Potential utilization of forest biomassfor bio-energy in small and remotecommunities of the Southern BC Coast             ...
Outline   Situation, Needs, and Objectives   Approach   Results   Conclusions                                       2
British ColumbiaSituation   Small Community   Pulp Mill   Community Applied to Remote Electrification Program             ...
Need Forestry region  Increased interest in the use of  forest biomass for bio-energy in the region. Forest biomass inv...
Objectives To estimate the heat and electrical power  consumption in small and remote communities  on Vancouver Island an...
Approach Community selection  definition  37 small  and remote communities Energy consumption  per capita  annual  c...
Approach  Small scale combustion technologies     Combustion efficiencies     •   High efficiency wood stoves: 80%     ...
Approach Biomass Requirements:    Woody Biomass [ODt/yr] = Annual Heating or Electricity     Consumption [MWh/yr] / (Ener...
Approach Biomass Sources, Supply Chains, and Costs: • Two supply chains: Firewood and Woodchips                          ...
Approach Biomass costs:     Biomass        Stumpage Fee       Cut & Split     Chipping      Transportation   TOTAL      C...
MWh                               0                                   1,000                                           2,00...
Biomass Required & Available (ODt)                                                                                        ...
Results                                                               Biomass Costs ($/MWh)                          Combu...
Results             Annual heat + power costs for current and potential CHP generation                           in commun...
$-                                $200,000                                            $400,000                            ...
$-                                $200,000                                            $400,000                            ...
Conclusions Available biomass  CHP in 19 or DH in 22 communities Wood chips for CHP and DH  lowest cost biomass Small...
Acknowledgements   BC Coast Initiative   Tony Sauder – Group Leader, Feedstock Group, FPInnovations   Jack MacDonald – ...
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Session 27 ic2011 marinescu

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Session 27 ic2011 marinescu

  1. 1. Potential utilization of forest biomassfor bio-energy in small and remotecommunities of the Southern BC Coast Marian Marinescu – Researcher FPInnovations Vancouver, CANADA Marian.Marinescu@FPInnovations.ca Location: Portland, OR Date: June 21, 2011
  2. 2. Outline Situation, Needs, and Objectives Approach Results Conclusions 2
  3. 3. British ColumbiaSituation Small Community Pulp Mill Community Applied to Remote Electrification Program 3
  4. 4. Need Forestry region  Increased interest in the use of forest biomass for bio-energy in the region. Forest biomass inventory  investment decisions in bio-energy programs. Demand for biomass vs. supply  success of bio- energy investments. Costs of extracting, processing, and transportation of forest biomass  feasibility of bio-energy projects. 4
  5. 5. Objectives To estimate the heat and electrical power consumption in small and remote communities on Vancouver Island and the southern mainland coast of British Columbia; To assess the local availability of forest biomass to generate energy in these communities; To estimate forest biomass harvesting, processing, and transportation costs; To evaluate the feasibility of small-scale combustion technologies, such as: cordwood/chip boilers and modular combined heat and power (CHP) units. 5
  6. 6. Approach Community selection  definition  37 small and remote communities Energy consumption  per capita  annual community consumption Total Annual Consumption (kWh/Person) (kWh/Person) District Code Natural Gas BC Heating Oil Electricity Electricity Propane Regional Wood Heat District Alberni-Clayoquot A-C 9,672 249 3,322 1,764 1,445 7,737 8,713 Capital C 8,655 742 - 1,572 4,298 6,924 8,342 Comox- C-S 6,831 339 2,062 2,403 1,968 5,465 8,137 Stratchona Cowichan Valley CV 7,026 306 514 2,170 1,778 5,621 6,173 Mount MW 6,691 1,049 - 7,462 6,101 5,353 15,950 Waddington 6
  7. 7. Approach  Small scale combustion technologies   Combustion efficiencies • High efficiency wood stoves: 80% • Cordwood/chip boilers: 78% • Modular CHP: 25% electrical, 50% thermal • Pellet stoves: 90% • Pellet boilers: 90%Technology Cost estimates ReferencesWood Stove $600-$3,000 www.canadiantire.caCordwood Boilers (25kW) $ 70,000 Nichols, 2009 Community Energy Association,Chip Boilers 1,000 $/kW 2007Modular CHP gasification units 6,500 $/kW US EPA, 2007Pellet Stove $1,200 – $2,000 www.canadiantire.ca $7,000 - $9,000 www.harmanstoves.comPellet Boilers (Harman, Tarm Biomass) 15,000 - $30,000 www.woodboilers.com Community Energy Association,Water/Steam Pipes 300 -1,400 $/meter 2007 and Marinova et al., 2008 7
  8. 8. Approach Biomass Requirements: Woody Biomass [ODt/yr] = Annual Heating or Electricity Consumption [MWh/yr] / (Energy conversion factor x Energy conversion efficiency [%]) Biomass Availability: 8
  9. 9. Approach Biomass Sources, Supply Chains, and Costs: • Two supply chains: Firewood and Woodchips 9
  10. 10. Approach Biomass costs: Biomass Stumpage Fee Cut & Split Chipping Transportation TOTAL Costs ($/ODt) ($/ODt) ($/ODt) ($/ODt) ($/ODt) Firewood 8.00 80.00 - 25.00 113.00 Woodchips 8.00 - 22.00 25.00 55.00 Wood pellets - - - - 250.00 Energy costs: • Current community annual heating and electricity costs — Electricity: 0.065 $/kWh (BC Hydro) or 0.35 $/kWh (diesel generation) — Propane: 0.126 $/kWh — Natural Gas: 0.036 $/kWh — Heating oil: 0.108 $/kWh — Firewood: 0.06 $/kWh (assuming $150/cord and 2,500 kWh/cord) • Modular combined heat and power (CHP) annual cost • Woodchip district heating annual cost • Cordwood district heating annual cost 10
  11. 11. MWh 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 Bamfield Bull Coal Harbour Danaxdaxw/Dead Point Results Ditidaht Ehattesaht Gwawaenuk/Hopetown Health Hesquiaht Holberg Huu-ay-aht Jordan River Kingcome/Tsawataineuk Klahoose Kyuquot Lasqueti/False Bay Mansons Landing Electricity Marktosis/Ahousat Mowachaht/ Muchalaht Nuchatlaht Opitsat Heat Oweekeno/Katit Pacheedaht Port Renfrew Quatsino Quatsino IR Rumble Beach/Port Alice Sayward Seaford Shirley11 Tahsis Tla-o-qui-aht Community Annual Energy Consumption (MW h) Uchucklesaht Ucluelet Whaletown Woss Zeballos
  12. 12. Biomass Required & Available (ODt) - 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 200 400 600 800 1. Bamfield 3. Coal Harbour Results 5. Ditidaht 6. Ehattesaht 10. Holberg 11. Huu-ay-aht 12. Jordan River 15. Kyuquot 19. Mowachaht/ Muchalaht 20. Nuchatlaht 23. Pacheedaht CHP (Odt/yr) Heat (Odt/yr) 24. Port Renfrew 25. Quatsino 26. Quatsino IR 27. Rumble Beach 28. Sayward 30. Shirley 31. Tahsis Full substitution of fossil fuels in these communities  7,200 t CO2e12 33. Uchucklesaht Communities with Sufficeint Biomass Required for Heating or CHP 34. Ucluelet 36. Woss 37. Zeballos
  13. 13. Results Biomass Costs ($/MWh) Combustion Technology Solid Wood Wood Wood Chips Pellets Boilers 27 13 - Modular CHP - 14 - Pellet Stoves - - 58 Pellet Boilers - - 57 Electricity: 0.06 $/kWh (hydro); > 0.35 $/kWh (diesel generated) Propane: 0.13 $/kWh Natural gas: 0.04 $/kWh Heating oil: 0.11 $/kWh Fossil fuel costs do not take into consideration the energy efficiencies of conversion technologies (i.e. stoves, boilers, furnaces, etc.) so the actual costs could be higher. 13
  14. 14. Results Annual heat + power costs for current and potential CHP generation in communities with available biomass$1,600,000 Off-grid community Current H&P costs$1,400,000 Potential CHP costs$1,200,000$1,000,000 $800,000 $600,000 $400,000 $200,000 $- Mowachaht/ Muchalaht Huu-ay-aht Kyuquot Jordan River Shirley Sayward Ditidaht Nuchatlaht Pacheedaht Ucluelet Coal Harbour Holberg Port Renfrew Rumble Beach/Port Alice Uchucklesaht Bamfield Quatsino Quatsino IR Woss 14
  15. 15. $- $200,000 $400,000 $600,000 $800,000 $1,000,000 $1,200,000 Bamfield Coal Harbour Results Ditidaht Ehattesaht Holberg Huu-ay-aht Jordan River Kyuquot Mowachaht/ Muchalaht Nuchatlaht Pacheedaht Port Renfrew Current heating costs Quatsino Potential Chip Boiler Costs Quatsino IRRumble Beach/Port Alice Sayward Shirley generation in communities with available biomass Tahsis 15 Annual heating costs for current and potential chip boiler Uchucklesaht Off-grid community Ucluelet Woss Zeballos
  16. 16. $- $200,000 $400,000 $600,000 $800,000 $1,000,000 $1,200,000 $1,400,000 Bamfield Coal Harbour Results Ditidaht Ehattesaht Holberg Huu-ay-aht Jordan River Kyuquot Mowachaht/ Muchalaht Nuchatlaht Current Heating Costs Pacheedaht Port Renfrew Potential Cordwood Boiler Costs Quatsino Quatsino IRRumble Beach/Port Alice Sayward Shirley generation in communities with available biomass Tahsis 16 Uchucklesaht Off-grid community Annual heating costs for current and potential cordwood boiler Ucluelet Woss Zeballos
  17. 17. Conclusions Available biomass  CHP in 19 or DH in 22 communities Wood chips for CHP and DH  lowest cost biomass Small to medium amount of feedstock in isolated, remote communities  challenging CHP and DH  can’t compete with current energy costs in BC Off-grid communities  government subsidies and energy conservation programs Pipe costs high  public buildings, clusters of buildings. Carbon credits  beneficial but not significant at small scale CHP  need heat sinks Integration in community development plans On the ground studies  long term biomass supply 17
  18. 18. Acknowledgements BC Coast Initiative Tony Sauder – Group Leader, Feedstock Group, FPInnovations Jack MacDonald – Group Leader, Harvesting Group, FPInnovations Ed Proteau – Extension Specialist, FPInnovations Nick Hawley – Manager, BC Hydro, Remote Community Electrification Program Brendan Mohan – Biomass Development Manager, Western Forest Products Inc. Dr. Shahab Sokhansanj – Professor, UBC, Biomass and Bio-energy Research Group (BBRG) Scott Stanners – Director of Research, BC Bio-Energy Network Danielle Myles – Research Analyst, BC Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources © 2010 FPInnovations. All rights reserved. Copying and redistribution prohibited. ® FPInnovations, its marks and logos are registered trademarks of FPInnovations. 18

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