1 Tapping of Pili (Canarium ovatum Engl.) for Sustained Resin Yield1 Arsenio B. Ella2, Emmanuel P. Domingo2 and Esteven D. Garcia3 2 Forest Products Research and Development Institute (FPRDI), Department of Science and Technology (DOST), College, Laguna 4031 Philippines 3 Office of the Provincial Agriculturist (OPAG), Sorsogon City Tel.: (+6349) 536-2377 Fax: (+6349) 536-3630 E-mail: Arsie_Ella@yahoo.com ABSTRACT This study is a combination of R&D and techno-transfer activities on the improvedtapping of pili (Canarium ovatum Engl.) in the Bicol Region. Further, the study aimed todetermine the effects of ethrel application, tapping length and rainfall on Canarium resinproduction. Thirty six pili trees growing in Calomagon, Bulan, Sorsogon were tapped. Threetapping lengths were used (15 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm) at the same width (2 cm) and samedepth (enough not to reach the cambium) and four levels of ethylene application; 0%;0.5%; 1.5%; and 2.5%. Retapping after the weekly resin harvest was done immediatelyabove the previous cut. Each treatment was replicated thrice. Increasing tapping length increased resin yield with 30 cm giving the highest yield.Ethrel concentration affected resin yield which was highest at 2.5%, while monthly rainfallhas no significant effect on resin yield except at ethrel concentration of 1.5% and tappinglengths of 20 and 30 cm. Further, resin yield of trees with ethrel application increase by 37.5%, thusadditional revenue income for farmers and resin tappers. The technology’s adaptability may indicate a bright and sustainable Canarium resinproduction in the entire province of Sorsogon.1 Department of Agriculture (DA), High Value Commercial Crops (HVCC) funded project.
2INTRODUCTION Pili is a crop with high potential for development. It is widely adapted to variousagro-climatic conditions and a wide range of soil types. It can be grown year-round, eitheralone or intercropped with other crops. It is a sturdy and an excellent boarder tree andwindbreak and also ideal for agro-tourism (The Philippines Recommends for Pili,PCARRD, 1997). Bicol Region has the biggest number of productive pili trees (72%) among thecountry’s six regions reportedly cultivating it. The others are: Southern Tagalog, 9%;Western and Eastern Visayas, 18.5%; Southern Mindanao and CARAGA, 1% (Bureau ofAgricultural Statistics, 1996) (Figure 1). Bicol Region 18.5% 9% 1% Western and Eastern Visayas Southern Tagalog Southern Mindanao and CARAGA Region 72% Figure 1. Distribution of productive pili trees in the Philippines. A total of 7,046.5 ha in the entire Bicol Region is planted to pili trees, with 221,250trees already bearing nuts. Annual nut yield is 5,243 MT with the province of Sorsogonleading the pack (Bicol Pili Commodity Board 2006, pers. communication). In 1997 therewere around 2,126 farmers who owned at least 10 nut-bearing pili trees. Generally, thosefarmers had big families, but with incomes falling below the poverty level. Majority or 57%
3owned the nut-bearing trees, 32% were share tenants, 8% part-owners, and theremaining 3% amortizing owners (PCARRD Pili Benchmark Survey 1997). In Bicol, pili is cultivated for its kernel, an important ingredient in making candiesand confectioneries. These products are exported to Australia, Canada, China, France,Germany, Guam, Hawaii, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, UK and US. Because ofthis, the Philippines is known as the only country that produces and processes pili incommercial quantity. The kernel is considered superior to almond nuts. Most pili trees inBicol are found in the upland areas and less than 5 km from the farmers’ residence and10 km from the market centers. The bulk of the trees are sporadically interspersed withcoconut, anahaw and other fruit trees with no capital investment (RAFID, Department ofAgriculture, RFU 5, Pili, Camarines Sur, 2006). In contrast, farmers in the provinces of Quezon, Marinduque and Masbate (Ticaoand Burias Islands) tap their pili trees for the resin known in world trade as Manila elemi.Manila elemi is utilized in the paint and varnish industries (Ella, et al. 1997). Manila elemigives toughness and elasticity to pharmaceutical products such as plasters, printing inks,lithographic works and perfumery. Locally, it is used in torches, starting fires for domesticuse, caulking of boats and dressings for transmission belts and conveyors. Its mainsources are the Canarium species pili (Canarium ovatum Engl.), piling-liitan [Canariumluzonicum (Blume) Gray] and pagsahingin (Canarium asperum Benth.) (Tongacan, 1972). The species planted in Bicol is C. ovatum, commonly called pili and is grown for itsnuts or kernel. On the other hand, in Quezon and Marinduque, C. luzonicum or piling-liitan is grown for its resin. Many people in these provinces tap the Canarium resin fortheir livelihood. Others are part-time tappers while waiting for the harvest of their farm
4crops. Some whose farmlands are already depleted of soil nutrients become full-timetappers. Although regarded as a minor forest product, Manila elemi is a dollar earner. In2008, about 261,885 kg of resin valued at USD 616,461 was exported to France,Germany, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Japan and Switzerland (Philippine Forestry Statistics2008). Manila elemi is similar in physical appearance to Manila copal or resin fromalmaciga (Agathis philippinensis Warb.). Traditionally, these resins are harvested thrutapping – either deep tapping, overtapping by inflicting multiple cuts or wounds around thetree’s girth above the base upward. Manila elemi oozes out in a soft, fragrant, white, oilymass that gradually hardens when the volatile constituents are lost upon exposure(Villanueva, 1993). The commercial tapping of pili trees for resin yield has never been a practice in theBicol Region. The farmers collect resins primarily for starting fires in cooking. In 2006, the Department of Agriculture (DA) Region V sponsored the 2nd PiliCongress which was held in Naga City where the author of this paper was an invitedspeaker. The Congress discussed findings on pili research and development in theregion, including plans for the pili development program in Bicol. The author shared his views and experiences about pili resin production and resintapping of Canarium trees based on the results of his past studies. The participants werecomposed mostly of farmers, pili growers and processors, LGUs, NGOs,scientists/researchers and professors from different R&D institutes and universities inBicol. In the course of discussion, the participants were at first reluctant to engage in resin
5tapping. They have reservations and fears that collecting resins would results to untimelydeath of pili trees. Others think that tapping would result to decrease in nut yield anddecrease of nut size. However, after thorough explanations, the participants agreed forthe principal author to conduct a feasibility study on tapping pili trees for resin yield hence,this study.OBJECTIVES1. To determine the effects of ethrel application, tapping length and rainfall on Canarium resin production;2. To conduct techno-transfer activities on the scientific methods of tapping Canarium resin for farmers and pili growers in Sorsogon and neighboring areas; and3. To conduct a market study for the collected Canarium resin.REVIEW OF LITERATURE The application of chemical stimulant as possible resin inducer was one of theprincipal considerations in the study. In this regard, the author conducted review ofliteratures on chemical stimulant that would possibly induce resin production of Canariumtrees. Review of literature showed that a chemical company synthesized a newcompound with the brand name ethrel. This contains 2-chloronosthylphosporic acid whichproduces numerous physiological effects when applied on plant tissues. Reports fromabroad indicate that ethrel is very effective for ripening various fruits, viz., banana,pineapple, mangoes, etc.
6 Yamamoto and Kozlowski (1987) claimed that applying ethrel to vertical stems ofPinus densiflora seedlings greatly increased their ethylene contents but does not induceformulation of well developed compression wood. The use of ethrel blocks thedevelopment of certain characteristics of compression wood when applied to tiltedseedlings. The scientist concluded that ethrel treatment induces formation of longitudinalresin ducts in the xylem while not affecting or tilting of the stem. The experience of Amchem Products, Inc. (1988) has showed that stimulants areimportant for the efficient exploitation of most clones at some stages during the 30-yearlife span of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis). Brushing a 1 ½ to 2 1/2-inch strip of barkdirectly below the tapping cut with 10% ethepon, another resin stimulant, in palm oilincreases latex flow and dry rubber yields by 100% or more on commercially importantclones. Although explanation of the stimulation mechanism is still theoretical, ethepontreatment does prolong latex flow when the tapping cut is made (de Wide 1970).Likewise, the greatest increase in dry rubber content is achieved when ethephon is usedwith conventional half-spiral cut tapped every two days. Increased yields can also beobtained with shorter ¼ or 1/3 (S) spiral tapping cuts and reduced tapping frequencies (3,4 and even 6-day intervals). Stimulating latex production in rubber trees is the firstcommercial use for ethephon (Amchem Products, Inc. 1988). The use of ethephon was initially tried in the Philippines by Callano (1984). Hisstudy showed that stimulating rubber trees with 2.5% ethephon applied either 10 or 4times a year lowers the dry rubber content of the latex in all tapping systems used. On theother hand, studies in the Ivory Coast conducted by Eschback and Banchi (1984) showedthat the use of ethephon as latex yield stimulant in rubber trees decreases tapping
7intensity, maintains level of growth and yield and results in good physiologicalcharacteristics and fewer dry trees.METHODOLOGYThe Tapping Experiment The tapping experiment was conducted in Sitio Bugnay, Barangay Calomagon,Bulan, Sorsogon in Bicol (Figure 2) from November 2007 to December 2009. Locatedwithin the 12 hectares rolling coconut plantations owned by Mr. Floro Calingacion. Thesite is accessible by air (via Legazpi airport), land and sea transportation. It is 656 kmfrom Manila. Bulan is serviced by two-lane concrete road that connects to Manila via theQuirino Highway; the same to Legazpi City, capital of neighboring province of Albay andthe Regional Center of Region V, and Naga City, the heart and commercial center ofBicol. Calomagon is about 7 km away from the poblacion town of Bulan and isaccessible by either tricycle and by motorbike depending on the weather. Bulan is amountainous town at the southwestern tips of Luzon Island specifically the BicolPeninsula facing Ticao Island off mainland Masbate. The term Bulan in Bicol dialect hasseveral meanings. It may mean the month of the year, or the moon, or a luminary. Itslandscape is characterized by forested volcanoes, rolling planes planted to rice,coconut, abaca and pili trees and kilometers of pristine seacoast. The port town ofBulan is classified as first class town with an area of 20,094 hectares and 92,000inhabitants (NSO, 2009). The experimental site was privately owned by the Calingacion family who allowedFPRDI to use the 36 selected experimental trees throughout the 12-month tapping
8schedule. The collected resins were handed to the Calingacion family as per earlieragreement. The experimental trees have never been tapped for resin production. They Barangay Calomagon, Bulan, Sorsogon Figure 2. Location of experimental site in Bulan, Sorsogon.had a diameter at breast height (dbh) ranging from 23 to 105 cm and a total height of 50meters. Three tapping lengths, viz., 15, 20 and 30 cm were studied, each length appliedto 12 trees. Canarium trees were sprayed with ethrel at the four levels of concentration,viz., 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5% each concentration having three replicates. This study followedthe 3 x 4 factorial in completely randomized design (CRD). Factor A represented the threelengths of tapping cut and Factor B, the four levels of ethrel concentration. Eachtreatment combination was replicated thrice.The Tapping Procedure Barks of pili trees were first cleaned using sharp bolo and wood chisel. The threetapping lengths were applied one at a time to the 36 trees. Extra care was applied so asnot to damage the cambium, a very thin region lying between the bark and the woodresponsible for the formation of new phloem and xylem. The cambium is responsible for
9the regrowth of cut bark. Initial opening was placed uniformly for each of the three tappinglength at about ½ inch. On the other hand, the width of the subsequent rechipping was 5mm or less and made above the former cut. After cutting the streaks, ethrel were immediately applied in a fine mist using theone-pint US standard plastic squeezer. Plastic bags were used as receptacles.Polyethylene plastic sheets were then attached to the trunk to cover the wounded portion.Sealed to each tree with plastic roofing cement, the sheets prevented seepage of water,dirt and other foreign bodies into the tacked plastic receptacles. Each tree was labeledbased on the tapping procedure followed. Resins were collected weekly for a period of 1 year. The total resin yield at the endof the 12-month period was analyzed to determine the effect of tapping length and ethrelconcentrations. Rechipping was done after each collection and ethrel concentrationapplied. The effect of seasonal variation on resin yield in relation to different tapping cutsand ethrel treatment was determined using the monthly rainfall data of the PhilippineAtmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) at itsstations in Bulan and Donsol, Sorsogon. The experimental site falls under the secondclimatic type, having no dry season but with a very pronounced maximum rain period fromDecember to February.The Seminar-training on Canarium Resin The technology on Canarium resin tapping was disseminated in Bicol withemphasis in Sorsogon Province as part of the study (Figure 3). Aside from Sorsogon, theprovinces of Albay and Catanduanes were also recipients of the seminar-training on pili
10resin tapping and investment forum on Canarium resin production as well with backed-upfrom DA-HVCC Regional Office in DA 5, based in Pili, Camarines Sur. With full supportfrom the Local Government Units (LGUs), an aggregate of 17 LGUs in the provinces ofAlbay (2), Catanduanes (1) and Sorsogon (14) have directly benefited from the advisoryor consultancy services rendered from the technology transferred. The course, which wasdivided into lectures and hands-on/practicum exercises catered to 510 participants, 95%of whom were tapping illiterate. Figure 3. Sites of seminar-trainings conducted in Bicol with emphasis in Sorsogon Province.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONEffect of Tapping Length on Resin Yield The effect of tapping length on resin yield of Canarium trees is shown in Table 1.The 30 cm tapping length gave the highest average resin yield in the 12-month periodwith 317.079 g. This is 45.3% and 66.2% higher than that of 20 cm (218.194 g) and 15cm (190.736 g) tapping lengths, respectively. The highest yield obtained from the 30 cm
11tapping length may be due to more resin ducts exposed and available for resin flowcompared to the 15 cm and 20 cm lengths.Effect of Ethrel Concentration on Resin Yield Resin yield increased with increased application of ethrel in the tapped portion ofCanarium trees (Table 1). Spraying 2.5% ethrel concentration on tapped trees gave thehighest average resin yield of 329.889 g which is 29%, 43% and 120% higher than 1.5%(256.4 g), 0.5% (231.463 g) and 0% (150.25 g) ethrel concentrations, respectively. Thesefindings concurred with results of previous studies on its effect of ethrel level on exudationof almaciga (Ella, et al. 2001).Table 1. Resin yield (in g) during the 12-month tapping period. Concentration (%) Ave. Yield per Tapping Length 0 0.5 1.5 2.5 Tapping Length 15 138.86f 179.91 def 133.66f 310.50b 190.7361 20 148.97f 228.61cdf 238.05cd 257.13bc 218.1944 30 162.91ef 285.86bc 397.50a 422.02a 317.0764 Ave. Yield per Ethrel 150.25 231.47 256.40 329.88 Concentration* Average of 36 observations; means with same letters are not significantly different at α = 0.05. Researches conducted by Abraham, et. al. (1969) and D’ Ausac and Ribaillier(1969) as cited by Abeles (1973) on the potential of ethrel to increase rubber latex flowshowed a two to four-fold increase in latex flow after ethrel application. The increasewas attributed to the longer duration of the flow. The ethylene in ethrel defers coagulationreaction in latex by preventing clotting thus permitting longer latex flow (Leopold 1971 ascited by Abeles 1973). Since no studies on exudation of Canarium resin were conductedprior to this study, the increase in the resin yield after spraying with ethrel may also be
12due to the retardation of coagulation reaction of Canarium resin, and resin yield is furtherincreased with ethrel concentration.Joint Effect of Tapping Length and Ethrel Concentration on Resin Yield There was a significant interaction of tapping length and ethrel concentration onresin yield (Table 2). Tapping length of 30 cm with 2.5% and 1.5% ethrel concentrationgave the highest resin yield of 422.028 g and 397.5 g, respectively. Trees with tappinglength of 15 cm with 1.5% ethrel had the lowest yield of 133.667 g (Table 1), although notsignificantly different from trees with tapping length and ethrel concentration of 15 cm and0%; 20 cm and 0%; 30 cm and 0%.Table 2. Analysis of Variance of resin yield for a period of 12 months. Sum of Mean F- Source of Variation Df Pr>F Squares Squares value Tapping Length 2 1271686.3 635843.2 28.81 0.0001** %Ethrel Concentration 3 1777801.1 592600.4 26.85 0.0001** Tapping Length x ethrel concentration 6 122114.7 120352.5 5.45 0.0001** Month 11 2605586.9 236871.5 10.73 0.0001** Tapping Length x month 22 227948.4 10361.3 0.47 0.9812ns Ethrel concentration x month 33 219651.2 6656.1 0.30 0.9999ns Tapping Length x ethrel concentration x month 66 281034.2 4258.1 0.19 1.0000ns Error 288 6356792.0 22072.2 Total 431 13462615.0 2R = 0.527819 CV = 61.39079 ** - highly significant at α = 1% ns - not significant The highest resin yield obtained (with tapping length of 30 cm and 2.5% ethrelconcentration) may be due to the combined effects of longer tapping length and higherethrel concentration as explained above. The results indicate that 30 cm is the mostappropriate tapping length. Further, the findings validated past results on tapping
13almaciga trees for resin yield where amount of ethrel significantly affected resin yieldwhich was highest at 2.5% (Ella, et.al. 2001).Effect of Rainfall on Resin Yield The effect of seasonal variation on resin yield was determined using monthlyrainfall data obtained from PAGASA Station in Bulan, Sorsogon (Table 3). The total resincollected under the two classifications of rainfall amounted to 54.25% of which wascollected during the 8-month minimum rainfall period (March to November 2008) with amonthly resin yield of 7,089.38 g and the remaining 45.75% during the 4-month period ofmaximum rainfall (September, December, 2009; January and February, 2008) with amonthly resin yield of 11,956.75 g (Table 3). The two rainfall periods differed in monthlyresin yield with the 3 months under maximum rainfall exhibiting higher yield. Althoughrainfall directly affects soil aeration, moisture and temperature and indirectly the soil’s pH,mineral content, organic components and ion-exchange capacity (Kramer and Kozlowski,1960), such changes did not seem to have a significant carry-over effect on the resin yieldof the 36 trees.Effect of Rainfall, Ethrel Concentration and Tapping Length on Resin Yield The interactive effect of rainfall, ethrel concentration and tapping length on resinyield is shown in Tables 3, 4 and Figure 4. The relationship was analyzed using PearsonCorrelation Coefficient. There was a high correlation between rainfall and resin yield at 1.5% concentration(r = 0.6379); for 0% (r = 0.5658); 0.5% (r = 0.51925) and 2.5% (r = 0.5479) ethrelconcentrations correlation is not significant (Table 3). The results suggest that rainfall
14does not affect resin yield even with ethrel applications except for 1.5% ethrel. There wasa significant correlation between rainfall and resin yield for tapping lengths 20 cm and 30cm, but not in 15 cm tapping length of Canarium trees. This suggests that rainfall affectsresin yield only in trees tapped with 20 and 30 cm (Table 4). The increase in yield whenTable 3. Pearson Correlation Coefficient of rainfall vs. monthly resin yield at different ethrel concentrations. Rainfall Concentration (%) Monthly Resin Month (mm) 0 0.5 1.5 2.5 Yield (g) Mar ´08 211 664 813 884 974 3335 Apr ´08 268 998 1500 1633 2546 6677 May ´08 230 900 1350 1685 2505 6440 Jun ´08 199 945 1570 1800 2520 6835 Jul ´08 113 1340 2190 2355 3333 9218 Aug ´08 138 1080 1775 1945 2530 7330 Sep ´08 256 1430 2450 2677 3685 10242 Oct ´08 173 1205 2055 2075 2840 8175 Nov ´08 161 1320 1960 2463 2965 8708 Dec ´08 800 1960 3005 3615 4320 12900 Jan ´09 412 1945 2685 3105 3310 11045 Feb ´09 316 2440 3645 3455 4100 13640 r-value 0.56584 0.51925 0.63794 0.54792 Prob 0.0552ns 0.0836ns 0.0256* 0.0651ns* - significant at α = 5% ns - not significantTable 4. Pearson Correlation Coefficient of rainfall vs. monthly resin yield at different tapping lengths. Month Rainfall Tapping Length (cm) Monthly Resin (mm) 15 20 30 Yield (g) Mar ´08 211 1002 1139 1194 3335 Apr ´08 268 1899 2073 2705 6677 May ´08 230 1580 1935 2925 6440 Jun ´08 199 1800 2105 2930 6835 Jul ´08 113 2480 2643 4095 9218 Aug ´08 138 1845 2175 3310 7330 Sep ´08 256 2545 3100 4597 10242 Oct ´08 173 2180 2485 3510 8175 Nov ´08 161 2255 2640 3813 8705 Dec ´08 800 3185 3885 5830 12900 Jan ´09 412 2945 3290 4810 11045 Feb ´09 316 3750 3950 5940 13640 r-value 0.16417 0.61816 0.58037 Prob 0.6102ns 0.0322* 0.0479** - significant at α = 5% ns – not significant
15Canarium trees were tapped at 20 cm and 30 cm during months of minimum rainfall maybe because more resin ducts were cut. However, in the case of 15 cm tapping length,rainfall did not affect resin yield probably due to the shorter tapping length. Min. Max. Rainfall Rainfall Figure 4. Monthly resin yield. Period Period Figure 5. Relationship between rainfall and monthly resin yield at different ethrel concentrations. Figure 6. Relationship between rainfall and resin yield at different tapping lengths.
16Improved Tapping Techniques Scientific tapping techniques formulated in this study on pili provided the potentialresin tappers in Sorsogon with the information on conserving pili trees and sustainingresin production. In the past, tapping the pili trees had never been practiced by theBicolanos. In this regard, the scientific method of pili resin tapping was introduced tofarmers, forest settlers and pili growers who have no previous experience in resin tapping.The traditional methods of resin tapping, e. g., deep tapping, over-tapping and frequentrechipping was not practiced, thus, there were no “bad” tapping habits to unlearn thatcould adversely affect the survival of the trees. Non-scientific methods of harvestingCanarium resins had already been practiced by Quezon, Marinduque (C. luzonicum),Davao Oriental and Compostela Valley provinces (C. asperum). These have resulted inthe death of many trees, adversely affecting the small furniture and handicraft industriesin Davao Oriental and Compostela Valley provinces who use C. asperum to produceresin. Following the right timing of retapping will minimize the area of unwanted woundson the 36 experimental trees. Table 5 shows the total height of tapping cut in each treeafter a year of tapping. An average tapping height of 19 cm was attained with 21 cm asthe maximum and 17 cm as the minimum. This was obtained after a 2 cm wide openingwas made, and at least 3 to 5 mm cut thereafter per rechipping. Rechipping was doneweekly. The procedure of properly timed rechipping is ideal, as this prolongs the tree’s lifeand sustains resin production. Canarium tappers in Sorsogon took quite some time to
17adopt the improved procedure of tapping since only little amount of resin exuded from asingle cut applied on one side of the tree.Table 5. Total height of tapping cut after one year of tapping. Tree Tapping Tree Tapping Tree Tapping Tree Tapping No. height (cm) No. height (cm) No. height (cm) No. height (cm) 1 20 10 18 19 19 28 21 2 20 11 17 20 18 29 19 3 19 12 19 21 19 30 20 4 20 13 20 22 17 31 20 5 19 14 20 23 18 32 20 6 19 15 17 24 18 33 21 7 18 16 20 25 19 34 18 8 18 17 19 26 20 35 18 9 19 18 20 27 20 36 20 Quezon tappers especially those from Bondoc Peninsula areas and Alabat Islandhave observed that the resin yield from piling-liitan (C. luzonicum (Blume) Gray ) variesfrom 1 to 5 kg per tree/harvest from multiple cuts or wounds and overtapping inflictedaround the tree girth usually above the base upward. The resin yield is normally collectedafter 15 days and occasionally after one to two months or at a time when considerableresin exudates had solidified from the bark. Thus, the collective annual resin yield of atree can reach 3 to 12 kg of raw resin containing impurities like bark, leaves, dried insectsand other dirt particles. The annual yield excludes the time when tappers temporarily stopcollection at the start of the rainy season or when Canarium trees start to shed off theirleaves from February to April (Ella 2001).Cost and Returns of Tapping Canarium Spraying ethrel on cuts made on Canarium bark during tapping increasesproduction of elemi resin by an average of 300 grams per tree per week. Table 6compares the costs and returns of tapping elemi with and without the application of ethrel.
18 For a total of 36 trees, resin yield of trees with ethrel application averaged 0.8 kilosper tree per week, while yield without ethrel application averaged only 0.3 kilos per treeper week – an increase of 0.5 kilos per tree per week. Thus, for 36 trees, the additionalyield of elemi resin is 972 kilos and at an average buying price of P40.00 per kilo,additional revenue from the sale of resin is P38,880 per year. Annual net income willincrease by P38,070.00.Table 6. Annual costs and returns of tapping 36 Canarium trees using improved and traditional methods (in pesos per year). Improved method (with ethrel) Traditional method (without ethrel) COST Ethrela/ P 700.00 none Laborb/ 4,050.00 P 4,050.00 Sacks 175.00 65.00 Total Cost 4,925.00 4,115.00 REVENUES Sale of elemic/ P62,208.00 P23,328.00 NET RETURNS P57,283.00 P19,213.00 Increase in income P38,070.00 per yeara/ 1 liter, good for 1 yearb/ ½ manday per week for 36 trees at P300 per day, 54 weeksc/ 0.8 kilos/tree/wk, with ethrel and without ethrel, respectively, at P40.00 per kilo, for 54 weeks Although the initial cost of ethrel at P700.00 per liter may be costly, the additionalnet returns of P38,070.00 per year more than compensates for the added cost. Table 7 presents information about the harvesting Canarium resins in QuezonProvince following the traditional methods (Ella, et al. 2001). Two-week resin yield from the Canarium trees in this study was significantly lowerthan the 15-day yield in Alabat and Bondoc Peninsula. Quezon tappers do not considerthe negative consequences in the crude methods of extracting resins would bring. Their
19goal of extracting as much resin as they could, disregarding the health of the trees,endangers the sustainability of resin production.Table 7. Information on Canarium resin tapping in Quezon Province. Items Alabat Bondoc Peninsula No. of trees tapped/day 19 15 No. of cuts made/tree 7 5 Harvest Cycle 15 days 15 days Cutting Cycle Daily Daily Yield/tree/harvest 5 kg 3 kg Harvest/Month (Summer) 40 kg 35 kg Average resin P32.00/kg P31.00/kg Sale of resin per month P1,120.00 P1,085.00Seminar/training on resin tapping The seminar on tapping pili trees was conducted by FPRDI as part of the projectwith the principal author as the resource person. The participants were farmers, piligrowers, agriculturists, LGU officials, entrepreneurs, teachers and out-of-school youthdropped outs. The seminar sought to a) introduce trainees to the scientific way of tappingpili trees; and b) encourage pili growers and farmers to venture to resin tapping usingsustainable harvesting techniques. The seminar consisted of lectures, hands-on exercises and practicum. Thelectures, which were conducted mostly in the DA-Municipal Agricultural Offices (MAO)and/or in barangay halls were supplemented with hand-outs, illustrations, posters, apowerpoint presentation and video footages. Tapping tools and other paraphernalia inresin tapping were also displayed. The lectures covered the following topics: 1) introduction to pili resin tapping; 2)basic structure of the stem relevant to tapping; 3) resin production within the tree; 4)
20factors affecting resin production; 5) traditional tapping methods; and 6) the correcttapping process. While English was employed as principal medium of instruction, lectures were alsotranslated into the Bicolano dialect by the resource person himself who is a pure bloodedBicolano from Daet, Camarines Norte. Hands-on exercises on the right tapping procedurewere done immediately after the lecture. For the practicum, the participants were usually grouped into three depending onthe number of the participants. Three pili trees were used, one tree for each group. Thetrees selected have never been tapped. After emphasizing the danger of overtapping, theresource person then demonstrated the correct way of making a cut on the tree. After thisdemo, participants had the chance to make one correct cut each on their assigned tree. The seminar was a tremendous success. The trainees showed their enthusiasm byparticipating actively in the discussions, hands-on exercises and practicum in the field.Market Opportunity Assessment for Canarium Resin in Bicol Market Situation for Canarium Resin Studying feasibility of gathering Canarium resin as an alternative livelihood forfarmers and pili growers in the Bicol Region involves an understanding of the presentmarket situation for the raw material. Any market study is thus benchmarked against theexisting situation in Quezon Province, long considered the major production center forCanarium resin. More than 85% of the Canarium resin produced in the country comesfrom Quezon. The remaining 15% comes from Ticao Island in Masbate and Marinduque.
21 Gumaca, a town in Quezon in Bondoc Peninsula is the major market for Canariumresin. Mr. Abel Satrain, the country’s foremost Canarium resin businessman revealed thathe normally exports 8 tons of raw materials per month to Europe, especially in France. Coconut farmers, who are also part-time tappers, flock to his warehouse inGumaca to sell their weekly harvest at P35 to P40 per kilo. Most of these farmers comefrom the far flung barangays of Pitogo, Macalelon and Gen. Luna all in the BondocPeninsula. However, the bulk of resin dealers come from the nearby Alabat Island,Atimonan, Gumaca, Lopez and Calauag, all in Quezon Province. About 15% come from Ticao Island, Marinduque, Northern Samar and Gubat,Sorsogon where there is a newly started resin industry. The collected resins aredeposited at Satrain’s warehouse in Gumaca where they are cleaned and sorted prior totheir export to Europe. Market Opportunity Assessment for Bicol’s Canarium Resin Satrain had already put up his initial resin buying station in Barangay Abuyog,Sorsogon City (that crossing going to Gubat and Matnog, Sorsogon) to cater to neophyteresin tappers in the adjacent town of Gubat. He revealed that an average of 710 kg ofresins per year had already been collected from Gubat, Sorsogon from the time resintapping was introduced in the area in 2007. Movement of resins collected in Gubat, Sorsogon follows a simple scheme.Coconut farmers and pili growers usually have their “kapatas” (foremen) who regularlydeal, purchase and store collected resins in their warehouse usually located in their
22residences, until these are ready for transport to Barangay Abuyog, Sorsogon City.Others do not use warehouses but directly bring their resins to Abuyog. Other resin traders in Quezon Province store their purchased resin in theirwarehouses before they finally sold in Divisoria and Caloocan City, Metro Manila at P45to P50 per kilo to Chinese traders.Potential Markets for Sorsogon Canarium Resin One market for raw Canarium resin is the varnish industry in Mati, Davao Oriental.Though the varnish entrepreneur still operates at a backyard level, at least he is able toproduce local varnish with Canarium resin as principal raw material. Mr. Danilo Discutido,the local varnish manufacturer, said he encounters shortage of Canarium resin whichusually comes from Mati and neighboring towns in Davao Oriental. Resins from theselocalities are tapped from Canarium asperum with the official common name of“pagsahingin” or better known in Davao as “sanduka”. Another potential market is the export market. Resin harvested from trial tapping inBicol especially in Sorsogon province have very little impurities and thus suitable forexport.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Tapping length significantly affects resin yield, with 30 cm giving the highestmonthly yield over a period of 12 months. The highest resin yield obtained in Canariumtrees with tapping length of 30 cm and 2.5% ethrel concentration could be attributed tothe combined effects of longer tapping length and since more resin ducts are exposedand available for resin flow; while ethrel concentrations at maximum may be due to
23retardation of coagulation reaction of Canarium resin such that resin yield at 2.5% ethrelis further increased. The 3-month period under maximum rainfall gives a higher monthly resin yield thanthe months with minimum rainfall. Amount of rainfall, however, is not correlated with resinyield. Further experiments should be done considering other variables and using morereplicates in regions of the country with pronounced wet and dry seasons and also inareas with no dry season to compare resin yield as influenced by climatic conditions. Thefollowing variables can be studied: diameter classes, crown ratio, depth of tapping cut andinducers of resin yield like strong acids and repeated tapping techniques. Studies in the system of cleaning and grading of Canarium resin should also begiven attention. The nationwide market flow of Canarium resin cannot be generalized due to thelimited number of areas visited. Other places where Canarium species abound likeMarinduque, Ticao in Masbate, Sibuyan in Romblon, parts of Northern Samar and Mati inDavao Oriental should be included in future investigations. In the same manner, theoverall impact of harvesting Canarium resins on the socio-economic condition ofdependent communities should be looked into. The trainees’ active participation in the seminar may indicate their interest toprotect the huge, virgin Canarium trees in Sorsogon. The participants’ acquired skillswere evident through their correct tapping of Canarium trees especially in Gubat,
24Sorsogon. The technology’s adoptability may indicate a bright future for sustainableCanarium production in Sorsogon. Diameter classes and tapping length directly affect resin yield. Bigger Canariumtrees with heavy, well proportioned crowns and bigger bark surface produce more resinthan smaller trees, while the 2.5% ethrel concentration gives the highest resin yield. Further, resin yield of trees with ethrel application increase by 37.5%, thusadditional revenue income for farmers and resin tappers. With the growing concern over the increasing CO2 in the atmosphere, the role oftrees in the removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide for the build-up of their biomasscannot be denied. Scientific and proper tapping of Philippine Canarium trees for Manilaelemi would minimize death of trees. This method would in a way contribute to sequesteratmospheric carbon which is a significant strategy to address the global problems ofincreasing amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere.IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS It is highly recommended that Canarium resin tapping be an alternative source ofincome among Sorsogeños. Sorsogon has the potential of producing large volumes ofquality Manila elemi because of the great number of pili trees naturally growing in theprovince, especially in the towns of Gubat, Irosin, Prieto Diaz, Juban, Magallanes,Bulusan, Barcelona, Sorsogon and Bacon District in Sorsogon City. Given idealharvesting and marketing practices, Sorsogon can surpass Quezon Province as theleading exporter of Canarium resin to France and Germany.
25 An impact assessment of Canarium resin tapping technology in Bicol, especially inSorsogon province should be conducted. We may also look into the effect of resin tapping to nut yield including socio-economic studies. We may also conduct an action-research on increasing the value of resin byprocessing them in their backyard/common service facility to at least purify the resin.
26LITERATURE CITEDAbeles, F. B. 1973. Ethylene in Biology. Academic Press. New York.Amchem Products, Inc., Amper, PA Research and Development. 1988. Practical Applications of Ethrel in Agricultural Productions.Amchem Information Sheet No. 53. ASEAN Postharvest Horticulture and Research Center Library. University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna. No. 53. 11 pp.Bicol Pili Commodity Board. 2006. Personal Communication during the open forum of the Second Pili Congress, Naga City, 21-22 August 2006.Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) 1996. Annual Reoprt. Diliman, Quezon City. 168 pp.Callano, R. S. 1994. Tapping systems and yield stimulation in University of Southern Mindanao (USM) Rand D Journal 2 (2): 161-172.Clover, A. M. 1996. Philippine wood oils. Philippine Journal of Science. 1(1):181-202.de Wide, R. C. 1970. Practical Applications of Ethrel in Agricultural Productions. AMCHEM Information Sheet No. 53. ASEAN Postharvest Horticulture and Research Library. University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Laguna. 11 pp.Ella, A. B. and A. P. Mosteiro. 2001. Assessment on the Collection, Processing and Trade of Non-Wood Forest Products in Local Communities. Terminal Report. FPRDI-ITTO Project PD 15/96 Rev. 2 (M,I). 135 pp.Ella, A. B. 1999. The Resin Resource. ITTO Tropical Forest Updates. Vol. 9, No. 1. Yokohama, Japan: 5.Ella, A. B. and A. L. Toñgacan. 1987. The Interaction of tree diameter, rainfall and sulfuric acid treatments on resin yield of palosapis [Anisoptera (Blanco) Blume ssp. thurifera]. The Philippine Technology Journal Vol. XII, No. 2, April-June 1987: 25-31.Ella, A. B., A. L. Toñgacan and E. C. Fernandez. 1997. Improvement in Tapping Piling- liitan [Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray] Trees for Manila Elemi Resin. Naval Store Review. Vol. 107 No. 5, September to October 1997: 13-17. Published by University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Gainvelle, Florida, USA.Ella, A. B., A. L. Toñgacan and I. M. Javier. 1998. Proper Techniques in Tapping Canarium spp. (Pili Group). Pamphlet No. 2. FPRDI-DOST, College, Laguna. 8 pp.Ella, A. B., M. DR. Ramos and R. E. Cortez, Jr. 2001. Inducement of Almaciga Resin Production through Ethrel Application. FPRDI Journal. 25, Nos. 1 & 2. January- December 1999: 19-29.
27Kramer, P. J. and T. T. Kozlowski. 1960. Physiology of Trees. McGraw-HillBook Co., Inc. NY.Parry, E. F. 1921. Gums and resins: their occurrence, properties and uses. London. Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd.PCARRD Pili Benchmark Survey 1997. Department of Agriculture (DA), RFU 5, San Agustin, Pili, Camarines Sur. 45 pp.Philippine Forestry Statistics 2008. Forest Management Bureau (FMB), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), Diliman, Quezon City. p. 160.Pili (Canarium ovatum Engl.). 2006. Regional Agriculture and Fisheries Information Division (RAFID) in coordination with the Agriculture Marketing Division, Department of Agriculture (DA) RFU 5, San Agustin, Pili, Camarines Sur. 8 pp.Tavita, Y. T. and I. I. Palanginan. 1998. Formulation of varnish using Almaciga (Agathis philippinensis Warb.) resin obtained from different localities. FPRDI Journal. 24(2): 39-51.The Philippines’ Recommends for Pili. PCARRD Philippines Series No. 81. 1997. PCARRD, Los Baños, Laguna. 90 pp.Toñgacan, A. L. 1972. Technical Note No. 122. FORPRIDECOM, NSDB, College, Laguna, Philippines.Villanueva, M. A. et. al. 1993. The composition of Manila Elemi Oil. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. Vol. 8:35-37. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.West, A. P. and W. H. Brown. 1921. Philippine resins, gums, seed oils and essential oils. In W. H. Brown (Ed.) Minor Products of Philippine Forest (pp. 5-223). Manila Bureau of Printing.Yamamoto, F. and T. Kowslowski. 1987. Effects of flooding, tilting of stems, and ethrel application on growth, stem anatomy and ethylene production of Pinus densiflora seedlines. J. Exp. Bot. 38 (187): 293-310.
28 ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to extend their heartfelt gratitude to the following institution andorganization and individuals who made valuable contributions for the success of thisproject: DA-HVCC for funding this project; DA-HVCC Regional Office through DA Regional Office in Pili, Camarines Sur especially to Director Jose Dayao, Assistant Director Marilyn Sta. Catalina and HVCC Regional Coordinator, Ms. Rose Imperial for the administrative and additional logistic supports; Governors Raul R. Lee and Sally Lee of Sorsogon province for endorsing our research proposal to DA-HVCC for funding and for the moral support rendered throughout the entire duration of the study; OPAG-LGU, Sorsogon City especially to Messrs. Esteven D. Garcia and David Gallego and Ms. Debbie C. Ferwelo for the valuable support; LGU, Bulan, Sorsogon especially to Mayor Helen de Castro, ENRO Forester Kelly Tan and MAO Marietta G. Bayoca for the warm support throughout the duration of the study; Mr. Floro Calingacion and family for their cooperation and unselfish attitude to have shared their Pili trees to serve as experimental trees; Mr. Isaias B. Calingacion and kids as caretakers of the experiment; Mr. Jesus Maria G. Alindogan of PAGASA, Bulan Station for providing the monthly rainfall data; Ms. Socorro Dizon of FPRDI for the statistical analysis; Ms. Rik Araral for editing the manuscript; For. Emmanuel P. Domingo for encoding/inputting data; and Bugnay and Calomagon folks for the warm camaraderie and making the author stay in Bulan a memorable one.
29Figure 7. For. Arsenio B. Ella Figure 8. A typical stand of Figure 9. After determining the and Mr. Floro Calingacion pili (Canarium ovatum trees’ diameter at breast (extreme left), owner of the Engl.) showing vigorous height (DBH), an initial cut of experimental area, trunk and crown. 2 cm and the desired length exchange ideas during of tapping cut (15 cm, 20 cm evaluation of the project or 30 cm) are made. site.Figure 10. Ethrel solution is Figure 11. A polyethylene Figure 12. Plastic roofing applied on the freshly plastic bag is securely cement is applied to attach tapped experimental tree. attached to each experimental the polyethylene sheet. tree.Figure 13. Resins ooze from Figure 15. An experimental freshly tapped Canarium tree (T# 16) shows a week’s tree. harvest of resin for weighing and monitoring purposes. Figure 14. An experimental tree is set for resin collection, rechipping and ethrel application.
30Figure 16. The caretaker of the Figures 17 and 18. For. Ella lectures on Canarium resin experimental area patiently tapping in one of the study sites in Sorsogon Province (left) weighs his weekly harvest of and during the investment forum in Legazpi City (right). resin.Figure 19. Like other resin- Figure 20. For. Ella explains Figure 21. A participant tries producing species, Canarium the details of correct her newly acquired skill in displays a natural Canarium resin tapping Canarium resin tapping characteristic of exuding while participants look on. during the practicum. resins due to stress. Bulusan Barcelona Casiguran Irosin Matnog Prieto Diaz Figure 22. The resource person, participants, LGUs and other guests pose for souvenir group photos after the lecture series.