KenyaAn Exploration of the Culture<br />Presented by: Frank Downard, Courteney Duncan, Bethany Foster, Brittney Gesbeck an...
Abstract<br />The following is an analysis of various aspects of Kenyan culture as it relates to interpersonal communicati...
 verbal communication
 gender roles
 communicative properties of formal and informal clothing</li></ul>These will be discussed in the context of various commu...
 proxemics
 emblems
 vocalics
 dominant behavior</li></ul>Through analysis, a better understanding of the culture of Kenya will be encouraged, and throu...
KENYA:		At a Glance<br />LAND<br />Located on the east coast of Africa.<br />About twice the size of Nevada.<br />OFFICIAL...
Nonverbal Communication:		Cues to Watch for<br />The First Impression—Appearance<br />Starting with “hello”—Kinesics and E...
Nonverbal Communication:	     The First Impression<br />In urban areas, most business is conducted in formal business atti...
Nonverbal Communication:	     Starting with “hello”<br />Handshakes are expected at greetings between men.<br />All men sh...
Nonverbal Communication:		             Continued Interaction<br />Proxemics<br />After the greeting, business is conducted...
Nonverbal Communication:		        Do’s and Don'ts<br />DON’T<br />Don’tuse your left hand. It is generally reserved for hy...
Verbal Communication<br />Image: Wainscoat (n.d.)<br />Image: Stanley (n.d.)<br />
Verbal Communication: 	Language<br />Kenya is a multilingual country<br />Swahili and English are the official languages<b...
Verbal Communication:Kenya Tribes and Linguistic Groups<br />The Bantu<br />Bantu people live mainly in the coastal, centr...
Verbal Communication:Communicating Through Culture<br />Kenya culture is a way of life that is a blend of thousands of yea...
Gender Roles<br />The differences between men and women in Kenya<br />
Kenyan Men	Centuries of Tradition<br />Regulator of Life<br />Make all decisions<br />Own all property<br />Homes<br />Lan...
Women of Kenya                   struggling to be heard<br />Second Class Citizens, Voices not heard<br />Man is head of h...
Times, they are changing…<br />Tribal life<br />Older Women<br />Hold important roles in tribal life<br />Command Respect<...
Kenyan Diverse Styles of Dress<br />Formal and Informal<br />
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Final Group#2 Project - Kenya

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  • Final Group#2 Project - Kenya

    1. 1. KenyaAn Exploration of the Culture<br />Presented by: Frank Downard, Courteney Duncan, Bethany Foster, Brittney Gesbeck and Julie Hagen<br />CMST 101<br />May 2011<br />
    2. 2. Abstract<br />The following is an analysis of various aspects of Kenyan culture as it relates to interpersonal communication. The cultural topics covered will be:<br /><ul><li> nonverbal communication
    3. 3. verbal communication
    4. 4. gender roles
    5. 5. communicative properties of formal and informal clothing</li></ul>These will be discussed in the context of various communication principles and concepts, including: <br /><ul><li> kinesics
    6. 6. proxemics
    7. 7. emblems
    8. 8. vocalics
    9. 9. dominant behavior</li></ul>Through analysis, a better understanding of the culture of Kenya will be encouraged, and through understanding strategies will be developed to facilitate effective communication with the people of Kenya. <br />
    10. 10. KENYA: At a Glance<br />LAND<br />Located on the east coast of Africa.<br />About twice the size of Nevada.<br />OFFICIAL<br />Name: Republic of Kenya<br />Gained independence from European countries in 1963 (British East Africa).<br />Official languages: English, Swahili.<br />PEOPLE<br />Population: approximately 41 million (2011).<br />Nearly half the population is under the age of 15, and the average age is 19.<br />Approx. 40 ethnic groups live in Kenya. The major subsets are Kikuyu (22%), Luhya (14%), Luo (13%), Kalenjin (12%), and Kamba (11%).<br />Europeans, Arabs and Asians make up only about 1% of the population.<br />Nearly half the population is Christian, though pre-Christian beliefs are still common, and Islam is growing.<br />(“World Factbook,” 2011)<br />Image: The World Factbook (2011)<br />Image: The World Factbook (2011)<br />
    11. 11. Nonverbal Communication: Cues to Watch for<br />The First Impression—Appearance<br />Starting with “hello”—Kinesics and Eye Contact<br />Continued Interaction—Proxemics, Vocalics, and Dominance<br />Do’s and Don'ts—Things to Keep in Mind.<br />
    12. 12. Nonverbal Communication: The First Impression<br />In urban areas, most business is conducted in formal business attire.<br />Men are expected to wear a suit and tie.<br />Professional women may also wear suits or dresses. If a skirt is worn, it will be of at least knee-length.<br />(“Kenya: language, culture customs, and etiquette,” n.d.).<br />In rural areas, the clothing is much less formal:<br />Informal dress will vary depending on the ethnicity prominent in the area visited. <br />Clothing may be more revealing in rural areas than urban.<br />Some ethnicities use emblems, such as hair styles or jewelry, to indicate certain social statuses: marriage, children, etc.<br />Muslim areas, generally along the coast, will often sport traditional Muslim garb<br />(“Kenya: language, culture customs, and etiquette,” n.d.)<br />Students and urban youth can be very westernized. <br />They will often wear jeans, t-shirts and hip-hop influenced clothing.<br />Even among youth, revealing clothing is generally frowned upon.<br />(“Kenya: language, culture customs, and etiquette,” n.d.)<br />Image: state.gov (2009)<br />Image: Sassoon (n.d.)<br />
    13. 13. Nonverbal Communication: Starting with “hello”<br />Handshakes are expected at greetings between men.<br />All men shake hands when greeting one another.<br />A younger or subordinate man is often expected to lower his eyes during the greeting.<br />Clasping the right hand with the left is also a sign of respect for an elder or superior.<br />(“Kenya,” n.d.).<br />Greetings for women:<br />May include a limp handshake.<br />More often consists of a hug and a kiss on the cheek.<br />Muslim women often will not exchange greetings with men, and by some doctrines are prohibited from interacting with them at all.<br />(“Kenya,” n.d.).<br />Image: Hockstein (2008)<br />
    14. 14. Nonverbal Communication: Continued Interaction<br />Proxemics<br />After the greeting, business is conducted at arms length.<br />Touching is rarely done while conducting business, except between very good friends<br />Like many African and Middle Eastern countries, men often hold hands in public in a non-sexual manner.<br />Proxemic norms are more relaxed in rural areas, and may include more touching and less personal space than is experienced in the cities or during formal business.<br />(“Kenya: language, culture customs, and etiquette,” n.d; United Nations Office at Nairobi, n.d.).<br />Vocalics<br />It is considered rude to raise one’s voice at any time, even in praise.<br />(United Nations Office at Nairobi, n.d.).<br />Dominance<br />Men are normally greeted and served before women.<br />(“Kenya,” n.d.).<br />Image: state.gov (2009)<br />
    15. 15. Nonverbal Communication: Do’s and Don'ts<br />DON’T<br />Don’tuse your left hand. It is generally reserved for hygiene and sanitation.<br />Don’t signal people with your left hand, point, or beckon with your palm facing upward. These actions are considered offensive. Kenyans often use their chin to point, rather than their hand.<br />Don’t take pictures of people without their permission—especially the President. This is even more important in rural areas, where superstitions regarding cameras may still linger.<br />Don’t decline food or drink if it is offered.<br />DO<br />Do clasp your left hand around the other person’s when shaking hands with an elder. This is an exception to the rule above.<br />Do grasp a person’s elbow in greeting instead of their hand if your hands are dirty, and expect them to do the same.<br />Do wait for a woman to initiate interaction, if you are a man. Many women are prohibited from interaction with men outside of their family.<br />Do offer a tip for taking someone’s picture, especially in rural areas.<br />(“Kenya: language, culture customs, and etiquette,” n.d; United Nations Office at Nairobi, n.d; “Kenya,” n.d.).<br />Image: state.gov (2009)<br />
    16. 16. Verbal Communication<br />Image: Wainscoat (n.d.)<br />Image: Stanley (n.d.)<br />
    17. 17. Verbal Communication: Language<br />Kenya is a multilingual country<br />Swahili and English are the official languages<br />There are 62 other languages spoken in the country<br />These consist of African tribal languages<br />Most African languages come from three different language families<br />Bantu languages<br />Nilotic languages <br />Cushitic languages<br /> (“Kenya: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette” (n.d.).<br />Image: exploringkenya.com<br />
    18. 18. Verbal Communication:Kenya Tribes and Linguistic Groups<br />The Bantu<br />Bantu people live mainly in the coastal, central, and western regions of the country<br />They occupy less than 30 percent of Kenya's land base but form more than 70 percent of the population.<br />The most notable among the Bantu are the Kikuyu, Luhya, and Kamba tribes<br />The Nilotic<br />Nilotic people reside in Kenya's broad Rift-Valley region, around Lake Victoria<br />The Maasai, Turkana, Samburu, Luo, and Kalenjin are the most significant Nilotic tribes<br />The Cushitic<br />Cushitic people live in the arid and semi-arid eastern and northeastern parts of Kenya<br />Somali are the largest Cushitic ethnic group in Kenya<br />Others<br />Kenyan Asians (mostly Indians)<br />Kenyan Arabs (from Yemeni, Omani, and Persian<br />Kenyan Europeans (from British origin)<br /> (“The Kenyan People” (n.d.).<br />Images: kenya-information-guide.com (n.d.) <br />
    19. 19. Verbal Communication:Communicating Through Culture<br />Kenya culture is a way of life that is a blend of thousands of years of tradition with modern influences<br />Music and Dance<br />Traditional music and dance is part of Kenyans' lives and forms an important part of Kenya culture<br />Harmonious beats and rhythm are central parts of dance, which is traditionally backed by drums and guitar instruments<br />Theatre and Literature<br />Kenya has a strong oral tradition<br />Stories are passed on throughout the generations, often in the form on song<br />The Kenya National Theatre is a performing art center for cultural music, dance, and plays written by Kenyan authors<br />Art and Artifacts<br />Most arts and artifacts are crafted manually from local materials<br />Beautifully carved wood sculptures are produced in large quantities and sold to tourists<br />Other popular Kenya artifacts include colorful hand-woven sisal baskets, beaded jewelry, gold and silver jewelry, musical instruments, tribal masks, figurines, paintings, prints, and beautiful traditional Kikoys (African sarongs)<br />(“Kenya Culture” (n.d.).<br />Image: kenya-information-guide.com (n.d.) <br />Image: eileen-morrow.blogspot.com (2009)<br />
    20. 20. Gender Roles<br />The differences between men and women in Kenya<br />
    21. 21. Kenyan Men Centuries of Tradition<br />Regulator of Life<br />Make all decisions<br />Own all property<br />Homes<br />Land <br />Primary Family<br />Women become property of family<br />Women are forced to marry other male members within family<br />Image: intrepid travel (2009)<br />Image: redbubble.com (2010)<br />
    22. 22. Women of Kenya struggling to be heard<br />Second Class Citizens, Voices not heard<br />Man is head of household<br />Little to no influence regarding decisions and their own lives<br />Not able to own property or land worked<br />Forced into marriage<br />If widowed, women are “inherited” by brother or close relative<br />Changes are possible<br />Article 27(8) – Government & Legislature to implement principles of no more then 2/3 of the members shall be the same gender<br />Article 81 – adopt same principle as above<br />Article 91 – Political parties respect & promote equality<br />MEGEN – Men for Gender Equality Now<br />Recognizes need for men to participate in the fight for gender equality<br />Image: Zunia.org (2009)<br />Image: africastyledaily.com (2010)<br />
    23. 23. Times, they are changing…<br />Tribal life<br />Older Women<br />Hold important roles in tribal life<br />Command Respect<br />Different Types of attitudes in men<br />Resistance to change<br />MEGEN<br />Mzalendo, Eye on Kenyan Parliament<br />Women and Top Political Office<br />21 out of 222 parliamentarians are women<br />7 out of 44 women are permanent secretaries<br />7 out of 425 ministers are women<br />Image: worldofstock.com (2011)<br />Image: Wall Street Journal (2010)<br />
    24. 24. Kenyan Diverse Styles of Dress<br />Formal and Informal<br />
    25. 25. Diversity of Kenya Formal Dress<br />Kikuyu Tribe<br />Western society influence<br />Shukas<br />Large, square pieces of red & blue cloth<br />Fling over their bodies & tie around their neck/shoulders<br />Masai Maria Tribe<br />Women<br />Vast plate-like bead necklaces<br />Kangas<br />Colorful wraps<br />Men<br />Shuka<br />Red checkered blanket<br />Red indicates power<br />Carry a distinctive ball-ended club<br />Kikuyu Tribe typical woman in formal dress; Shuka is proudly shown<br />Men of the Masai Maria Tribe in typical formal dress<br />
    26. 26. Diversity of Kenya Formal Dress<br />Western Culture Inspired<br />Kalenjin Tribe<br />Women<br />Skirts<br />Blouses<br />Dresses<br />khangas<br />Men<br />Trousers<br />Shirts<br />Suit jacket<br />Sport coat <br />Akamba Tribe<br />Leather short kilts<br />Made from animal skins or tree bark<br />Jewelry<br />Copper <br />Brass<br />Neck-chains<br />Bracelets<br />Anklets<br />Woman of Kalenjin Tribe<br />Women member of the Akamba Tribe<br />
    27. 27. Diversity of Kenya Formal Dress<br />Luhya Tribe<br />Traditional clothing<br />Worn on specific occasions<br />Worn only by certain people <br />Cultural Dancing<br />Wear feathered hats<br />Skirts made of sisal strands<br />Circumcision Rites<br />Wear clothing made of skins<br />Paint themselves with red ochre (a pigment) or ash<br />Turkana Tribe<br />Women<br />Yorfas<br />Sheepskins/goatskins dyed red or black<br />Create Mohawks, adorned with beads<br />Men<br />Wear wrap as tunics<br />Women of the Luhya Tribe<br />Members of the Turkana Tribe, with the adorned Mohawk<br />
    28. 28. Kenyan Informal Dress<br />Western style clothing<br />Colorful <br />Skirts<br />Jewelry<br />Rich cultural heritage<br />Kanga Tribe with colorful cloth used as shirts, shawls, and skirts<br />
    29. 29. Kenyan Informal Dress<br />Turkana Dress<br />Both men and women wear brightly colored objects around their necks<br />Accessories<br />Wrist knives<br />Stools<br />Walking sticks<br />Women<br />Wear oblios<br />Necklaces that Turkana women wear upon reaching the appropriate age to marry<br />Masai Dress<br />Dress according to the traditional nomadic ways as herders<br />Women<br />Kanga<br />Bead necklaces<br />Men<br />Red-checkered blankets, shukas<br />Coastal Regions<br />Muslim-influenced<br />Johos<br />Long robes<br />Kofias<br />Traditional hat<br />Kikois and Kikoys<br />Brightly colored cloth which can be worn many ways<br />Tribal members with Kofias, traditional hat<br />Tribal men wearing Kikoys, brightly colored cloth<br />
    30. 30. Questions<br />What is the significance of eye contact during a greeting, and how would you use this knowledge to your advantage?<br />Does it matter when greeting the same/different gender? If so, how do you compensate?<br />As Kenya’s society progresses into a more democratic state, will women of prominence be accepted more easily?<br />If women of Kenya are to initiate contact, and they are not as respected as much as men, how effective is a woman’s communication if she is so restricted by the cultural standards imposed upon her?<br />
    31. 31. REFERENCES<br />Hockstein, E. (Photographer). (2008). [Photograph of Kibaki, Odinga, and Annan]. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/25/world/africa/25kenya.html<br />Kenya: language, culture, customs and etiquette (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/kenya.html<br />Kenya (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.culturecrossing.net/<br />Sassoon, S. (Photographer).(n.d.). [Untitled Photograph of Masai Women and Children], retrieved May 20, 2011 from http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Masai-Women-and-Children-Kenya-East-Africa-Africa-Posters_i2657709_.htm<br />United Nations Office Nairobi (n.d.). Cultural do’s and dont’s. Retrieved from dcs.unon.org/en/visitors-to-nariobikenya/<br />[Untitled Photograph of Hillary Clinton in Nairobi]. Retrieved May 20, 2011, from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/pix/2009a/kenya/<br />World Factbook, The. (2011). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html<br />Kenya Culture (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.kenya-information-guide.com/kenya-culture.html<br />Kenya: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/kenya.html<br />Marrow, E. (2009). [Untitled Photograph of Kenyan People Dancing]. Retrieved from http://eileen-morrow.blogspot.com/2009_09_27_archive.html<br />Stanley, S. (Photographer). (n.d.). [Untitled Photograph of Two Warriors from Samburu Tribe]. Retrieved from http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Samburu-Tribe-Kenya-East-Africa-Africa-Posters_i2669458_.htm<br />The Kenyan People (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.kenya-information-guide.com/kenya-people.html<br />[Untitled Photograph of Ethnic Groups in Kenya]. Retrieved from http://www.exploringkenya.com/kenya-culture.html<br />[Untitled Photograph of Kenya Art]. Retrieved from http://www.kenya-information-guide.com/kenya-culture.html<br />[Untitled Photographs of Nilotic Women and Cushitic Woman]. Retrieved from http://www.kenya-information-guide.com/kenya-people.html<br />Wainscoat, R. (Photographer). (n.d.). [Untitled Photograph of Masai People]. Retrieved from http://wainscoat.com/kenya/<br />[Untitled Photograph of Prostitution Refugees in Kenya]. Retrieved from http://www.news.change.org/stories/prostitution-or-starvation-refugees-face-few-options.html<br />[Untitled Photograph of Women in Kenya]. Retrieved from http://www.genderacrossborders.com/2009/07/31/in-kenya-another-list-burden-for-women/.html<br />[Untitled Photograph of Fashion in Kenya]. Retrieved from http://africastyledaily.com/2010/5/t-magazine-spotlights-fashion-in-rural-kenya/.html<br />[Untitled Photograph of Women of Africa]. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/03/africa_africa0s_forgotten_women/html/1.stm<br />[Untitled Photograph of Men of Kenya]. Retrieved from http://www.worldofstock.com/stock_photos/PEM1276.php.html<br />[Untitled Photograph of Women of Change]. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704702304575403314106378340.html<br />Discrimination against women in Kenya (n.d.). Retrieved on May 21, 2011, from http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/africa/kenya/discriminationwomen.html<br />Gender Equality and Social Institutions. (n.d.). Retrieved on May 21, 2011, from http://genderindex.org/countty/Kenya<br />

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