Session 16 ic2011 forbes

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Session 16 ic2011 forbes

  1. 1. Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Black Ash(Fraxinus nigra M.) grown in Northwestern Ontario for use in Value Added Forest Products Brent Forbes Dr. Mathew Leitch Dr. Chander Shahi Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario
  2. 2. Black Ash • Fraxinus nigra Marsh. • Slow growing hardwood – Wetland or mesic Sites • .4% of provincial growing stock – 20 million cu/m3 across the province • Flooring, mouldings, furniture, handles, novelties
  3. 3. Ontario’s Forest Sector • Vital component of the Canadian economy – Province’s largest industry; $15 billion • Economic downturn over the last decade – 40 manufacturing facilities closed • Worldwide demand for forest products is steadily increasing • Become more competitive, capitalize on emerging markets and utilize Northwestern Ontarios vast wood supply
  4. 4. Research Objective• Identification of underutilized species with potential for development and increased marketing potential• Complete understanding of the variation in physical and mechanical properties of these species in Northwestern Ontario• How this knowledge can be applied to end use attributes in valued added manufacturing
  5. 5. Methodology
  6. 6. Sample Preparation
  7. 7. Property Testing• Modulus of Elasticity• Modulus of Rupture• Specific Gravity• Janka Ball Hardness• Compression Parallel to Grain• X-Ray Densitometry• Growth Rate
  8. 8. Methodology1. Juvenile core2. Juvenile and mature transition3. Heartwood and sapwood 1004. Outer sapwood 75 juvenile wood 1 2 3 4 50 25 Zones of Zones of Zones of Wood radial longitudinal mature & property similarity similarity juvenile wood mapping
  9. 9. Results – Modulus of Elasticity 4 • 4,912 to 11,899 3 Mpa • 8,307 Mpa average 2 1 2 3 4 • 3 distinct sites 1 • Longitudinal subsets
  10. 10. Results – Modulus of Rupture 4 • 48 to 114 Mpa 3 • 87 Mpa average 2 • 3 distinct sites • Little variation in 1 either direction
  11. 11. Results – Relative Density 12% 4 • 546 to 753 3 • 650 average 2 • 2 subsets of sites 1 2 3 4 • Consistent trends 1
  12. 12. Results – Janka Ball Side Hardness 4• 1,544 N to 7677 N; 5410 N Average 3• 2 subsets of sites 2• Insignificant radial variation 1 1 22 3 4 3 4• Homogenous subsets within stem 1• Consistent longitudinal trends
  13. 13. Key Findings• Site was significant for each of the selected properties – 3 distinct sites or 2 subsets – Prediction of properties based on site characteristics• Consistent radial trends with little variation – No change from heartwood to sapwood, juvenile to mature – Large heartwood area with consistent properties• Little variation in longitudinal bolts – Consistent properties from stump to crown – First bolt shows potential for increased properties• Homogenous wood properties with potential for predictive models
  14. 14. Utilization Potential• Inherent properties and underutilized nature of black ash make it desirable for many products• Growth rate plays a significant role in the inherent properties – Earlywood to latewood ratio – Faster growth results in higher wood properties – Potential for increased utilization in shorter time frames• Higher hardness values then any species in the region provides potential for value added flooring
  15. 15. Future Research• Completion of detailed property maps for black ash stems• Stand attribute data • Provide the value and quality of black ash stands, not just volume• Understanding of potential yields, products and markets with a focus on smaller, value adding businesses in Northwestern Ontario
  16. 16. I would like to acknowledge the following:• Lakehead University Wood Science and Testing Facility• Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources• Northern Ontario Heritage Fund Corporation• FedNor and the Northern Ontario Development Program

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