GENDER MAINSTREAMING Finding a place for women in public policy
Gender • Mainstreaming a gender perspec@ve is the Mainstreaming is process of assessing the implica@ons for a Strategy women and men of any planned ac@on, Deﬁned including legisla@on, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels. • It is a strategy for making womens as well as mens concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementa@on, monitoring and evalua@on of policies and programs in all poli@cal, economic and societal spheres so that women and men beneﬁt equally and inequality is not perpetuated. • The ul@mate goal is to achieve gender equality
• Gender unequal – unequal EXAMPLES? treatment based on gender • Gender blind – don’t take into account gender diﬀerences • Gender neutral -‐ what most gender blind policies are thought to be • Gender speciﬁc – prac@cal needs • Gender redistribu@ve -‐ strategic
GENDER Women are more likely to be in BLIND college aWer star@ng a family & to take break • Pell grant eligibility • Child care needs • Women on TANF – any job will do, limited allowances for educa@on • Drug crime sentencing
Gender Disaggregated Sta@s@cs Global Gender Gap Report 2012 World Economic Forum
Global Gender Gap -‐ 2012 Measures gap between women and men in four categories: 1. Economic par@cipa@on and opportunity: • female labor force par@cipa@on, wage equality & the percentage of women in high-‐ranking jobs. 2. Educa@onal a]ainment • female literacy & school enrollment 3. Health and survival • female and male life expectancy and mortality rates. 4. Poli@cal empowerment • number of women holding poli@cal oﬃce as well as the number of female heads of state over the last 50 years.
Gender Inequality Index • Reﬂects women’s disadvantage in three dimensions • reproduc@ve health, • empowerment and the • labour market • The index shows the loss in human development due to inequality between female and male achievements in these dimensions.
Gender Inequality Index Table 4 - Gender Inequality Index and related indicators Reproductive Health Population with at least secondary Labour force Contraceptive education participation prevalence Gender Inequality Seats in (% ages 25 rate rate, any Births Index national and older) (%)method (% of At least one attended by Maternal Adolescent parliament (% married women antenatal visit skilled health Total fertility Rank Value mortality ratio fertility rate Female) Female Male Female Male ages 15–49) (%) personnel (%) rate HDI rank 2011 2011 2008 2011 a 2011 2010 2010 2009 2009 2005-2009b 2005-2009b 2005-2009b 2011 aVERY%HIGH%HUMAN%DEVELOPMENT 1 Norway 6 0.075 7 9.0 39.6 99.3 99.1 63.0 71.0 88.0 .. .. 2.0 2 Australia 18 0.136 8 16.5 28.3 95.1 97.2 58.4 72.2 71.0 100.0 100.0 2.0 3 Netherlands 2 0.052 9 5.1 37.8 86.3 89.2 59.5 72.9 69.0 .. 100.0 1.8 4 United States 47 0.299 24 41.2 16.8 95.3 94.5 58.4 71.9 73.0 .. 99.0 2.1
Other • Gender Inequality Index Interna@onal • UNDP Indices • Gender Equity Index • Social Watch • Women Economic Opportunity Index • The Economist • Social Ins@tu@ons & Gender Index • OECD • Gender-‐related Development Index • UNDP • Gender Empowerment Index • UNDP
Tools of Gender Mainstreaming Gender Budge@ng Other Tools • Used primarily outside of • Gender Audit the US • Gender Impact Assessment • Focuses on gendered impact • Gender Needs Assessment of public policy budget • Monitoring & Evalua@on decisions • Training
Of the $10 billion in state spending cuts already made, 93 percent have targeted educa@on, health, and human services – areas that dispropor@onally employ and serve women. This is taking a major toll on the economic well-‐being, health, and safety of women and their families: • Fewer jobs for women and persistent overall unemployment. Over half of public service jobs are in educa@on, health, and social services, where women make up nearly three-‐quarters (72 percent) of the workforce. Cuts in these areas have forced a large number of women out of work, contribu@ng to stubbornly high unemployment overall. • Women’s economic disadvantages prior to the recession made them more vulnerable to cuts. Women are at greater risk for poverty than men due to their large numbers in lower-‐paying ﬁelds and under-‐representa@on in higher-‐paying jobs; greater likelihood of working part-‐@me; earnings that are lower, on average, than men’s; and their role as primary caregivers for children, which aﬀects whether and how much they can work. • Cuts to work supports especially jeopardize women’s ability to work and meet their families’ basic needs. Time limits have cut 23,000 Washingtonians oﬀ from resources that support work and keep them engaged with the economy. Over 27,000 fewer families are receiving assistance to help them aﬀord child care so they can work. AWer recent cuts, cash assistance provides just 27 percent of the resources families need to meet basic needs. • Cuts to reproduc5ve health programs threaten maternal and child health. In 36 of 39 coun@es in Washington state, use of Maternity Support Services, a program proven to promote healthier pregnancies and safer births, has declined. Forty-‐nine family planning agencies have lost funding, resul@ng in 46,000 fewer women receiving cri@cal reproduc@ve health services. • Less help for survivors of domes5c violence and sexual assault as need is rising. The Governor has proposed cuts to assistance for vic@ms of violence just as two alarming trends appear to be on the rise in Washington – more women are seeking help for domes@c violence and sexual assault, and are increasingly reques@ng help with ﬁnding shelter, feeding their children and other economic hardships.
Public Policy – Gender Impact Assessment At Work At Risk of Violence • Minimum wage laws • Pros@tu@on • Equal Pay • Human Traﬃcking • Pregnancy Discrimina@on • Domes@c Violence • Family & Medical Leave • Rape • Paid Sick Leave • Child Care Assistance • Unemployment • Job Segrega@on
Public Policy – Gender Impact Assessment In the Prison System Welfare Reform • Sentencing prac@ces – • Focus on any job related to drug oﬀences employment has reduced • Sexual assault number of low income women pursuing addi@onal When They Re5re educa@on • Labor Force par@cipa@on • Social security
Public Policy – Gender Impact Assessment At School In the Military • Title IX • Female soldier is more likely • Academics, sports, harassment, to be raped by a fellow STEM, pregnancy soldier than killed by enemy a]ack. At Home • Homeless Families
• Budget Cuts/Recession – Impact on Funding • In Georgia, Governor Nathan Deal proposed $4.5 million budget cuts for domes@c violence shelters, elimina@ng state funding. Mary Kay: 2012 Truth About • In Washington state, at the end of October Abuse Na@onal Survey: 2011, the Department of Social and Health • 8 out of 10 domes@c Services no@ﬁed organiza@ons with domes@c violence shelters na@onwide reported an violence programs it would reduce state funds increase in women for domes@c violence by 25 percent January 1, seeking help. 2012, and another 50 percent the following • 74% of women stayed with an abuser longer for July 1. economic reasons. • In Iowa, “the A]orney General’s oﬃce says • 58% of shelters reported federal support for the state’s vic@m that the abuse is more violent now than before assistance programs has dipped by $1.5 million the economic downturn. and state funding has gone down more than • 62% of survivors could not $200,000 in the same @me. ﬁnd jobs due to the economy. • Gov Nikki Haley – cut $400K for DV and rape • 43% of shelters had to crisis centers – distrac@on from larger public decrease services oﬀered. health issues – special interest
GENDER LENS Occupation Number of Employees Hourly median Wage Annual Median Wage* Percent of Standard**ALL OCCUPATIONS 5,091,490 $15.72 $32,706 71% Registered nurses 117,870 $28.76 $59,823 130% Office Clerks general 103,220 $12.68 $26,366 57% Cashiers 133,860 $8.36 $17,396 38% Waiters and Waitresses 92,700 $8.10 $16,831 36% Customer service representatives 80,650 $14.84 $30,867 67% Combined food Preparation and serving Workers 150,720 $8.08 $16,790 36% Including fast food Retail salespersons 146,360 $9.43 $19,626 43% Janitors and Cleaners except maids and 85,240 $10.52 $21,886 47% Housekeeping Cleaners Laborers and freight stock and material movers 108,010 $11.31 $23,530 51% Stock Clerks and Order fillers 75,810 $10.16 $21,146 46%THE ANNUAL SELF-SUFFICIENCY STANDARD FOR ONE ADULT, ONEPRESCHOOLER, AND ONE SCHOOL-AGE CHILD IN CUYAHOGA COUNTY $21.85 $46,141 100%
Minimum Wage Workers Minimum Wage • Women are 48% of the labor force • Women represent nearly 33% two-‐thirds of minimum wage Women workers ($7.25) Men • Women are nearly two-‐thirds 66% of workers in 5pped occupa5ons (Min: $2.13)
WAGE GAP • For African American women, the gap is $. 64 • For Hispanic women, the gap is $.55 At least 40% of the wage gap CANNOT be explained by diﬀerences in educa@on, background, experience and occupa@onal choice Wage gap begins with ﬁrst job and becomes progressively worse as women’s careers progress
Women Don’t Ask h]p://blogs-‐images.forbes.com/brycecovert/ﬁles/2012/11/tribehr_payraise_infographic2.jpg Women Lack Ambi@on h]p://www.forbes.com/sites/brycecovert/2012/11/14/women-‐arent-‐held-‐back-‐by-‐an-‐ambi@on-‐gap-‐theyre-‐just-‐held-‐back/
EQUAL $100,000 or 83% $75,000 to 74% $65,000 to 68%PAY $55,000 to $50,000 to 65% 64%• 72% of full5me $45,000 to 60% year-‐round $40,000 to 59% female workers $35,000 to 55% $30,000 to earn less than 51% $25,000 to 47% $50,000 a year $22,500 to 42%• 45% of full5me $20,000 to 46% year-‐round male $17,500 to 42% workers earn $15,000 to 41% $50,000 or more $12,500 to 38% a year $10,000 to 41% $7,500 to 41% $5,000 to 41% $2,500 to 42% $1 to $2,499 43% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
• It takes four or more years of college (or EDUCATIONAL the equivalent) to increase the median earnings of women in Ohio to exceed the ATTAINMENT median earnings of men with a high school diploma ($36,911 vs. $31,739) 23% Men with HS Diploma: $31,739 Women with HS Diploma: $20,821 Men with BA/BS: $56,013 Women with BS/BA: $36,911 Women In Ohio With Four or More Years • Four or more years of college reduces of College the rate of poverty among women from 14 % to 3.9 % • For African American women, only 14% have four or more years of college.
Social Security beneﬁts are Other Issues lower for women than for men • The average Social Security beneﬁt for Social Security women 65 and older is about $12,100 per 18000 $16K year, compared to about $16,000 for men 16000 14000 $12K 65 and older. 12000 10000 8000 • Sources: Na@onal Women’s Law Center 6000 4000 2000 0
• About 1,000 American-‐born children Human are forced into the sex trade in Ohio Traﬃcking every year and about 800 immigrants h]p:// are sexually exploited and pushed www.cleveland.com/na@on/index.ssf/2010/02/ into sweatshop-‐type jobs, a new ohio_is_hot_spot_in_hum report on human traﬃcking in the an_traf.html state said Wednesday. • Ohios weak laws on human traﬃcking, its growing demand for cheap labor and its proximity to the Canadian border are key contributors to the illegal ac@vity, according to a report by the Traﬃcking in Persons Study Commission.
• Tougher laws HUMAN • Human traﬃcking is now in Ohio’s TRAFFICKING criminal code • Juvenile oﬀenders are directed to treatment programs • Can arrest customers paying for sex with minors
• Na@onal Women’s Law Center (nwlc.org) (mul@ple issues RESOURCES including health report card) • Ins@tute for Women’s Policy Research (iwpr.org) • Catalyst (catalyst.org) • AAUW (aauw.org) • Women’s Sports Founda@on (email@example.com) • NCAA (ncaa.org) • Educa@on Stats (nces.ed.gov)
• Census/American Community Survey: facuinder2.census.gov • The Ins@tute on Women (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Lede (Around a news hook) The Op-‐Ed Thesis (Statement of argument – either explicit or implied) Argument: Based on evidence (such as stats, news, reports from credible organiza5ons, Project expert quotes, scholarship, history, ﬁrst-‐hand experience) • 1st Point • evidence h]p:// • evidence www.theopedproject.org/ • conclusion index.php? • 2nd Point op@on=com_content&vie • evidence w=ar@cle&id=68&Itemid=8 • evidence 0 • conclusion • 3rd Point • evidence • evidence • conclusion Note: In a simple, declara5ve op-‐ed (“policy X is bad; here’s why”) , this may be straighporward. In a more complex commentary, the 3rd point may expand on the bigger picture—historical context, global/geographic picture, mythological underpinnings, etc.—or may oﬀer an explana5on for a mystery that underpins the argument– eg., why a bad policy con5nues, in spite of its failures. “To Be Sure” paragraph (in which you pre-‐empt your poten5al cri5cs by acknowledging any ﬂaws in your argument, and address any obvious counter-‐arguments.) Conclusion (oten circling back to your lede)