“Enhanced durability of acetylated wood and its impact on the life cycle assessment for a         bridge and window frame”...
The ”Achilles Heel” of woodo Dimensionally unstableo Poor microbial and insect durability         Acetylated wood offers a...
Accoya® in brief    o The “gold standard” for dimensionally stable and durable    wood    o Proprietary acetylation proces...
The Acetylation Process    o Acetylation transforms accessible hydroxyl groups in wood to      acetyl groups    o Reductio...
Why undertake GHG and life       cycle analyses? o Reduce greenhouse emissions o Cost savings opportunities o Impact on de...
Scope of the project      o Determine the carbon foot print of Accoya® wood on a        “cradle to gate” basis      o Refi...
DefinitionsCarbon footprint assessment1: “Cradle to Gate”          “A measure of the greenhouse gases that are produced…th...
Accoya® GHG Assessment      o Available for review at www.accoya.com3      o Executed by Camco in December 2009      o Per...
Kyoto Global Warming Potential Gases        Kyoto gas                                                                     ...
Gases considered for this study:           o CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from fuel combustion           o CH4 emissions ari...
Scope of the Accoya® wood emissions       assessmentACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks o...
Base case process flow diagramAssessment boundary                                                               Gas/heavy ...
Realism and conservatism       Wood                   o Assume radiata pine sourced from New Zealand                   o L...
Accoya® GHG Build-up                                                                                                      ...
ACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiar...
ACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiar...
Alternative material comparison                                                                                           ...
Base case in Muss & Purse                                                                                                 ...
Limitations of GHG       Assessment              GHG emissions on a volumetric basis                           o Provides ...
Life Cycle Assessment4o ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006,  including critical review reporto Written by Dr. Joost Vogtlan...
Applications chosen        Window        o Outer dimension: 1650 x 1300 mm        o Total surface area (interior/exterior)...
Material use, lifespan and carbon sequestration assumptions made for the carbon footprint assessment of a window frame    ...
Coating assumptions for wood alternatives made for the            carbon footprint assessment of a window frame           ...
The pedestrian bridgeACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a w...
Assumptions made for the carbon footprint      assessment of a pedestrian bridge                                          ...
LCA results: window frame                                                           Annual emissions per window frame (kgC...
LCA results: pedestrian bridgeACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Lim...
It goes deeper…       o         Global warming potential       o         Acidification       o         Human toxicity     ...
Conclusion        o        Accoya® wood has a much lower environmental impact compared to many common                 alte...
Acknowledgements       o Special thanks to Pablo van der Lugt for         spearheading this projectACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and t...
Thank you and I am happy to                                    answer your questionsACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque De...
Disclaimer       The images and written contents of this presentation are the       property of Accsys Technologies, its c...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Session 15 ic2011 adair

360 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
360
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Session 15 ic2011 adair

  1. 1. “Enhanced durability of acetylated wood and its impact on the life cycle assessment for a bridge and window frame” Chris Adair, Roger Rowell Presented Forest Products Society 65th International Convention 20 June 2011 Portland, Oregon
  2. 2. The ”Achilles Heel” of woodo Dimensionally unstableo Poor microbial and insect durability Acetylated wood offers a solutionACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  3. 3. Accoya® in brief o The “gold standard” for dimensionally stable and durable wood o Proprietary acetylation process o Produced in the Netherlands o Based on radiata pine o Available for ~4 years o Applications in joinery, siding, decking and othersACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  4. 4. The Acetylation Process o Acetylation transforms accessible hydroxyl groups in wood to acetyl groups o Reduction in “bound water” content dimensional stability o Wood is no longer food source for microorganismsACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  5. 5. Why undertake GHG and life cycle analyses? o Reduce greenhouse emissions o Cost savings opportunities o Impact on decision making for suppliers, materials, product design, manufacturing processes, etc. o Environmental/corporate responsibility o Customer demands for information on product carbon footprints o Ever changing construction regulationsACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  6. 6. Scope of the project o Determine the carbon foot print of Accoya® wood on a “cradle to gate” basis o Refine the analysis through a life cycle assessment [LCA] on a “cradle to grave” basis for two discrete applications o Window o Pedestrian bridge o Compare the Accoya® wood GHG emissions and LCA with alternative building materialsACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  7. 7. DefinitionsCarbon footprint assessment1: “Cradle to Gate” “A measure of the greenhouse gases that are produced…that involve burning fossil fuels.”Life cycle assessment2: “Cradle to Grave” Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an internationally standardised methodology (ISO 14040). LCA helps to quantify the environmental pressures related to goods and services o Life Cycle Inventory: The collection and analysis of environmental interventions data (e.g. emissions, waste generation and resource consumption) which are associated with a product from the extraction of raw materials through production and use to final disposal, including recycling, reuse, and energy recovery. o Life Cycle Impact Assessment: The estimation of indicators of the environmental pressures in terms of i.e. global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, freshwater & terrestrial ecotoxicity and abiotic depletion associated with the environmental interventions attributable to the life-cycle of a product. The data used in LCA should be consistent and quality assured and reflect actual industrial process chains. Methodologies should reflect a best consensus based on current practice. 1. U.S. EPA 2. European CommissionACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  8. 8. Accoya® GHG Assessment o Available for review at www.accoya.com3 o Executed by Camco in December 2009 o Performed in accordance with World Business Council for Sustainable Development and World Resources Institute’s Greenhouse Gas Reporting Protocol best practice guidelines o Six Kyoto protocol greenhouse gases were considered3. http://www.accoya.com/download.asp?path=Greenhouse_Gase_Emisssions_Assessment_Accoya.pdfACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  9. 9. Kyoto Global Warming Potential Gases Kyoto gas Potential sources GWP (CO2eq) CO2 Combustion of fuels 1 Anaerobic degradation of waste CH4 25 Digestion of food matter Nitrification and denitrification in soils Fuel combustion N2O 298 Production of adipic and nitric acid Waste Atmospheric release: HFC’s • Refrigerants 22,800 • Use in foams and aerosols Atmospheric release during manufacture of: PFC’s • Aluminum 7,390 – 12,200 • Electronics Atmospheric release: • Magnesium smelting SF6 124 – 14,800 • Electronics manufacture • High voltage switchgearACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  10. 10. Gases considered for this study: o CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from fuel combustion o CH4 emissions arising from landfill waste o CO2, CH4, and N2O released directly to the atmosphere from processing of raw materials o The contribution of the halogenated GHG’s was considered to be negligibleACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  11. 11. Scope of the Accoya® wood emissions assessmentACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  12. 12. Base case process flow diagramAssessment boundary Gas/heavy Liquid Electricity Raw water fuel oil Nitrogen Diesel Gas Soft water Biomass Electricity Truck (200 km) Pump Electricity Truck Accoya® production facility Forestry (300 km) Sawmill Drying Acetylation operations Truck (30 km) Sea freight 1.0 m3 (2,500 km) Distillation Truck (150 km) Sea freight Waste (210 nautical miles) Acetic Acetic Acid anhydride “Cradle to Gate” ConsumerACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  13. 13. Realism and conservatism Wood o Assume radiata pine sourced from New Zealand o Local species sourcing could improve carbon footprint Acetic anhydride o Two routes for production (ketene & carbonylation) o Embodied energy for global production mix was used o Increased focus on use of carbonylation route could improve carbon foot print Acetic acid o Assume acid enters merchant market and displaces petrochemical produced acid, a net carbon credit o Internal recycling back to anhydride could have similar benefit Site location o Base case is for Netherlands site, not co-located with timber or anhydride production o Co-location with either feedstock could improve carbon emissionsACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  14. 14. Accoya® GHG Build-up Ideal (kgCO2eq)* Realistic (Base) Forestry and sawmilling 109 109 Transport of timber 137 41 Transport of other materials 13 13 Acetylation facility: utilities and input materials 946 563 Acetylation facility: acetic acid production (432) (432) Accoya® GHG Assessment 773 290 Realistic: RP sourced from NZ; ANH-mix Ideal: SP sourced from Scandinavia; ANH-carbonylation *Values may vary slightly due to rounding in this shortened formACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  15. 15. ACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  16. 16. ACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  17. 17. Alternative material comparison • Radiata pine sourced from New Zealand • Anhydride production mixACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  18. 18. Base case in Muss & Purse • Accoya® from Scots pine sourced from Scandinavia • Base case: anhydride from carbonylation routeACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  19. 19. Limitations of GHG Assessment GHG emissions on a volumetric basis o Provides little insight for a realistic comparison against other materials Other factors must come into play o Amount of material used in an application o Durability o Maintenance o Carbon sequestration Enter the life cycle assessment…ACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  20. 20. Life Cycle Assessment4o ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006, including critical review reporto Written by Dr. Joost Vogtlander, TU Delfto Peer review: o Dr. Richard Murphy, Imperial College of London o Harry van Ewijk, IVAM UvA BV, University of Amsterdam o Erik Alsema, W/E Consultantso Life cycle inventory (LCI) data: o Ecoinvent v2 database, Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories o Idemat 2008 database, Delft University of Technology “Cradle to Grave” 4. http://accoya.com/download.asp?path=LCA%20Accoya%20Final%2020100401%20for%20external.pdf ACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC, and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  21. 21. Applications chosen Window o Outer dimension: 1650 x 1300 mm o Total surface area (interior/exterior): 4.38 m2 o Alternatives considered: red meranti, aluminum, & PVC o Product lifespan: determined by TNO Bouw in the Netherlands o Maintenance: Aluminum and PVC windows required no coating maintenance, while the wood alternative do. Frequency determined by Weijman Real Estate Maintenance in the Netherlands Pedestrian bridge o Strictly the load bearing structure was considered o 3 x 16 meters o Complies with Dutch building legislationACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  22. 22. Material use, lifespan and carbon sequestration assumptions made for the carbon footprint assessment of a window frame Carbon Amount of Emissions factor Lifespan sequestration Material material per per frame [yrs] benefit frame [kgCO2eq/m3] Accoya® 0.0838 m3 773 kgCO2eq/m3 50 - 413 Tropical hardwood - red meranti 0.0838 m3 394 kgCO2eq/m3 35 - 411 (sustainably sourced) Tropical hardwood – red meranti 0.0838 m3 494 kgCO2eq/m3 35 - 411 (unsustainably sourced) Aluminium 39.65 kg 8.24 kgCO2eq/kg 50 N/A PVC: 25.6 kg 2.41 kgCO2eq/kg PVC - steel window frame 35 N/A Steel: 16.1 kg 1.78 kgCO2eq/kgACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  23. 23. Coating assumptions for wood alternatives made for the carbon footprint assessment of a window frame Amount of coating in wet Emissions factor Material conditions per frame over lifespan [kgCO2eq/kg] Accoya® 3.56 kg over 50 years 2.786 Tropical hardwood 5.55 kg over 35 years 2.786 (red meranti)ACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  24. 24. The pedestrian bridgeACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  25. 25. Assumptions made for the carbon footprint assessment of a pedestrian bridge Amount of material per Lifespan Carbon sequestration Material Emissions factor bridge [yrs] benefit [kgCO2eq / m3] Accoya®: 6,41 m3 773 kgCO2eq/m3 Accoya® wood 80 - 660 Glue (PU): 4.694 kgCO2eq/kg Tropical hardwood – Azobé: 5,94 m3 304 kgCO2eq/m3 Azobé (sustainably 50 - 972 Steel: 297 kg 1.78 kgCO2eq/kg sourced) Tropical hardwood – Azobé: 5,94 m3 4851 kgCO2eq/m3 Azobé (unsustainably 50 - 972 Steel: 297 kg 1.78 kgCO2eq/kg sourced) Concrete:11,43m3 516 kgCO2eq/m3 Reinforced concrete (density / m3) 90 N/A 1.78 kgCO2eq/kg Steel: 803 kg Steel (hot dip galvanized) 1.78 kgCO2eq/kg 50 N/AACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  26. 26. LCA results: window frame Annual emissions per window frame (kgCO2eq / yr) 12.00 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 Accoya Red meranti Red meranti PVC Aluminium (sustainably (unsustainably sourced) sourced)ACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  27. 27. LCA results: pedestrian bridgeACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  28. 28. It goes deeper… o Global warming potential o Acidification o Human toxicity o Eutrophication o Photochemical oxidation o Freshwater & terrestrial ecotoxicity o Abiotic depletion …We’ll save this for another time.ACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  29. 29. Conclusion o Accoya® wood has a much lower environmental impact compared to many common alternatives including metals and concrete o While Accoya® has a slightly higher environmental impact than sustainably sourced hardwoods, it is significantly more efficient than woods produced under poor forestry practices o Additional benefits not accounted for: o Certified tropical hardwoods are not widely available o Mean annual increment (MAI) for fast growing softwoods is much higher than tropical hardwoodsACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  30. 30. Acknowledgements o Special thanks to Pablo van der Lugt for spearheading this projectACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  31. 31. Thank you and I am happy to answer your questionsACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.
  32. 32. Disclaimer The images and written contents of this presentation are the property of Accsys Technologies, its customers, partners and licensees and may not be copied, reproduced, extracted, used by or shown to other parties without the prior written consent of Accsys Technologies’ Marketing Department. To the best of the knowledge and belief of Accsys Technologies, the information contained in this presentation is accurate and is provided on the basis that Accsys Technologies and/or any of its affiliates, officers employees or advisers are not liable for any loss or damage whatsoever in respect of the accuracy or completeness of such information or the result of having acted upon it. Accsys Technologies is a trading name of Titan Wood Inc.ACCOYA®, TRICOYA® and the Trimarque Device are registered trademarks owned by Titan Wood Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Accsys Technologies PLC,and may not be used or reproduced without written permission. pemission.

×