Session 26 ic2011 de vallance 2

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Session 26 ic2011 de vallance 2

  1. 1. Thermal, Mechanical, and Physical Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites with Added BiocharDavid DeVallance,Gloria Oporto,George Cheng, andPatrick Quigley
  2. 2. GOALS & OBJECTIVES The long-term goal of this research: • Integrate bio-energy related by-products, particularly biochar, with plastics and wood by- products to create sustainable composite products The objective in this project: • To combine biochar with wood flour and polymeric materials (i.e., plastics) to fabricate a novel composite material
  3. 3. BACKGROUND• Wood and most polymers (i.e., plastics) are not compatible• Polymers – hydrophobic (i.e., non-polar)• Wood – hydrophilic (i.e., polar)• Traditional WPC’s use coupling agents• Most WPCs undergo some UV degradation and lighten over time (Falk et al. 2001)• Carbon black – additive to reduce UV degradation• There is a need to identify alternative, environmentally friendly materials that can replace the currently used additives in WPCs• Biochar - Viable replacement for WPC additives?
  4. 4. BACKGROUNDBiochar• By-product of slow pyrolysis processes used to produce gas and bio-oil (Sohi et al., 2009)• Exhibits a hydrophobic nature (Maciejewska, et al. 2006)• Should reduce UV degradation in WPCs• Has a higher ignition temperature, as opposed to wood fiber (Antal and Gronli, 2003)• Should be more thermal resistant than wood
  5. 5. EXPERIMENTAL Wood (yellow-poplar), Biochar (mixed hardwoods), and Polypropylene (with lubricant) were combined to form composites
  6. 6. EXPERIMENTAL Component were mixed using a Haake PolyDrive blender Composite specimens for physical and mechanical analysis prepared using a Carver Hot press (Temp. 200°C, Pressure 8.9 kN)
  7. 7. EXPERIMENTAL Mechanical properties evaluated using an Instron Universal Test Machine Water absorption and swelling were measured after 24 and 48 hours Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, DTGA) was performed
  8. 8. TEST RESULTS: Bending Composites with biochar Box-and-Whisker Plot Flexural Strength (MPa) included resulted in a 24 statistically significant 20 higher flexure strength 16 (MOR), as compared to 12 the composites without 8 biochar Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Exp. 3 Exp. 4 Exp. 5 Group Summary Modulus of Rupture, MOR (MPa) Statistic 40/0/60 35/5/60 25/15/60 15/25/60 0/40/60 Average 16.1 19.4 20.4 21.3 19.5 St. Dev. 4.3 1.4 1.6 1.5 2.3 COV % 26.7 7.1 7.7 7.2 11.8 Minimum 8.7 17.0 17.6 18.4 15.8 Maximum 23.6 21.6 23.0 23.6 22.4
  9. 9. TEST RESULTS: Tension Box-and-Whisker Plot While two composites Tensile Strength (MPa) 15.9 that included biochar 13.9 (5% and 15%) resulted in higher average tensile 11.9 strengths, the 9.9 differences were not 7.9 statistically significant Exp. 1 Exp. 2 Exp. 3 Exp. 4 Exp. 5 Group Summary Tensile Strength, Ft (MPa) Statistic 40/0/60 35/5/60 25/15/60 15/25/60 0/40/60 Average 11.2 12.5 12.0 10.8 11.0 St. Dev. 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 0.9 COV % 12.6 10.1 11.1 12.3 8.1 Minimum 9.4 10.2 9.6 7.9 9.0 Maximum 14.3 14.4 14.9 12.5 12.4
  10. 10. TEST RESULTS: Water Absorption Water absorption is reduced by 25%, 51% and 73% after the incorporation of 5%, 15% and 25% biochar
  11. 11. TEST RESULTS: Swelling Although reduction in swelling is observed after the addition of biochar, no statistically significant difference was found
  12. 12. TEST RESULTS: Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA & DTGA) Considering a 10% of weight loss, biochar increase the composite decomposition temperature from 315°C to 360°C when 15% is added to the mixture
  13. 13. Major ConclusionsAddition of biochar appears to have:1. Improved strength properties,2. Improved thermal degradation properties, and3. Reduced water absorptionOn-going researchResearch is underway to evaluate:1. Potential improvements in UV degradation,2. Flame resistance,3. Conductivity,4. Mechanical properties with the incorporation of coupling agent, and5. Microbial degradation after the incorporation of biochar in wood-plastic composites (WPCs)
  14. 14. Questions?Further Information: david.devallance@mail.wvu.eduAcknowledgments:Dr. Rakesh Gupta, Chair of the Chemical EngineerDepartment at West Virginia University, for giving usaccess to some laboratory equipment
  15. 15. References: Antal, M.J. and Gronli, M. 2003. The art, science, and technology of charcoal production. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2003(42):1619-1640. Falk, R.H., T. Lundin, and C. Felton, 2001. Accelerated weathering of natural fiber-thermoplastic composites: Effects of ultraviolet exposure on bending strength and stiffness. In: Proc. Sixth International Conference on Woodfiber- Plastic Composites. Forest Prod. Soc., Madison, WI. pp. 87-93. Maciejewska, A., H. Veringa, J. Sanders, and S.D. Peteves. 2006. Co-firing of biomass with coal: Constraints and role of biomass pre-treatment. DG JRC Institute for Energy. Retrieved October 21, 2010, from <http://www.techtp.com/Cofiring/Cofiring%20biomass%20with%20Coal.pdf> Sohi, S., E. Lopex-capel, E. Krull, and R. Bol. 2009. Biochar, climate change and soil: A review to guide future research. CSIRO Land and Water Science Report. Retrieved April 28, 2010, from, <http://www.csiro.au/files/files/poei.pdf>.

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