from firm to firm
depending on what type of business they are and how big/known they are; Sole Trader, Public
Limited or Private Limited Company.
There are both INTERNAL and EXTERNAL sources of finance. Finance can be short, medium or
long term.
Internal sources of Finance: 2 main types 1) Funds from the owner(s) and the family. These funds
are normally savings and other money invested as capital. ✓ Funds from the family can take the
form of a loan provided at a low or nil rate of interest. This form of financing is quite cheap. ✓ Also
it can be very ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
➢ Involves the putting down of security
Limited Company Ordinary shares: are shares issued to the shareholders of a limited company. In
return Shareholders receive regular dividend payments out of the profits of the company.
Advantages:
✓ Dividends on ordinary shares very according to the level or profits. If there are no profits,
dividends don't have to be paid. The cost of finance is therefore variable and will not be such a
burden if profits are low.
Disadvantages:
➢ If outside investors buy into the company, they will have an element of control which could
prove disruptive for exiting management ➢ With most shares, finance is never paid off because
there will always be a need to pay dividends. ➢ If the company foes 'bust'; ordinary shareholders
are the last people to get paid (disadvantage for shareholders)
Limited company preference shares: are shares issued to the investors of a limited company. They
receive dividends in preference to ordinary shareholders and often have a fixed percentage dividend.
Advantages:
✓ Preference dividends are fixed; makes budgeting easier ✓ Shareholders unable to take part in the
running of the business
Disadvantages:
➢ preference dividends fixed so even if profits are low, they have to be paid
Debenture stock:
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Csr Ltd. : Business Nature And Other Issues
Abstract Company is considered as an association where member shares a common purpose and
unites for focusing their various talents to achieve declared goals. CSR Ltd. is an Australian
industrial company which manufactures building products along with this it also has an investment
in Tomago Aluminium Smelter. CSR Ltd. is a publicly traded company. In this study capital rising
options of Jonson P/L is discussed along with business nature and other issues of CSR Ltd. Part: A
Introduction A company is a company which formed and registered under the specific company act
and a company will be treated as an invisible, artificial person, intangible, legal entity, perpetual
succession, created by law and a common seal. A company is never affected by death, insolvency or
insanity of its individual member. Company is considered as an association where member shares a
common purpose and unites for focusing their various talents to achieve declared goals. There are
two types of Company, public limited company and private limited company. Share of public
limited company is traded publicly but the share of private limited company is not traded publicly. A
group of people take the initiative of forming a public limited company and after registration
initiators raised capital through different procedure. Raising capital is a very big challenge for the
initiator of the public limited company. After completing all necessary formalities, company offers
its shares to the public to
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Identify the Three Main Types of Business Organisations...
1 Identify the three main types of business organisations recognised in Scots law. A. Sole trader
The most popular style of small business enterprise, it's simple to set up and does not require any
formalities. Sole trader often is a one person who manages and owns the company. They take all the
profits, but must also include all losses. Indeed, if the only operator becomes insolvent personal
assets may be used to satisfy creditors, such as a house, car, etc. They are personally responsible for
all indebtedness of the company and have unlimited liability.
B. Partnership
C. Incorporated Bodies
Private Limited Company (LTD)
Public limited company (PLC)
2 Clarify for Gurpreet and Samuel, by distinguishing the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
First of all the company must be register in Companies House and there is a fee need to be paid.
Also there is some extra cost related running that kind of business like: financial information must
be publicly available and copy of that statement must be send to Companies House. Partnership
agreement should be drawn up setting out how it will run and LLP how profits will be shared.
4 In relation to each type of business organisation explain the following: * The legal provisions
relating to management * The implications of contractual arrangements
There are many reasons why a trader may decide to set up company. Considerations include the
credibility and prestige of the company, which is public companies associated with the available
resources to obtain financing, and the possibility of limiting liability. It is important to note that not
all companies offer their shareholders of limited liability in respect of claims by creditors.
Private Limited Company
This is the most common type of company and is what most people have in mind when considering
whether or not to set up a company. Each shareholder's liability is limited to the amount unpaid on
the shareholding owned by them. However, the shareholder must also be aware that they run the risk
of losing monies paid to the company whether in full or part payment of the shares owned by them.
There must be a minimum two members, where
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Ipo Case Study
FIN F314
Investment Banking and Financial Services
IPO Case Study:
Bajaj Corp Ltd
A.Sai Sravan 2013AAPS117H
K.Chaitanya 2013AAPS094H
T.Raghunandan 2013AAPS148H
M.S.R Karthik 2013A1PS808H
Abstract
This case study describes the IPO of Bajaj Corp Ltd., the second largest company in the Shishir
Bajaj Group of companies. It also enlists the objectives and the process of the IPO, issued on 02–
08–2010. It describes the merchant bankers and underwriters involved, and discuss post–issue
effects on the company.
Introduction
The company was incorporated at Mumbai as a private limited company, with the Registrar of
Companies, Maharashtra, under the Companies Act, 1956 as Bhaumik Ago Products Private Limited
pursuant to a Certificate ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Underwriting is an agreement to subscribe of a corporate body when the existing shareholders and
the public don't.
Kotak Mahindra Capital Company Ltd and Kotak Securities Ltd are the underwriters for this issue.
Issue Process
This issue was a book built offer. Book building is a systematic process of generating, capturing,
and recording investor demand for shares during an initial public offering (IPO), or other securities
during their issuance process, in order to support efficient price discovery.
In terms of Rule 19(2)(b) of the Securities Contracts (Regulations) Rules, 1957 (SCRR), this being
an issue for less than 25% of the post–Issue capital, the Issue is being made through the 100% Book
Building Process wherein at least 60% of the Issue shall be allocated on a proportionate basis to
Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIB) Bidders.
Issue Subscription Detail: Objectives of the Issue:
Promote future products
Acquisitions and other strategic initiatives
General Corporate Purposes.
Issue Details
100% of the issue was offered through equity shares. There are no bonds, preferential stock,
debentures for this
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Explain The Structure Of Business Organizations
Business Organisations
Spyridon Natsis
The aims of the report:
1. Explain the structure of business organizations
2. Give the legal documents relating to each business.
3. Explain issues in which stakeholders are concerned.
4. Explain the relation between legal requirements, stakeholders and business financial activities.
Contents
1. Introduction
2. Sole trader organisations
2.1 Stakeholders of sole traders
3. Partnership organisations
3.1 Stakeholders of partnerships
4. Private limited companies (LTD)
4.1 Stakeholders of LTD
5. Public limited companies (PLC)
5.1 Stakeholders of PLC
6. Conclusion
7. Appendices
8. Bibliography
(1) Introduction
The four most common types of business organizations are partnership, sole trader, private limited
companies (LTD) and public limited companies (PLC). Partnerships and sole traders have unlimited
liability which means they are personally liable/responsible for the debts of the business. On the
other hand PLC and LTD have limited liability, which means that the owner is not personally liable
for the debts of the business. All businesses have to face stakeholders. A stakeholder is anyone who
has interest in a particular business such as clients, government, banks, suppliers, owners, investors,
employees etc.
(2) Sole Traders
Sole traders consists of only one person running the business who has unlimited liability and 100
percent of the shares of the company.
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The Relationship Between A Corporation And A Private...
Introduction Today's world is full of corporations doing business in every industry and sector that
we can imagine. These corporations are set up to separate the business from its owners and insulate
their assets. There are times, however, in the interest of equity when the corporate veil is allowed to
be lifted and the assets of the owners are exposed. (Dignam) Throughout this paper, I will discuss
the difference between a corporation and a private entity and when the corporate veil can be lifted
according to the cases in the UK law.
Private Entities Versus Corporations In the United Kingdom, different business structures are
available to those who wish to establish a business. There are four forms that a company can take in
the United Kingdom. These forms are as follows:
1) A private company limited by shares (members' liability is limited to the unpaid share capital
except where any personal guarantees have been given).
2) A private company limited by guarantee (members' liability limited to the amount undertaken to
be contributed by members.
3) A private unlimited company (unlimited liability of members).
4) A public limited company (members' liability is limited to the unpaid share capital and at the time
of incorporation a plc must have ab allotted share capital of 50,000.00 pounds)" (Rosenfalck).
The minimum requirements for setting up a private limited company is that you must have one
director, registered in the United Kingdom, and have at least one
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Role Of The Private Limited Company
1.0 Introduction Incorporation is forming of a new corporation. A corporation is like a legal entity
that can be effectively recognized as a person under the law. The corporation may be a non–profit
organization or a business. It is not affected by the death of any member. A sole trader is the most
simple structure of business. This structure is less expensive to set up because there are very few
legal and tax formalities. Operating your business as a sole trader means you trade on your own and
control and manage the business. In Private Limited Company there is a minimum two to a
maximum of fifty people, these people make financial contributions to their business and they have
limited liability. They are also limited by the value of the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
The Corporations Act 2001 and Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 are
two statutes. Traditionally, governance of corporate law has been viewed as a thing for State
legislation. However, in 1989 the Commonwealth government developed legislation that aimed to
take over regulation of corporate law. Australian Constitution does not give the Commonwealth
complete power to make laws about companies. 4.0 A company limited by shares as a business
organization A company "Limited by shares" is that company which has shareholders, and the
liability of the shareholders which is to be paid to the creditors of the company is limited .the
personal things of shareholder are protected in the case of the company 's insolvency, but invested
money as shares in the company will be lost. A company limited by share is type of a company hold
under the laws of England, that of certain Commonwealth countries . It is a form of business
orgnisation that is in an artificial creation of the law . It is legally recognized as a separate and
distinct entity being independent of both its directors and members. Companies in Australia are
ordered by ASIC (Australian Securities and Investment Commission). A company limited by shares
has a nominal capital divided into shares of certain values and classes . the base of such a company
is that liabilities of share holders is limited to any amounts unpaid on their
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LOBOFinal Exam 2 Essay
FINAL EXAMINATION SPRING SESSION 2008
SCHOOL OF LAW
Student Family Name:
Student Given Names:
Student Number:
Course:
Unit Name (In Full): LAW OF BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS
Unit Number: 200183
Time Allowed: 3 (THREE) HOURS plus 10 (TEN) minutes reading time.
Number of Questions: 3 (THREE)
Total Number of Pages: 4 (FOUR)
Lecturer's Name: DR MASUDUL HAQUE, MARGARET HYLAND
INSTRUCTIONS
PLEASE READ CAREFULLY BEFORE PROCEEDING
1 Write your name and student number on the top of this examination paper and on ALL answer
booklets.
2 This is an OPEN book examination. You can only use your prescribed text book and the
Corporations Act 2001. No other materials are allowed.
3 The examination is out of 100. You must answer all ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
(8 marks).
C) If Tom has breached any of his director's duty what actions can be taken against him and by
whom? (6 marks)
D) Can a shareholder bring a personal action, and against whom – the company or the director–
based on the facts of the question? Do you think there are grounds for a shareholder to bring
derivative action? What remedies can be obtained both for personal and derivative action?
(6+6+3=15 marks)
E) Does the agreement between Photolab Ltd and Photoproduction Ltd require the approval of
shareholders? If so, why? (8 Marks) F) If Photolab Ltd become insolvent because of the loan
provided to Photoproductions Ltd, what liability, if any, have the directors for the company's debts?
Who can bring the action and what remedies are available? (7+5=12 marks)
Question 2 [15 MARKS]
In the above question [question 1] Fred Smart was the auditor of Photolab Ltd. Fred Smart's wife
owns 10% of the shares in Photolab Ltd. When Fred is conducting the audit he is concerned about
the company's accounts, in that the company has not kept proper financial records. He also cannot
find any evidence that the company has maintained a register of its members or its charges. Tom
tells him he will find them and give them to him but never does. The company tells Fred Smart that
it intends to show his report to BigBank, as they wish to borrow $100,000 for expansion purposes.
The company
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This paper examines the type of corporation which meets...
This paper examines the type of corporation which meets James's best interest. Abstract
This paper examines the type of corporation which meets James's best interest. A company can be
set up with or without shares available to the public, divided into the public company which is
expensive to obtain and maintain, and the private company which is appreciated by most businesses
to begin with. Also, there are limited and unlimited companies. In addition, a company can be
classified as limited by guarantee or limited by capital shares which are in most companies' favour.
These are governed in the main by the Companies Act 1985 and relevant case law.
Introduction
There are several types of company. The most common company ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
This advantage also makes it easier to bring in outside investors and partners, and transfer
ownership.
Salomon v. Salomon Co. 1897 is a case in point. Salomon had run a successful business for many
years as a boot merchant. In 1892, he decided to take advantage of incorporated status, and convert
his business into Limited Liability Company. To do this he set up a
Limited Company, which he called Salomon & Co. Ltd, and made himself and members of his
family shareholders in the business, with himself as the majority shareholder and Managing
Director, thus retaining control of the company.
As a separate legal entity, Mr. Salomon then sold his merchant leather business to Salomon & Co
Ltd for £39,000, which in 1892 was far in excess of its real value. Mr. Salomon took payment from
the company in the form of £10,000 in cash, £1in 10,000 shares and the remaining £9,000 he left in
the business as a loan to the company, which he secured against assets of the business.
Within months the company ran into trouble, and within a year went into liquidation. Even though it
would mean suppliers and employees who were owed money would go unpaid, Mr. Salomon
claimed his secured loan back from the company.
When the case went to court, even though it was plain to see that Mr.
Salomon was the business in reality, in the eyes of the law he was a shareholder and private
individual, who had leant this company in
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Factors Affecting The Business Organization
Introduction: In the process of manufacturing, packaging, marketing and other necessary business
activities, businesses interact with internal and external factors which may affect the business and
can be affected by the business as well. A combination of both of the factors comprises the business
environment in which the business operates. The internal factors refer to the factors those function
within the business organization and the business can control or facilitate them as needed. Some
prominent internal factors are the working conditions, employees, employer to employee relations,
organizational culture and organizational structure etc. For a British–American online chain store
like ASDA, the total numbers of employees working for the organization (140,000 employees
working in 500 stores) is a key internal factor. On the other hand, external recruitment are factors as
such as political factors(Laws and regulation system, governmental activities and ownership
module, tariffs/ Taxation and trade barriers, conflict between political parties and socio–political
unrest etc.) Macroeconomic concerns (interest rate, exchange rate of currency, employment rate,
unemployment rate, discretionary income, GDP, recessions, depressions, inflation etc.),
microeconomic concern (market size, demand and supply diagram, distribution channel and delivery
mode etc.), social and technological factors which are not in the control of the business but affect the
business by their activities
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Public Limited Corporation And Private Limited Company
Public limited company and private limited company. _ Difference
Company is defined as a legal entity which is allowed by legislation and permits a group of people
to run a business. Finance is the basic ingredients of a business. Without cash a business can not
run.various sources of finance helps a business to grow and to fulfill it's need of wages, advertising,
expansion, payment of interest etc. Different sources of finance are used depending upon their
maturity period. To built a company not only finance but also various factors which are the
essentials of it.
INTRODUCTION
Private limited company is a legal and juristic person established under companies Act. Private
limited company is of two types ,which are by shares and by ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
Long term finance
2. Medium term finance
3. Short term finance 1. Long term finance :– Long term sources of finance are those method that
are adopted to private finance for a long period of time. The period of time must be of one year and
above. Example of long term fianancing include a 40 year mortgage or a 10 year treasury note. The
sources of long term finance are :
● Debentures
● Common stock
● Preference shares
● Mortgage
● Government grants/loans
2. Medium term finance :– Medium term finance or intermediate financing is done for a period
intermediate between 1 to 10 years . Medium term financing is generally done for the purpose of
maintenance or up gradation of the business. The sources of medium term finance are :
● Loans
● Venture capital trust
● Lease
● Hire purchase
3. Short term finance :– The money needs for less than a year are fulfilled through short term
financing. They provide a cash influx or the fulfillment of short term inventory needs and repairs as
well as short term investments.
● Bank over drafts
● Trade credit
● Factoring
● Invoice discounting
On the other hand,
● Private limited company:
If few person by together starting a new business or trying to grow an existing business or company
, all certainly will need money . This money can come from various sources. Roughly speaking
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Investigation of the Types of Business Ownership Essay
Investigation of the Types of Business Ownership
JCC Limited is a private limited company. Other forms of business ownership include:
The sole trader. This is the most common form of private sector business. This type of business has
one owner who runs the business and may employ any number of people to help. Advantages of
being a sole trader include the lack of legal restrictions, the sole trader is able to set up their business
relatively quickly. Also all profits after tax are kept by the owner. There are a number of
disadvantages to being a sole trader though, the main one being that sole traders have unlimited
liability. This means that if the business gets into heavy debts then the ... Show more content on
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Becoming a PLC tends to be very expensive. This is because, the company may use a financial
institutions to process share applications. A PLC must have a £50,000 share capital and the company
will have administrative and advertising expenses. There are several advantages to being a PLC as
large amounts of money can be made from the sale of shares to the public and because of their large
size PLC's can often dominate the market. However due to the large size of most PLC's the setting
up costs can run into millions of pounds in some instances. Also as the shares are on sale to the
general public it is possible that someone outside the company could take control of it.
Private Limited Companies, JCC Limited is a private limited company. These types of business tend
to be smaller than PLC's. Like PLC's private limited companies have limited liability. This means
that the owner, Mark Du Jardin in the case of JCC Ltd. can only lose what he has originally put into
the business. The shares within a private limited company can only be brought and sold privately
and cannot be advertised for general sale on the stock market. As the only shareholder Mark Du
Jardin must agree on the transfer of shares. Private limited companies are often family run
businesses, such as JCC Ltd. As Mark Du Jardin is the sole shareholder and
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What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Private...
Executive Summary
In Pakistan, the formal process that Private Limited Companies must undergo is dictated by the
Companies Ordinance 1984. The documents that need to be submitted along with all the
authorization required is outlined in the ordinance. The formulation, conditions, requirements;
everything must be adhered to before it can register with the SECP and begin its operations.
Depending upon the category of company, approval is take from certain designated ministries or
departments. Prior to registration, the initiators must determine a suitable source of capital.
Registration is undertaken by the company registration office. The advantages that come with this
form of company include limited liability, unlimited life and tax benefits whereas the disadvantages
are inclusive of limited ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Transfer and Sale of Shares
Private limited company cannot sell its shares and the shares are not transferrable without the
consent of other shareholders. In a public limited company, anyone can sell their shares anytime
they want without anyone's consent. ix. Dissolution
Under company's ordinance, separate and different procedures have been provided for dissolution of
private company and public company.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Limited Company:
Advantages:
Company's registration in Pakistan
A common perception among people is that by registering their business as Private Limited
Company their business is going to progress very rapidly as compare to any other business. The
perception in simpler words is completely wrong.
First thing while starting a business is not the company registration, the first thing to focus on is to
have a workable business plan and idea that in your perception has enough strength to earn you
sufficient income as per your plan.
Once planning and arrangement of capital is finalized next step comes to company registration.
Company registration is in simple words is providing your business with legal cover. Private
Limited
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Swot Analysis Of Salomon Company
DEFINITION OF COMPANY
A Company is a kind of business structure or a business organisation. Suppose a person wants to
start a business, he invests Rs. 10 lakh and starts his own business. This kind of structure is sole
proprietorship where this person is the owner of the business. He is in control of business, he is in
charge, he is the one involved in day to day profits. When he stops working, the business stops to
work .He is legal entity as such.
ADVANTAGE
The owner has the full control over his whole business.
DISADVANTAGE
His capital is limited. When he suffers loss or incurs liability he will be held liable.
Therefore company can purchase or sell assets, can open bank account, company is operates through
Board of Directors. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Limited liability– The share holders or member's liability is up to the unpaid amount of shares.
ANALYSIS OF THE CASE SALOMON V. SALOMON
The Salomon case reinforce the principle of limited liability companies or a separate legal entities
from the people or alone. The Companies Act1862 stated that a company stated that a company has
to have 7 share holders. So the conditions of the legislation was properly observed, the share holders
could not financially pursuit in the individual capacity for the debts of the company. Salomon
incorporated his business in accordance with the Act. He had taken all the shares except six shares
that he had distributed among his wife, daughter and four sons.
Salomon purchased some debentures of the company that in turn gave him a charge over its assets.
At winding time the company's assets was not sufficient to pay its debts. The company went into
liquidation.
The creditors of the company (other than Salomon) argued that their debts should be cleared before
paying Salomon for his debentures because Salomon and the company was one and the same
person.
The Court decided that after incorporation, Salomon and Co. had an identity separate from Salomon
even though he owned virtually all the shares in the
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Legal Forms of Business in Sri Lanka
Introduction
A business also called a company, enterprise or firm is a legally recognized organization, designed
to provide goods and services to consumers. According to the purpose of the business, ownership of
the business and nature of economic contribution of the business; the business can fall into one of
the three standard sectors. There are; private sector, public sector and nonprofit sector.
The part of the economy concerned with providing basic government services is called public sector.
In most countries the public sector includes such services as the military, public transit, primary
education and healthcare. Their aim is to give service to the people and less emphasis is made on
profit making. Public cooperation is the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
All assets of the business are owned by the owner and all profits and all losses accrue to him. He is
personally responsible for all debts of the business and must pay them from his personal resources.
This means that the owner has unlimited personal liability for the business. Also, owner is less
burdened by government restrictions and control, and he has less to do in terms of reporting and
taxes.
The main advantage of a sole proprietorship is that they are easy to start up and to close. The reason
is, they are less expensive and also subject to fewer regulations compared to other types of
businesses. Since the owner has full autonomy with regard to business decisions, sole proprietorship
businesses are easy and inexpensive to discontinue. The second advantage is that the owner can take
all the profits of the business and there is no profit sharing. This may be the most significant
motivation for most businesses to become sole proprietorship type. At the same time, all losses
accrue to the owner and he does not have the tension regarding conflicts among the partners as there
are no partners. In sole proprietorship business type, the owner of the organization pays self
employment taxes on the profits made. It makes tax filing much simpler and hence this can be
considered as another advantage for sole proprietorship business type. Since this is not a
corporation; it does not pay
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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Private Limited Company
REGISTRATION OF PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY
Private Limited Company is a successful business type. Minimum two persons can promote a
Private Limited Company. There can be minimum two and maximum two hundred members of a
Private Limited Company. Perpetual succession, separate judicial entity, greater stability etc are
some of the main features of a Private Limited Company. Larger businesses prefer dealing with a
Private Limited Company than with a Proprietorship or a Partnership Firm.
Advantages of Private Limited Company :
Separate Legal Entity : A Private Limited Company when incorporated is considered as artificial
judicial person. It is a separate judicial entity. A Company can purchase its assets and borrow own
funds as a separate judicial entity. The Share Holders of Company are liable for company's debts
only to the extent of shares held by them. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
There can be maximum fifteen directors in the Company.
What is minimum capital requirement to start Private Limited Company ?
The minimum paid up capital of a Private Limited company should be Rs. 1/– lakh. The members
are not required to produce any proof of investment in Compay.
Do we need to have office address for starting a Private Limited Company ?
There has to be an official address of the Private Limited Company where all communication is
received, it is called Registered Office of the Company. Any commercial or industrial premises or
residence of any person can be Registered Office of a Private Limited Company.
Is it necessary for me to visit MCA office to incorporate a Private Limited Company ?
No. You need not visit MCA office or our office to incorporate a company. You have to just send
scanned copies of required documents by e–mail. Certain documents which are required in physical
format may be send through courier. We also provide free pickup of documents in some areas.
What all documents are required for incorporation of Private Limited Company
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Commerce Essay
An investigative study on the business ownership: in particular, John Chea #1 & #8 as a private
limited company.
A research paper presented in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the course BGCSE
Commerce.
Candidate Name: Chymia Johnson
School Name: St. Andrews School
Date Submitted: 29th August, 2013
Table of contents
Title Page
Introduction 3
Chapter One: Determine what type of company John Chea is 5
Chapter Two: Find out the types of services John Chea provide for its customers ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
As there are advantages, being a private limited company can have its disadvantages. Some
disadvantages are:
If shares can only be sold to family or friends with the agreement of all the shareholders it is likely
that additional investment made through the sale of shares will be limited.
Profits generated by the company may have to be shared between increasingly large numbers of
shareholders.
Accounts detailing the financial performance of the company have to be produced and checked by
firms of accountants, which can be expensive.
It is difficult to sell your shares and leave the company because any buyers have to be approved by
the remaining shareholders.
The private limited company offers a variety of services. With John Chea, the services offered are
mainly grocery and food. One service offered is the retail grocer. John Chea can be considered a
supermarket. Some items offered at John Chea are dry groceries, meat, produce, hair accessories,
medications, etc. As you walk in the store, there are many items displayed on shelves. If you would
like to purchase an item, you can go straight to the cashier and pay in cash or by credit/debit cards.
The figure below shows the retail section of the store.
Another service offered by John Chea is wholesale. Vendors usually buy their products from John
Chea using wholesale. The items offered
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Company Analysis: Mypond Hotel
Company Analysis
Company Name : MyPond Hotel
Address : 33 Van Der Riet Street, Port Alfred. South Africa
Postal Address : PO BOX 2528, PORT ALFRED 6170
Telephone : +27 (0) 46624 4626
Fax : +27 (0) 46624 4628
(http://www.mypondhotel.com/)
MyPond Hotel is a four–star boutique hotel located in the Eastern Cape of South Africa, Port Alfred.
The hotel is run by a hospitality school called Stenden and most of its staff members are students
from the school. This provides guests with a unique service and the hotel is located on the banks of
the Kowie river providing an excellent view. The hotel has one different awards for their service
such as the Best Accomodation Service Provider in the Eastern ... Show more content on
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(Fernandes, 2016)
The vision statement at MyPond Hotel is ``MyPond Hotel is a cutting edge learning hotel that
unleashes potential through a culture with sustainable benefits for all stakeholders``
After working at the hotel I can say the vision statement at the hotel was clearly orchestrated as the
words learning hotel outlines the core objectives of the company and the vision statement gave me
as an employee direction.
The mission statement at MyPond Hotel is``MyPond Hotel provides innovative and sustainable
hospitality experiences, benefiting its shareholders and community through real world learning``
The mission statement at MyPond Hotel also clearly outlines the purpose of the hotel and any
potential or current stakeholders should clearly understand the hotel and its operations.
Along with the vision/mission statement of MyPond Hotel are five values that shape up the
company culture and its principles. These are:
1. Ubuntu. Which stands and means togetherness.
2. A passionate commitment to excellence in the art of
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Legal Structure of a Business Orgnanisation Essay
Legal Structure of a Business Orgnanisation
Business organisations are the different legal forms a business can adopt. The key distinction is that
some businesses provide limited liability for any debts the business incurs. Others have unlimited
liability – which obviously doesn't
[IMAGE]Unincorporated Incorporated
Up Arrow Callout: Sole–trader
Up Arrow Callout: Partnership
Up Arrow Callout: Private Limited Company (ltd)
Up Arrow Callout: Public Limited Company (plc)
What is a Sole–trader? (Builder/local shops/hairdresser)
Sole–traders are individuals who own and operate their own businesses. Although there may well be
other employees (usually no more than 5) the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The most common examples of a partnership are doctor's surgeries, veterinarians, accountants,
solicitors and dentists.
As stated earlier, most partners in a partnership face unlimited liability for their debts. The only
exception is in a Limited Partnership. This is where a partnership may wish to raise additional
finance, but does not wish to take on any new active partners.
To overcome this problem, the partnership may take on as many Sleeping (or Silent) Partners as
they wish – these people will provide finance for the business to use, but will not have any input into
how the business is run. In other words, they have purely put the money into the business as an
investment. These Sleeping Partners face limited liability for the debts of the partnership. A
partnership, just like a sole trader, is an unincorporated business.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a Partnership?
Advantages Disadvantages
(1) Additional Skills to strengthen the business (1) Share profits
(2) More capital to help business (2) Loss of control
(3) Debts are shared equally (3) Unlimited liability
There are two types of companies,
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Disadvantages Of Public Sector
Task 1 A business is an organization that provides services and creates goods. There is a vast variety
of businesses. They all fall into the three main sectors: Public; Private; and Voluntary. Public Sector
The Public Sector consists of organisations that are owned and ran by the national and local
governments for the public; not to make profit. The public sector is responsible for providing public
services such as healthcare, education, recreational and sports facilities refuse collection, electricity,
and Police and Fire services etc. The public sector is funded through taxation, lottery funding, fines
and penalties etc. The advantage of the public sector is that there are always funds available and the
services and products that the government provide can be offered at an affordable price. The
disadvantages that come with the public sector are: political interference, the government will have
to bear losses which could lead to higher taxation, corruption etc. Examples of public sector
organisations include: Civil Service, HM Revenue & Customs, Crowns Prosecution Service, NHS,
etc. Under the Public Sector there are public corporations, which are owned by the government, ran
by a government appointed chairperson and a board of directors on the governments' behalf.
Examples of public corporations include: London Fire Brigade, Royal Mail, Bank of England, BBC
etc. Public Corporations are funded by government grants and public funding, e.g. the BBC charges
the public for a TV license. Private Sector The private sector consists of organisations that are
owned and ran by private individuals and group, who seek to generate and return profit.
Organisations in the private sector are usually free from government control and ownership, but
must abide by the laws. Private Sector organisations fall into the following categories: Sole
proprietorship, Partnership, Limited Companies, Franchises and Cooperatives. Examples of Private
Sector organisations include: New Look, Harrods Group, Arcadia Group, John Lewis Partnership
etc. Sole Proprietorship A Sole Proprietorship is a business owned and ran by one individual. Sole
Proprietorships are unincorporated. There is no legal difference between the business and the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Procedure To Buy Back
INTRODUCTIONS
Buy back means that a company can repurchase its own shares or any other specified securities.
Section 77A, 77AA and 77B of Companies (Amendment) Act, 1999 regulate the buyback of shares.
When the company is overcapitalized then the company proceeds to buy back its shares in order to
reduce its capital and distribute the surplus among shareholders. Generally whenever a buyback is
done it's seen that the share prices moves in an upward direction or in other words share price rises
because the customer's trust or confidence over the company increases. There can be cases when
buy back can lead to fall in share price. This generally happens when there is a difference between
the buyback price and what was expected by the investors. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
BUYING–BACK
In order to buy back its shares, a company has to take approval from the Board of Directors of the
company. After the Board is satisfied, they will give the approval by passing necessary resolutions
and thus approving the proposal for buy back. An unlisted company can buy back its shares on
proportionate basis from existing shareholder either by way of private offers or by purchasing the
securities issued to the employees with respect to the stock option or sweat equity scheme.
CONTENTS OF EXPLANATORY STATEMENT
For the purpose of implementation of buy back it requires to be approved by a special resolution
passed in the general meeting. The notice regarding the general meeting should be sent along with
an explanatory statement in which following things are to be disclosed:
The need for buy back
The date on which the proposal for buy back was approved by the Board at the board meeting.
The basis on which the price for buy back will be
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Guidance And Advice On Setting Up A New Company

  • 1. Guidance And Advice On Setting Up A New Company Introduction This report aims to provide guidance and advice on setting up a new company and also considers the mechanisms for doing so. The report encompasses a range of key areas which are considered in order to provide an understanding of how to incorporate a business entity of suitable type and structure whilst also covering the registration process together with legal requirements. Section 1 Legal status – There are fundamental differences between a Limited Company and a Ordinary Partnership. Limited companies exist in their own right in law and as such are deemed to be a separate legal entity from its owners, this means that companies can survive through death of or change of owners a company's existence will only cease if it is formally wound up, liquidated or by other order of the courts or Registrar of Companies. . In contrast Partnerships have no legal existence outside of the self employed partners who make up the business and as such the Partnership will end should one of the partners leave hence, by definition, a partnership has a limited existence while a company is created to last forever. Liability – In an ordinary partnership members are responsible for all debts accrued by the business and do not observe any protection should the business fail and as such limited companies hold an advantage in that the Company shareholders will only be liable for debt up to the value of their individual investment, this offers a degree of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. My Chosen Bussiness Legal Structure SOLETRADER ''A sole trader is a company started and run by one individual. '' [http://www.e– conomic.co.uk/accountingsystem/glossary/sole–trader] People who want to run and operate a business ,want to have a total control, prefer to work on their own or employ often just one or two employees, make all the decisions by themselves and do not want to invest much money into the business are inclined to work as a Sole trader. This business is known as a 'one–man business' and must be registered for VAT, must pay income Tax and NI and have a license if needed (sale of alcohol or planning permission) . The Sole trader can be businesses like plumbers, bakers, or hairdressers. The benefit of this is that the owners can keep all of the profit that the business makes. They don't need to ask anybody before making any decisions and furthermore, they do not need to publish their accounts. However, as there is only one person who operates and runs the business , the business and the owner are not separate. The Sole trader has Unlimited Liability , which means that any business debt is also the owners' debt. They may work long hours or on weekends, do not get sick pay , maternity or holiday cover and they are responsible for accounts, customer service or returns. PARTNERSHIP It is defined in the Partnership Act (1890) as:– ''...an act of the UK Parliament, which governs the rights and duties of business people who do business with a common view of profit. It has a least membership of two ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Memorandum of Association Types of Business Organisations When we start to define a company it can be defined as generally a form of business organisation. In the legal field, a company is specifically ‘a corporation, or less commonly, an association, partnership or union that carries on a commercial or industrial enterprise. Generally a company may be a corporation, partnership, association, joint – stock company, trust, fund or organised group of persons, whether incorporated or not and (in an official capacity) any receiver, trustee in bankruptcy or similar official or liquidating agent for any of the foregoing. More specifically we can state a company as either one of four distinct business organisations, Sole Trader, Partnership, Private company and Public ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the set up of a private company there will be pre–emption clauses where if a member decides that he/she wants to sell their shares then they must offer them to somebody already in the company before going public. An advantage of being in a private company is that there is limited liability indicated by ‘limited ' or ‘Ltd '. The member is liable for the amount not paid in shares but not for the company 's debts. Public Company A public company usually refers to a company that is permitted to offer its securities (stock, bonds) for sale to the general public typically through a stock exchange. Usually, the securities of a public company are owned by many investors while the shares of a private company are owned by relatively few shareholders. Members of the public company also have limited liability as indicated by the words ‘public limited company ' (PLC or plc) at the end of the company name. Under the formation of a new business, members must be allocated a nominal value of shares (i.e. the least value shares can be sold for) to a value of at least £50000 which can be partly paid from a value of 25% as long as there is proof there is an ability to pay the outstanding amount. Basic Company Structure The basic company model assumes a separation of ownership and control. Shareholders are able to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Whether Facebook Can Benefit from the Changing Between... Facebook is a social net working service, which is started in the United States by Mark Zuckerberg with his friends in 2004. The website's membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges, and gradually globalization. In 2012, the fonder of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg decide to convert the structure of Facebook from private limited company to public limited company. Facebook values shares at £24 each, and that its shares would began trading in New York on 18th of May 2012. It is seem that Facebook would be worth £66bn at this price. The following will analyse whether Facebook can benefit from the changing between private limited company to public limited company. Ltd is the short for ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Facebook choose to be a Ltd company as it beginning, because Mark Zuckerberg and his classmates aer students on that time. So they do not have enough money to set up a plc company. And the aim of Mark Zuckerberg making facebook is that he just wants the make the distance of people become closer than before. And make the communication of people convenient. There are many advantages and disadvantages of Ltd and Plc. If a company chooses to be an Ltd, they can get money by selling their shares despite they can only sell shares to friends and family. This might be easy for the company to control the shares selling. That means Mark Zuckerberg only sell the shares of facebook to his classmates and family before its flotation. So he can choose which people do his shareholder. Ltd also can easier to attract investors because of the security of limited liability. The business is continuity to exist even one of the owners died or sick. However, being an Ltd has negative effects as well. The business cannot sell on the stock market means that they can not gather so much share capitals. This is a reason why Mark Zuckerberg decided to sell the shares on the stock market. The accounts of the business must be public, and the profit should share with the shareholders. The decision making is not just by one person. Sometimes it is a good thing for solve problems, but there is also a potential disagreement among shareholders. When a company ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Job Site At The Middle East Job Market Essay Table of Contents Introduction 1 Company Performance 4 SWOT Analysis 4 Porter's 5 Forces Analysis 5 BCG Matrix 5 Recruitment Vertical – Naukri.com 6 Real Estate 7 Matrimony 8 Education 12 Introduction The Company was incorporated on May 1, 1995 under the Companies Act, 1956 as Info Edge (India) Private Ltd. and converted into a Public Limited on April 27, 2006. Info Edge (India) Limited (Info Edge) is India's premier on–line classifieds company in recruitment, matrimony, real estate, education and related services. Their businesses comprise the following: Recruitment – This comprises online recruitment classifieds (www.naukri.com, India's leading job site and www.naukrigulf.com a job site focused at the Middle East job market) and offline executive search (www.quadranglesearch.com). Related sites in this business are a professional networking site (www.brijj.com) and a fresher hiring site (www.firstnaukri.com). Matrimony – This comprises online matrimony classifieds (www.jeevansathi.com) and 14 offline Jeevansathi Match Points. Real Estate – This comprises online real estate classifieds (www.99acres.com), a real estate brokerage business (www.allcheckdeals.com), housed in a subsidiary named Allcheckdeals.com India Private Limited. Education – This comprises online education classifieds (www.shiksha.com). The company, with a view to tap into the growing and vibrant Indian internet market, undertakes investments in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 11. Difference Between Private Sector And Public Sector 1.1 Explain the differences between the private sector the public sector and the voluntary sector The Private Sector The private sector is usually composed of organizations that are privately owned and not part of the government. For example, retail shops, credit unions, and local businesses will operate in the private sector. The Public Sector The public sector is usually organisations that are owned and operated by the government. This includes federal, local, national, or municipal governments (cities, towns, villages, counties, districts, or metropolitan regions), depending on where you live. Privacy legislation usually calls organizations in the public sector a public body or a public authority. Some examples of public bodies are educational bodies, health care bodies, police and prison services, and local and central government bodies and their departments. The voluntary sector The voluntary sector is very diverse, including multi–national charities, local community groups and everything in between. There are many types of voluntary organisations in the UK. Most are one of the 180,000 registered charities, but there are also housing associations, credit unions, community interest companies, trusts, local community groups and others. Voluntary sector organisations' management and governance is similar to the private sector. The board of trustee's act as directors. Main Differences: Legal Obligations Publicly owned companies, because they are partially
  • 12. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13.
  • 14. Classification of Company Status Classification of company according to its public status Private company Private company means any company incorporated as a private company by virtue of section 15. S15 state that if a company having a share capital may be incorporated as a private company if its memorandum or articles contain the following:– (a) There must be restrictions on the right of members to transfer their share. (b) The members must not be more than fifty (50) not including: – Person who are in the employment of the company; AND – Person who, having been formerly in the employment of the company, were members of the company while in that employment and have continued to be members after the employment ceased (c) Prohibits invite the public to subscribe for any shares in, or debentures of the company. (d) Prohibits any invitation to the public to deposit money with the company for fixed periods or payable at call, whether bearing or not bearing interest. Where, upon the commencement of this Act, neither the memorandum nor articles of a company that is a private company by virtue of paragraph (a) of the definition of 'private company' in subsection 4(1) contain the restrictions, limitations and prohibitions required by subsection (1) to be included in the memorandum or articles of a company that may be incorporated as a private company, the articles of the company shall be deemed to include each such restriction, limitation or prohibition that is not so included and a restriction on the right to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 15.
  • 16. Comparative Study of Company Law Introduction Company law (also be referred to as the law of business associations) can be described as the field of law concerned with the daily running of companies as well as business organizations. It entails partnerships, corporations as well as some of the associations that always deal in economic or charitable activity. Corporations are the highly prominent kinds of companies, they have separate legal personality and its investors have limited liability for whichever losses that occur in the company that is governed by corporate law. Companies that are widely spread with great monopoly are always listed publicly on the stock exchanges in all part of the world. Depending on the form, single individuals who are referred to as sole traders also have the opportunity to incorporate themselves and limit their ability so that they have the chance of continuing with the business. These various forms of companies rely on the particular law of their countries or the country of its location. Company laws were originally derived from the common law of England though it has significantly evolved in the 20th Century. Countries that practice common law address different forms such as Limited Company, Corporation, Unlimited Company, Limited Partnership, Limited Liability partnership, Partnership, Not–for–profit Corporation and Sole Proprietorship. Most of the countries have forms of business entity that is unique to their country. Some of the examples being limited liability ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17.
  • 18. How A Successful Business Is Business A successful business is business that has good entrepreneurial skills which enables them to unite production to the complex matters of demand. It also encourages them to improve on what they produce such as the quality and how they produce the product to meet the demand in the future. For example Apple, not only did they improve on the software they use but also the quality of the phone. However a firm lacking in entrepreneurship skills would risk being forgotten if they fail to make the right assumption of the market conditions and also produce goods and services where there is less demand. Firms are distinguished by their form of ownership. There are three types of businesses; sole trader, partnership and limited companies (public and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There are two types of limited companies, private and public. A private limited company is fairly small and profits are taken by the shareholders, as for a public limited company profits are also taken by shareholders however they are larger. The current recession in the UK has improved however banks will still be reluctant to lend loans to small businesses such as a sole trader, as profits are made in the long term due to high start up costs. Products in the sole trader business are homogenous; this means they are competing in a very competitive market therefore the business needs to find a geographical location that has high demand for their products which will in turn increase their chance of survival. Even if sole traders are successful with the loans, owners have to stake their house and private assets. However for a limited company (public or private), loans are given out more leniently as profits are gained more quickly as they have more ways of raising finance such as sell shares. However for private limited companies there is a restriction on the raising of capital via sales of shares, Public limited Companies can gain further funding by the sales of shares, but this ability is lost to private limited companies whose shares are restricted. Similar to a limited company where there are numerous shareholders, partnerships are able to put more money into the business which will allow better flexibility and more ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 19.
  • 20. Exploring the Types of Business Organisations Essay Exploring the Types of Business Organisations There are two Business Sectors: Public Sector These are businesses owned and run by the government. Some examples of Services provided in the public sector are the postal service, schools, colleges, housing environment, some bus and train services, fire, police, ambulance and local justice and social services. Their method of raising capital is different as Private Sector businesses have to raise their own capital e.g. their own money, a bank loan etc. The Public Sector business can get the money required from the Treasury or from local rates. There is no individual owner in the Public Sector. Advantages: · Their main aim is to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... They are owned and run by one person; usually they may have an assistant to help them run the business. Examples include corner shops, dressmaking and services such as hairdressing, plumbing, painting and electrical work. Advantages: · The set up of the business requires no legal procedures · The owner gets to keep all profit made · Because the business is usually small, the sole trader has close links with customers and suppliers · The sole trader can make all the decisions without having to call together a committee meeting. Disadvantages: · The sole trader has unlimited liability, which means that if the sole trader doesn't have enough money to pay their debts, they have to use their personal money in order to able to cover the payments. In extreme cases, sole traders' cars houses and other private possessions might have to be sold · Sole traders have to raise their own capital · If the sole trader is ill or on holiday, there is no one to cover for him/her · Banks are less likely to lend money to a sole trader because their businesses are small · It is difficult for sole traders to compete with larger businesses as they cannot take advantage of economies of scales Partnership Partnerships are mainly found in professional businesses such as doctors, surgeons, dentists, veterinary surgeons, accountants and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 22. Analysis of J Sainsbury’s Essay Analysis of J Sainsbury's Unit 1– Business at work Businesses exist to produce goods and services. If someone is thinking of starting up their own business or becoming part of an existing business, they would have to have the knowledge of what makes business work successfully and know how to how to apply that knowledge in the particular area of business. For this unit I will be entering and exploring the world of business. For this unit I will encounter and evaluate information provided by certain businesses and actually gather my own information from at least one business. The business I have chosen to study is J Sainsbury's. There are many types businesses in this world; these include Sole trader, Plc, Ltd, Partnership, Co– op and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Wages to employees are usually low. Consultancy, Builders, Market traders, Window cleaners, Restaurant and corner shops are all examples of sole traders. The disadvantages of sole traders are as follows: · If you don't work, you don't earn, so it would be wise to just work as much as possible and not take holidays all the time. · There is more pressure if you are a sole trader compared to working in a corporate business like Bt Cellnet. · You wont be as well known because its harder to advertise a small sole trader company · There are no free benefits like a company car. · The owner of the sole trader company has to deal with all the problems for themselves. · It is very hard to compete with large companies, but on the good side bigger companies usually charge more than a smaller sole trader company · Probably the disadvantage of a sole trader company is the fact that it will have 'unlimited liability'. This means the owner is personally responsible for anything that goes wrong. The owner could have their car or house taken away, this is why some businessmen with sole trader companies put there house in their wives name. · If things are bad the company could get ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 24. A Comparative Analysis Between the Three Different Types... Assignment Number: 1 11/26/2012 DIPLOMA IN FINANCIAL SERVICES OPERATIONS AND COMPLIANCE Ms Maria Vella A comparative analysis between the three different types of commercial partnerships 2012 INDEXT 1. A comparative analysis between the three different types of commercial partnerships: a. the limitation of liability of the partners/members b. the different rights of partners/members. 2. The notion of separate legal personality 3. Analysis the different classes of shares of public/private companies and rights attached to them. 2 Ms. Maria Vella A comparative analysis between the three different types of commercial partnerships 2012 A partnership is a for–profit business association of two ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There has to be at least one general partner and one limited partner. A person, including a limited partner, who holds himself out as being a general partner, shall be held liable unlimitedly and jointly and severally with the general partners for all the obligations contracted by the partnership. A limited partner cannot take part in the management of a partnership en commandite. The liability of the general partners is of a subsidiary nature in the sense that no action may be taken against them unless the property of the partnership is first discussed. The provisions governing partnerships 'en nom collectif ' apply to this kind of partnership unless inconsistent with the provisions relating to partnerships 'en commandite '. In terms of the Maltese Income Tax Act, a partnership en commandite with its capital divided into shares will be treated as a company for Maltese income tax purposes. A partnership en nom collectif is transparent for tax purposes and the partners declare their share of profit in their personal tax returns. Tax is therefore chargeable according to the applicable personal tax rates. The commercial partnerships are deemed to be a 'company ' and are eligible for all, or any treatment, fiscal incentives and benefits available to companies. All companies in Malta are regulated by the Companies Act, 1995 which is based on UK legislation. A company has a legal ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25.
  • 26. A Public Company Of A Private Company (a) From a public company to a private company. According to the CORPORATIONS ACT 2001 Section 162, 163 (and others) The possibility to change a public company to a private is in regards to these features: If the public company is limited by shares, it can become to unlimited proprietary company or a proprietary company limited by shares. If the public company is unlimited, it can become to proprietary company limited by shares (within the last 3 years as a maximum time) or an unlimited proprietary company.If the public company is a public no liability company, it can become a proprietary company limited by shares. As a public company according to the section 113, must to complete the requirements to become a proprietary company. When the change officially occurs, the section 164 of the Corporations Act ASIC must be publish a notice in the Commonwealth Gazette that states explaining the intention to change the company registration. After one month, the change registration has to be notified and published in the Commonwealth Gazette. ( Australian Government, 2001) The main advantages to change the registration from a public company to a private company are: The possibility to plans in long term, the public company is focused en quarterly results, when it occurs the yield is lower, instead the private company is able to pan the growing in a long term bringing a clear objective , in this way the investors and managers can evaluate and research to look the benefits. As a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 27.
  • 28. Franchise Essay – MICHELL GEORGE HOW IS A PRIVATE LTD. DIFFERENT FROM A FRANCHISE? Franchise: It is the authorization or a license given to an individual or a group by a government or company allowing them to carry out commercial activities. Examples of franchise would be providing a broadcasting service or acting as an agent for a company's product. Franchising is one of the three strategies that businesses use to gain market share. Companies that want to give a good image of their products to their customers, use franchising. It is also a method used to satisfy customer needs. An advantage of franchising would be, having a certain level of independence. Some real – life examples are:– McDonald's Johnny Rocket's Dominos Pizza 7 – Eleven Subway Objectives:–  ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There are usually restrictions on where you operate, the products you sell and the suppliers you use. You don't necessarily need business experience to run a franchise. Bad performances by other franchisees may affect your franchise's reputation. Private Limited Company: A Private Ltd. is different from Sole Traders and Partnerships. It is owned by between 2 to 50 shareholders; often members of the same family. It has a separate legal identity – in the eyes of the law. The 'Private' in Ltd. means that people have to be invited to own shares. They have limited liability; this means if the company has debts, the owners can only lose the original money they invested. Some real – life examples are:– Warburton's – The Baking Firm New Look Retailers LTD – The Retail Store Chain Objectives:–  Optimizing profits  Reporting financial data with clarity
  • 29.  Selecting the proper organizational structure to limit liability and to protect company policies A Private Company has a separate legal entity. It has a common seal and can enter into contracts by affixing its seal. Members of the company can also enter into contract with the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Valpak Case Study Essay Case Study on Valpak Company background Valpak is a direct marketing company with their main office in St. Petersburg, Florida. They do digital and print advertising and sell coupons pertaining to the customer's location with a wide network of local franchises. They also support apps for smartphones. Valpak is a large–scale company and has been in business for the past 48 years and is currently owned by Cox target media. They operate in the U.S and Canada. Valpak has a good IT department to manage the variety of routine work, operational work, consumer needs and merchant needs. They also managed the accounts, finance, processing and sales related work. Transformation at Valpak Initially their IT department found the idea of shifting to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This architectural epic is mainly to implement consistent architecture in the organization. This is essential to support the business needs and to evolve the portfolio similar to user stories evolving at team level. Good architecture provides sound technological support and integration across the entire organization. For example, duplication of work and effort can be avoided by maintaining a good integrated architecture at epic level. At Valpak, they had a architectural backlog which went through stages of analysis and implementation. They integration helped the business and development teams come together to make strategic solutions. It helped them to collaborate and limit WIP. They found that architectural kanban would be the best for their organization. So they had a big kanban architecture board where they discussed about scalability, performance, reliability, requirements with regards to technological integration, upgrade and shifts, other infrastructures required for smooth running of the projects and innovation.
  • 32. They also made the board highly visible. This way the Kanban board helped not only the upper management but also all the teams to see the epic flow. They also brough standup ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 33.
  • 34. Unit 2 Travel And Tourism Report Date: Friday 26th September 2014 Submission Date: Tuesday 30th September 2014 Unit 2: The Business of Travel and Tourism 2.1: The travel and tourism business environment The Public Sector The public sector consists of regulatory bodies, conservation groups and public sector organisation which are funded by local, regional and central government, . A good example of a localy funded organisation would be Dover 's local tourist information centre, controlled and funded by Dover District Council and council tax revenues. The tourist information centre is there to provide information about the local area such as attractions and events to tourists. This would be of interest to domestic and inbound tourists. An example of a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A good example of this would be a small bed and breakfast owned and run by a husband and wife. As a partnership, all partners have a percentage of desicion making rights relevent to their stake in the business, with profits being distributed as an income to all partners, the percentage each partner recieves is set out in the partnership agreement. The business is owned by the partners, each has a stake, which will also be set out in the partnership agreement, relevent to the investment they have made. This is a simple way to set up a business with minimal paper work involved although with desicion making shared between partners, who are often close friends or relatives, disputes and disagreements can be a problem. As a partnership is not a limited company, it does not benefit from limited liability so all partners are responsible for any and all debt incurred. Another similar concept is an LLP or limited liability partnership which has the same attributes as a partnership but with the added security of limited liability meaning partners are only responsible for the amount they have invested. A sole trader refers to a self employed person who has sole ownership of a bussiness, and so, assumes all responsibility with decision making and keeps all profits. A good example of this would be a self employed tour operator, offering local city tours in London to in bound ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 35.
  • 36. Commercial Essay The partnership en nom collectif, the partnership en commandite and the company are the three kinds of commercial partnerships which may be established under the Companies Act. Explain the main features of each. Why do you think the company is the most widely used vehicle to do business with? Introduction Commercial partnerships in Malta are regulated by The Maltese Companies Act which came into effect on the 1st January 1995 in order "to regulate...limited liability companies and other commercial partnerships". In fact, when one wants to set up a commercial partnership in Malta the Act provides a number of possible legal structures. The Act stipulates that, "A commercial partnership may be of the following kinds: a partnership ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... What has been said with regard to the partnership name when dealing with the partnership en nom collectif applies also to the characteristics of the partnership en commandite. In addition Article 53 of the Act states that "a person who holds himself out as being a general partner shall be held liable unlimitedly and jointly and severally with the general partners for all the obligations contracted by the partnership." Therefore, if a partner makes believe that he is a general partner, then he will be treated as such. Furthermore, Article 53(2) of the Act provides that "the inclusion in the partnership name of the name of a person who is not a partner shall be taken into account by the Court in determining whether such person is holding himself out as being a partner." Therefore the partnership name can only include the name of the general partner, otherwise if a limited person added his name, he would be deemed to be holding himself out as being a general partner. These same provisions are applicable also to a partnership en nom collectif through Article 18 of the Companies Act. The co–existence in the partnership of one or more general and one or more ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 37.
  • 38. Sources of Finance Sources of finance What are the main sources and finance for UK firms and why? All firms need some kind of financing. Access to finance may differ considerably from firm to firm depending on what type of business they are and how big/known they are; Sole Trader, Public Limited or Private Limited Company. There are both INTERNAL and EXTERNAL sources of finance. Finance can be short, medium or long term. Internal sources of Finance: 2 main types 1) Funds from the owner(s) and the family. These funds are normally savings and other money invested as capital. ✓ Funds from the family can take the form of a loan provided at a low or nil rate of interest. This form of financing is quite cheap. ✓ Also it can be very ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... ➢ Involves the putting down of security Limited Company Ordinary shares: are shares issued to the shareholders of a limited company. In return Shareholders receive regular dividend payments out of the profits of the company. Advantages: ✓ Dividends on ordinary shares very according to the level or profits. If there are no profits, dividends don't have to be paid. The cost of finance is therefore variable and will not be such a burden if profits are low. Disadvantages: ➢ If outside investors buy into the company, they will have an element of control which could prove disruptive for exiting management ➢ With most shares, finance is never paid off because there will always be a need to pay dividends. ➢ If the company foes 'bust'; ordinary shareholders are the last people to get paid (disadvantage for shareholders) Limited company preference shares: are shares issued to the investors of a limited company. They receive dividends in preference to ordinary shareholders and often have a fixed percentage dividend. Advantages: ✓ Preference dividends are fixed; makes budgeting easier ✓ Shareholders unable to take part in the running of the business
  • 39. Disadvantages: ➢ preference dividends fixed so even if profits are low, they have to be paid Debenture stock: ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Csr Ltd. : Business Nature And Other Issues Abstract Company is considered as an association where member shares a common purpose and unites for focusing their various talents to achieve declared goals. CSR Ltd. is an Australian industrial company which manufactures building products along with this it also has an investment in Tomago Aluminium Smelter. CSR Ltd. is a publicly traded company. In this study capital rising options of Jonson P/L is discussed along with business nature and other issues of CSR Ltd. Part: A Introduction A company is a company which formed and registered under the specific company act and a company will be treated as an invisible, artificial person, intangible, legal entity, perpetual succession, created by law and a common seal. A company is never affected by death, insolvency or insanity of its individual member. Company is considered as an association where member shares a common purpose and unites for focusing their various talents to achieve declared goals. There are two types of Company, public limited company and private limited company. Share of public limited company is traded publicly but the share of private limited company is not traded publicly. A group of people take the initiative of forming a public limited company and after registration initiators raised capital through different procedure. Raising capital is a very big challenge for the initiator of the public limited company. After completing all necessary formalities, company offers its shares to the public to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. Identify the Three Main Types of Business Organisations... 1 Identify the three main types of business organisations recognised in Scots law. A. Sole trader The most popular style of small business enterprise, it's simple to set up and does not require any formalities. Sole trader often is a one person who manages and owns the company. They take all the profits, but must also include all losses. Indeed, if the only operator becomes insolvent personal assets may be used to satisfy creditors, such as a house, car, etc. They are personally responsible for all indebtedness of the company and have unlimited liability. B. Partnership C. Incorporated Bodies Private Limited Company (LTD) Public limited company (PLC) 2 Clarify for Gurpreet and Samuel, by distinguishing the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... First of all the company must be register in Companies House and there is a fee need to be paid. Also there is some extra cost related running that kind of business like: financial information must be publicly available and copy of that statement must be send to Companies House. Partnership agreement should be drawn up setting out how it will run and LLP how profits will be shared. 4 In relation to each type of business organisation explain the following: * The legal provisions relating to management * The implications of contractual arrangements There are many reasons why a trader may decide to set up company. Considerations include the credibility and prestige of the company, which is public companies associated with the available resources to obtain financing, and the possibility of limiting liability. It is important to note that not all companies offer their shareholders of limited liability in respect of claims by creditors. Private Limited Company This is the most common type of company and is what most people have in mind when considering whether or not to set up a company. Each shareholder's liability is limited to the amount unpaid on the shareholding owned by them. However, the shareholder must also be aware that they run the risk of losing monies paid to the company whether in full or part payment of the shares owned by them.
  • 44. There must be a minimum two members, where ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 45.
  • 46. Ipo Case Study FIN F314 Investment Banking and Financial Services IPO Case Study: Bajaj Corp Ltd A.Sai Sravan 2013AAPS117H K.Chaitanya 2013AAPS094H T.Raghunandan 2013AAPS148H M.S.R Karthik 2013A1PS808H Abstract This case study describes the IPO of Bajaj Corp Ltd., the second largest company in the Shishir Bajaj Group of companies. It also enlists the objectives and the process of the IPO, issued on 02– 08–2010. It describes the merchant bankers and underwriters involved, and discuss post–issue effects on the company. Introduction The company was incorporated at Mumbai as a private limited company, with the Registrar of Companies, Maharashtra, under the Companies Act, 1956 as Bhaumik Ago Products Private Limited pursuant to a Certificate ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Underwriting is an agreement to subscribe of a corporate body when the existing shareholders and the public don't. Kotak Mahindra Capital Company Ltd and Kotak Securities Ltd are the underwriters for this issue. Issue Process This issue was a book built offer. Book building is a systematic process of generating, capturing, and recording investor demand for shares during an initial public offering (IPO), or other securities during their issuance process, in order to support efficient price discovery. In terms of Rule 19(2)(b) of the Securities Contracts (Regulations) Rules, 1957 (SCRR), this being an issue for less than 25% of the post–Issue capital, the Issue is being made through the 100% Book Building Process wherein at least 60% of the Issue shall be allocated on a proportionate basis to Qualified Institutional Buyers (QIB) Bidders.
  • 47. Issue Subscription Detail: Objectives of the Issue: Promote future products Acquisitions and other strategic initiatives General Corporate Purposes. Issue Details 100% of the issue was offered through equity shares. There are no bonds, preferential stock, debentures for this ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Explain The Structure Of Business Organizations Business Organisations Spyridon Natsis The aims of the report: 1. Explain the structure of business organizations 2. Give the legal documents relating to each business. 3. Explain issues in which stakeholders are concerned. 4. Explain the relation between legal requirements, stakeholders and business financial activities. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Sole trader organisations 2.1 Stakeholders of sole traders 3. Partnership organisations 3.1 Stakeholders of partnerships 4. Private limited companies (LTD) 4.1 Stakeholders of LTD 5. Public limited companies (PLC) 5.1 Stakeholders of PLC 6. Conclusion 7. Appendices 8. Bibliography (1) Introduction The four most common types of business organizations are partnership, sole trader, private limited companies (LTD) and public limited companies (PLC). Partnerships and sole traders have unlimited liability which means they are personally liable/responsible for the debts of the business. On the other hand PLC and LTD have limited liability, which means that the owner is not personally liable for the debts of the business. All businesses have to face stakeholders. A stakeholder is anyone who has interest in a particular business such as clients, government, banks, suppliers, owners, investors, employees etc.
  • 50. (2) Sole Traders Sole traders consists of only one person running the business who has unlimited liability and 100 percent of the shares of the company. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 51.
  • 52. The Relationship Between A Corporation And A Private... Introduction Today's world is full of corporations doing business in every industry and sector that we can imagine. These corporations are set up to separate the business from its owners and insulate their assets. There are times, however, in the interest of equity when the corporate veil is allowed to be lifted and the assets of the owners are exposed. (Dignam) Throughout this paper, I will discuss the difference between a corporation and a private entity and when the corporate veil can be lifted according to the cases in the UK law. Private Entities Versus Corporations In the United Kingdom, different business structures are available to those who wish to establish a business. There are four forms that a company can take in the United Kingdom. These forms are as follows: 1) A private company limited by shares (members' liability is limited to the unpaid share capital except where any personal guarantees have been given). 2) A private company limited by guarantee (members' liability limited to the amount undertaken to be contributed by members. 3) A private unlimited company (unlimited liability of members). 4) A public limited company (members' liability is limited to the unpaid share capital and at the time of incorporation a plc must have ab allotted share capital of 50,000.00 pounds)" (Rosenfalck). The minimum requirements for setting up a private limited company is that you must have one director, registered in the United Kingdom, and have at least one ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 53.
  • 54. Role Of The Private Limited Company 1.0 Introduction Incorporation is forming of a new corporation. A corporation is like a legal entity that can be effectively recognized as a person under the law. The corporation may be a non–profit organization or a business. It is not affected by the death of any member. A sole trader is the most simple structure of business. This structure is less expensive to set up because there are very few legal and tax formalities. Operating your business as a sole trader means you trade on your own and control and manage the business. In Private Limited Company there is a minimum two to a maximum of fifty people, these people make financial contributions to their business and they have limited liability. They are also limited by the value of the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The Corporations Act 2001 and Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 are two statutes. Traditionally, governance of corporate law has been viewed as a thing for State legislation. However, in 1989 the Commonwealth government developed legislation that aimed to take over regulation of corporate law. Australian Constitution does not give the Commonwealth complete power to make laws about companies. 4.0 A company limited by shares as a business organization A company "Limited by shares" is that company which has shareholders, and the liability of the shareholders which is to be paid to the creditors of the company is limited .the personal things of shareholder are protected in the case of the company 's insolvency, but invested money as shares in the company will be lost. A company limited by share is type of a company hold under the laws of England, that of certain Commonwealth countries . It is a form of business orgnisation that is in an artificial creation of the law . It is legally recognized as a separate and distinct entity being independent of both its directors and members. Companies in Australia are ordered by ASIC (Australian Securities and Investment Commission). A company limited by shares has a nominal capital divided into shares of certain values and classes . the base of such a company is that liabilities of share holders is limited to any amounts unpaid on their ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 55.
  • 56. LOBOFinal Exam 2 Essay FINAL EXAMINATION SPRING SESSION 2008 SCHOOL OF LAW Student Family Name: Student Given Names: Student Number: Course: Unit Name (In Full): LAW OF BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS Unit Number: 200183 Time Allowed: 3 (THREE) HOURS plus 10 (TEN) minutes reading time. Number of Questions: 3 (THREE) Total Number of Pages: 4 (FOUR) Lecturer's Name: DR MASUDUL HAQUE, MARGARET HYLAND INSTRUCTIONS PLEASE READ CAREFULLY BEFORE PROCEEDING 1 Write your name and student number on the top of this examination paper and on ALL answer booklets. 2 This is an OPEN book examination. You can only use your prescribed text book and the Corporations Act 2001. No other materials are allowed. 3 The examination is out of 100. You must answer all ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (8 marks). C) If Tom has breached any of his director's duty what actions can be taken against him and by whom? (6 marks) D) Can a shareholder bring a personal action, and against whom – the company or the director– based on the facts of the question? Do you think there are grounds for a shareholder to bring derivative action? What remedies can be obtained both for personal and derivative action? (6+6+3=15 marks) E) Does the agreement between Photolab Ltd and Photoproduction Ltd require the approval of shareholders? If so, why? (8 Marks) F) If Photolab Ltd become insolvent because of the loan
  • 57. provided to Photoproductions Ltd, what liability, if any, have the directors for the company's debts? Who can bring the action and what remedies are available? (7+5=12 marks) Question 2 [15 MARKS] In the above question [question 1] Fred Smart was the auditor of Photolab Ltd. Fred Smart's wife owns 10% of the shares in Photolab Ltd. When Fred is conducting the audit he is concerned about the company's accounts, in that the company has not kept proper financial records. He also cannot find any evidence that the company has maintained a register of its members or its charges. Tom tells him he will find them and give them to him but never does. The company tells Fred Smart that it intends to show his report to BigBank, as they wish to borrow $100,000 for expansion purposes. The company ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. This paper examines the type of corporation which meets... This paper examines the type of corporation which meets James's best interest. Abstract This paper examines the type of corporation which meets James's best interest. A company can be set up with or without shares available to the public, divided into the public company which is expensive to obtain and maintain, and the private company which is appreciated by most businesses to begin with. Also, there are limited and unlimited companies. In addition, a company can be classified as limited by guarantee or limited by capital shares which are in most companies' favour. These are governed in the main by the Companies Act 1985 and relevant case law. Introduction There are several types of company. The most common company ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This advantage also makes it easier to bring in outside investors and partners, and transfer ownership. Salomon v. Salomon Co. 1897 is a case in point. Salomon had run a successful business for many years as a boot merchant. In 1892, he decided to take advantage of incorporated status, and convert his business into Limited Liability Company. To do this he set up a Limited Company, which he called Salomon & Co. Ltd, and made himself and members of his family shareholders in the business, with himself as the majority shareholder and Managing Director, thus retaining control of the company. As a separate legal entity, Mr. Salomon then sold his merchant leather business to Salomon & Co Ltd for £39,000, which in 1892 was far in excess of its real value. Mr. Salomon took payment from the company in the form of £10,000 in cash, £1in 10,000 shares and the remaining £9,000 he left in the business as a loan to the company, which he secured against assets of the business. Within months the company ran into trouble, and within a year went into liquidation. Even though it would mean suppliers and employees who were owed money would go unpaid, Mr. Salomon claimed his secured loan back from the company. When the case went to court, even though it was plain to see that Mr. Salomon was the business in reality, in the eyes of the law he was a shareholder and private individual, who had leant this company in
  • 60. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61.
  • 62. Factors Affecting The Business Organization Introduction: In the process of manufacturing, packaging, marketing and other necessary business activities, businesses interact with internal and external factors which may affect the business and can be affected by the business as well. A combination of both of the factors comprises the business environment in which the business operates. The internal factors refer to the factors those function within the business organization and the business can control or facilitate them as needed. Some prominent internal factors are the working conditions, employees, employer to employee relations, organizational culture and organizational structure etc. For a British–American online chain store like ASDA, the total numbers of employees working for the organization (140,000 employees working in 500 stores) is a key internal factor. On the other hand, external recruitment are factors as such as political factors(Laws and regulation system, governmental activities and ownership module, tariffs/ Taxation and trade barriers, conflict between political parties and socio–political unrest etc.) Macroeconomic concerns (interest rate, exchange rate of currency, employment rate, unemployment rate, discretionary income, GDP, recessions, depressions, inflation etc.), microeconomic concern (market size, demand and supply diagram, distribution channel and delivery mode etc.), social and technological factors which are not in the control of the business but affect the business by their activities ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 63.
  • 64. Public Limited Corporation And Private Limited Company Public limited company and private limited company. _ Difference Company is defined as a legal entity which is allowed by legislation and permits a group of people to run a business. Finance is the basic ingredients of a business. Without cash a business can not run.various sources of finance helps a business to grow and to fulfill it's need of wages, advertising, expansion, payment of interest etc. Different sources of finance are used depending upon their maturity period. To built a company not only finance but also various factors which are the essentials of it. INTRODUCTION Private limited company is a legal and juristic person established under companies Act. Private limited company is of two types ,which are by shares and by ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Long term finance 2. Medium term finance 3. Short term finance 1. Long term finance :– Long term sources of finance are those method that are adopted to private finance for a long period of time. The period of time must be of one year and above. Example of long term fianancing include a 40 year mortgage or a 10 year treasury note. The sources of long term finance are : ● Debentures ● Common stock ● Preference shares ● Mortgage ● Government grants/loans 2. Medium term finance :– Medium term finance or intermediate financing is done for a period intermediate between 1 to 10 years . Medium term financing is generally done for the purpose of maintenance or up gradation of the business. The sources of medium term finance are : ● Loans ● Venture capital trust ● Lease ● Hire purchase 3. Short term finance :– The money needs for less than a year are fulfilled through short term
  • 65. financing. They provide a cash influx or the fulfillment of short term inventory needs and repairs as well as short term investments. ● Bank over drafts ● Trade credit ● Factoring ● Invoice discounting On the other hand, ● Private limited company: If few person by together starting a new business or trying to grow an existing business or company , all certainly will need money . This money can come from various sources. Roughly speaking ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66.
  • 67. Investigation of the Types of Business Ownership Essay Investigation of the Types of Business Ownership JCC Limited is a private limited company. Other forms of business ownership include: The sole trader. This is the most common form of private sector business. This type of business has one owner who runs the business and may employ any number of people to help. Advantages of being a sole trader include the lack of legal restrictions, the sole trader is able to set up their business relatively quickly. Also all profits after tax are kept by the owner. There are a number of disadvantages to being a sole trader though, the main one being that sole traders have unlimited liability. This means that if the business gets into heavy debts then the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Becoming a PLC tends to be very expensive. This is because, the company may use a financial institutions to process share applications. A PLC must have a £50,000 share capital and the company will have administrative and advertising expenses. There are several advantages to being a PLC as large amounts of money can be made from the sale of shares to the public and because of their large size PLC's can often dominate the market. However due to the large size of most PLC's the setting up costs can run into millions of pounds in some instances. Also as the shares are on sale to the general public it is possible that someone outside the company could take control of it. Private Limited Companies, JCC Limited is a private limited company. These types of business tend to be smaller than PLC's. Like PLC's private limited companies have limited liability. This means that the owner, Mark Du Jardin in the case of JCC Ltd. can only lose what he has originally put into the business. The shares within a private limited company can only be brought and sold privately and cannot be advertised for general sale on the stock market. As the only shareholder Mark Du Jardin must agree on the transfer of shares. Private limited companies are often family run businesses, such as JCC Ltd. As Mark Du Jardin is the sole shareholder and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68.
  • 69. What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Private... Executive Summary In Pakistan, the formal process that Private Limited Companies must undergo is dictated by the Companies Ordinance 1984. The documents that need to be submitted along with all the authorization required is outlined in the ordinance. The formulation, conditions, requirements; everything must be adhered to before it can register with the SECP and begin its operations. Depending upon the category of company, approval is take from certain designated ministries or departments. Prior to registration, the initiators must determine a suitable source of capital. Registration is undertaken by the company registration office. The advantages that come with this form of company include limited liability, unlimited life and tax benefits whereas the disadvantages are inclusive of limited ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Transfer and Sale of Shares Private limited company cannot sell its shares and the shares are not transferrable without the consent of other shareholders. In a public limited company, anyone can sell their shares anytime they want without anyone's consent. ix. Dissolution Under company's ordinance, separate and different procedures have been provided for dissolution of private company and public company. Advantages and Disadvantages of Private Limited Company: Advantages: Company's registration in Pakistan A common perception among people is that by registering their business as Private Limited Company their business is going to progress very rapidly as compare to any other business. The perception in simpler words is completely wrong. First thing while starting a business is not the company registration, the first thing to focus on is to have a workable business plan and idea that in your perception has enough strength to earn you sufficient income as per your plan. Once planning and arrangement of capital is finalized next step comes to company registration. Company registration is in simple words is providing your business with legal cover. Private Limited ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70.
  • 71. Swot Analysis Of Salomon Company DEFINITION OF COMPANY A Company is a kind of business structure or a business organisation. Suppose a person wants to start a business, he invests Rs. 10 lakh and starts his own business. This kind of structure is sole proprietorship where this person is the owner of the business. He is in control of business, he is in charge, he is the one involved in day to day profits. When he stops working, the business stops to work .He is legal entity as such. ADVANTAGE The owner has the full control over his whole business. DISADVANTAGE His capital is limited. When he suffers loss or incurs liability he will be held liable. Therefore company can purchase or sell assets, can open bank account, company is operates through Board of Directors. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Limited liability– The share holders or member's liability is up to the unpaid amount of shares. ANALYSIS OF THE CASE SALOMON V. SALOMON The Salomon case reinforce the principle of limited liability companies or a separate legal entities from the people or alone. The Companies Act1862 stated that a company stated that a company has to have 7 share holders. So the conditions of the legislation was properly observed, the share holders could not financially pursuit in the individual capacity for the debts of the company. Salomon incorporated his business in accordance with the Act. He had taken all the shares except six shares that he had distributed among his wife, daughter and four sons. Salomon purchased some debentures of the company that in turn gave him a charge over its assets. At winding time the company's assets was not sufficient to pay its debts. The company went into liquidation. The creditors of the company (other than Salomon) argued that their debts should be cleared before paying Salomon for his debentures because Salomon and the company was one and the same person. The Court decided that after incorporation, Salomon and Co. had an identity separate from Salomon even though he owned virtually all the shares in the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72.
  • 73. Legal Forms of Business in Sri Lanka Introduction A business also called a company, enterprise or firm is a legally recognized organization, designed to provide goods and services to consumers. According to the purpose of the business, ownership of the business and nature of economic contribution of the business; the business can fall into one of the three standard sectors. There are; private sector, public sector and nonprofit sector. The part of the economy concerned with providing basic government services is called public sector. In most countries the public sector includes such services as the military, public transit, primary education and healthcare. Their aim is to give service to the people and less emphasis is made on profit making. Public cooperation is the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... All assets of the business are owned by the owner and all profits and all losses accrue to him. He is personally responsible for all debts of the business and must pay them from his personal resources. This means that the owner has unlimited personal liability for the business. Also, owner is less burdened by government restrictions and control, and he has less to do in terms of reporting and taxes. The main advantage of a sole proprietorship is that they are easy to start up and to close. The reason is, they are less expensive and also subject to fewer regulations compared to other types of businesses. Since the owner has full autonomy with regard to business decisions, sole proprietorship businesses are easy and inexpensive to discontinue. The second advantage is that the owner can take all the profits of the business and there is no profit sharing. This may be the most significant motivation for most businesses to become sole proprietorship type. At the same time, all losses accrue to the owner and he does not have the tension regarding conflicts among the partners as there are no partners. In sole proprietorship business type, the owner of the organization pays self employment taxes on the profits made. It makes tax filing much simpler and hence this can be considered as another advantage for sole proprietorship business type. Since this is not a corporation; it does not pay ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74.
  • 75. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Private Limited Company REGISTRATION OF PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY Private Limited Company is a successful business type. Minimum two persons can promote a Private Limited Company. There can be minimum two and maximum two hundred members of a Private Limited Company. Perpetual succession, separate judicial entity, greater stability etc are some of the main features of a Private Limited Company. Larger businesses prefer dealing with a Private Limited Company than with a Proprietorship or a Partnership Firm. Advantages of Private Limited Company : Separate Legal Entity : A Private Limited Company when incorporated is considered as artificial judicial person. It is a separate judicial entity. A Company can purchase its assets and borrow own funds as a separate judicial entity. The Share Holders of Company are liable for company's debts only to the extent of shares held by them. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There can be maximum fifteen directors in the Company. What is minimum capital requirement to start Private Limited Company ? The minimum paid up capital of a Private Limited company should be Rs. 1/– lakh. The members are not required to produce any proof of investment in Compay. Do we need to have office address for starting a Private Limited Company ? There has to be an official address of the Private Limited Company where all communication is received, it is called Registered Office of the Company. Any commercial or industrial premises or residence of any person can be Registered Office of a Private Limited Company. Is it necessary for me to visit MCA office to incorporate a Private Limited Company ? No. You need not visit MCA office or our office to incorporate a company. You have to just send scanned copies of required documents by e–mail. Certain documents which are required in physical format may be send through courier. We also provide free pickup of documents in some areas. What all documents are required for incorporation of Private Limited Company ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76.
  • 77. Commerce Essay An investigative study on the business ownership: in particular, John Chea #1 & #8 as a private limited company. A research paper presented in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the course BGCSE Commerce. Candidate Name: Chymia Johnson School Name: St. Andrews School Date Submitted: 29th August, 2013 Table of contents Title Page Introduction 3 Chapter One: Determine what type of company John Chea is 5 Chapter Two: Find out the types of services John Chea provide for its customers ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... As there are advantages, being a private limited company can have its disadvantages. Some disadvantages are: If shares can only be sold to family or friends with the agreement of all the shareholders it is likely that additional investment made through the sale of shares will be limited. Profits generated by the company may have to be shared between increasingly large numbers of shareholders. Accounts detailing the financial performance of the company have to be produced and checked by firms of accountants, which can be expensive. It is difficult to sell your shares and leave the company because any buyers have to be approved by the remaining shareholders. The private limited company offers a variety of services. With John Chea, the services offered are mainly grocery and food. One service offered is the retail grocer. John Chea can be considered a supermarket. Some items offered at John Chea are dry groceries, meat, produce, hair accessories, medications, etc. As you walk in the store, there are many items displayed on shelves. If you would like to purchase an item, you can go straight to the cashier and pay in cash or by credit/debit cards. The figure below shows the retail section of the store.
  • 78. Another service offered by John Chea is wholesale. Vendors usually buy their products from John Chea using wholesale. The items offered ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 79.
  • 80. Company Analysis: Mypond Hotel Company Analysis Company Name : MyPond Hotel Address : 33 Van Der Riet Street, Port Alfred. South Africa Postal Address : PO BOX 2528, PORT ALFRED 6170 Telephone : +27 (0) 46624 4626 Fax : +27 (0) 46624 4628 (http://www.mypondhotel.com/) MyPond Hotel is a four–star boutique hotel located in the Eastern Cape of South Africa, Port Alfred. The hotel is run by a hospitality school called Stenden and most of its staff members are students from the school. This provides guests with a unique service and the hotel is located on the banks of the Kowie river providing an excellent view. The hotel has one different awards for their service such as the Best Accomodation Service Provider in the Eastern ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... (Fernandes, 2016) The vision statement at MyPond Hotel is ``MyPond Hotel is a cutting edge learning hotel that unleashes potential through a culture with sustainable benefits for all stakeholders`` After working at the hotel I can say the vision statement at the hotel was clearly orchestrated as the words learning hotel outlines the core objectives of the company and the vision statement gave me as an employee direction. The mission statement at MyPond Hotel is``MyPond Hotel provides innovative and sustainable hospitality experiences, benefiting its shareholders and community through real world learning`` The mission statement at MyPond Hotel also clearly outlines the purpose of the hotel and any potential or current stakeholders should clearly understand the hotel and its operations. Along with the vision/mission statement of MyPond Hotel are five values that shape up the company culture and its principles. These are: 1. Ubuntu. Which stands and means togetherness. 2. A passionate commitment to excellence in the art of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 81.
  • 82. Legal Structure of a Business Orgnanisation Essay Legal Structure of a Business Orgnanisation Business organisations are the different legal forms a business can adopt. The key distinction is that some businesses provide limited liability for any debts the business incurs. Others have unlimited liability – which obviously doesn't [IMAGE]Unincorporated Incorporated Up Arrow Callout: Sole–trader Up Arrow Callout: Partnership Up Arrow Callout: Private Limited Company (ltd) Up Arrow Callout: Public Limited Company (plc) What is a Sole–trader? (Builder/local shops/hairdresser) Sole–traders are individuals who own and operate their own businesses. Although there may well be other employees (usually no more than 5) the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The most common examples of a partnership are doctor's surgeries, veterinarians, accountants, solicitors and dentists. As stated earlier, most partners in a partnership face unlimited liability for their debts. The only exception is in a Limited Partnership. This is where a partnership may wish to raise additional finance, but does not wish to take on any new active partners. To overcome this problem, the partnership may take on as many Sleeping (or Silent) Partners as they wish – these people will provide finance for the business to use, but will not have any input into how the business is run. In other words, they have purely put the money into the business as an investment. These Sleeping Partners face limited liability for the debts of the partnership. A partnership, just like a sole trader, is an unincorporated business. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a Partnership?
  • 83. Advantages Disadvantages (1) Additional Skills to strengthen the business (1) Share profits (2) More capital to help business (2) Loss of control (3) Debts are shared equally (3) Unlimited liability There are two types of companies, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 84.
  • 85. Disadvantages Of Public Sector Task 1 A business is an organization that provides services and creates goods. There is a vast variety of businesses. They all fall into the three main sectors: Public; Private; and Voluntary. Public Sector The Public Sector consists of organisations that are owned and ran by the national and local governments for the public; not to make profit. The public sector is responsible for providing public services such as healthcare, education, recreational and sports facilities refuse collection, electricity, and Police and Fire services etc. The public sector is funded through taxation, lottery funding, fines and penalties etc. The advantage of the public sector is that there are always funds available and the services and products that the government provide can be offered at an affordable price. The disadvantages that come with the public sector are: political interference, the government will have to bear losses which could lead to higher taxation, corruption etc. Examples of public sector organisations include: Civil Service, HM Revenue & Customs, Crowns Prosecution Service, NHS, etc. Under the Public Sector there are public corporations, which are owned by the government, ran by a government appointed chairperson and a board of directors on the governments' behalf. Examples of public corporations include: London Fire Brigade, Royal Mail, Bank of England, BBC etc. Public Corporations are funded by government grants and public funding, e.g. the BBC charges the public for a TV license. Private Sector The private sector consists of organisations that are owned and ran by private individuals and group, who seek to generate and return profit. Organisations in the private sector are usually free from government control and ownership, but must abide by the laws. Private Sector organisations fall into the following categories: Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Limited Companies, Franchises and Cooperatives. Examples of Private Sector organisations include: New Look, Harrods Group, Arcadia Group, John Lewis Partnership etc. Sole Proprietorship A Sole Proprietorship is a business owned and ran by one individual. Sole Proprietorships are unincorporated. There is no legal difference between the business and the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 86.
  • 87. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Procedure To Buy Back INTRODUCTIONS Buy back means that a company can repurchase its own shares or any other specified securities. Section 77A, 77AA and 77B of Companies (Amendment) Act, 1999 regulate the buyback of shares. When the company is overcapitalized then the company proceeds to buy back its shares in order to reduce its capital and distribute the surplus among shareholders. Generally whenever a buyback is done it's seen that the share prices moves in an upward direction or in other words share price rises because the customer's trust or confidence over the company increases. There can be cases when buy back can lead to fall in share price. This generally happens when there is a difference between the buyback price and what was expected by the investors. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... BUYING–BACK In order to buy back its shares, a company has to take approval from the Board of Directors of the company. After the Board is satisfied, they will give the approval by passing necessary resolutions and thus approving the proposal for buy back. An unlisted company can buy back its shares on proportionate basis from existing shareholder either by way of private offers or by purchasing the securities issued to the employees with respect to the stock option or sweat equity scheme. CONTENTS OF EXPLANATORY STATEMENT For the purpose of implementation of buy back it requires to be approved by a special resolution passed in the general meeting. The notice regarding the general meeting should be sent along with an explanatory statement in which following things are to be disclosed: The need for buy back The date on which the proposal for buy back was approved by the Board at the board meeting. The basis on which the price for buy back will be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...