Psy lipson

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Psy lipson

  1. 1. What is Response to Intervention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and RTI!! (((OPQ1.(C;#3&.&.7(Q1;1#("(81&5C(1"-("(-,8&F&8( !! To prevent reading difficulties and 5"#.&.7(C&-"E&5&;4("-(CF&.C(&.(-8;&%.(RNM/("(5%8"5( CD8";&%."5("7.84(-1"55(STA(E(#UD&#C(;%(;"V(&.;%( !! Reduce the number of students who 8%.-&C#";&%.(Q1;1#("(81&5C(1"-("(-:#( become eligible for special education C&-8#,".84(E;Q.("81&:3.;(".C(&.;558;D"5( as SLD by: "E&5&;4(W0*+*(XNYZ[[R/(RX[@EB@RB@B]( "! Makingeffective decisions about teaching!! (((O?.(C;#3&.&.7(Q1;1#("(81&5C(1"-("(-,8&F&8( and learning that ensures success for all 5"#.&.7(C&-"E&5&;4/("(5%8"5(CD8";&%."5("7.84(3"4(D-( children, and "(,#%8--(;1";(C;#3&.-(&<(;1(81&5C(#-,%.C-(;%( "! Determiningappropriate levels of support -8&.;&F&8/(#-"#81ZE"-C(&.;#:.;&%.("-("(,"#;(%<(;1( and intervention. :"5D";&%.(,#%8CD#-P^(W0*+*(XNYZ[[R/(RX[@EB@RB@GB](
  2. 2. !! A1#(;&#-(%<(&.-;#D8;&%.( !! GB/.$:,//4:,<,-H4123/,:34B1$3;?3$?==/.22.2$1..=2$ BE$?<<$23,=.132$?1=$?<<$2,A@/B,D2$$ !! %,DD<.-.13?<$2-?<<$@/B,D$4123/,:34B1$EB/$ 23/,@@<41@$<.?/1./2$$ !! 013.124F.$41=4F4=,?<$413./F.134B12$EB/$23,=.132$ >;B$;?F.$1B3$.ID./4.1:.=$2,::.22$!! A1#(;4,-(%<("----3.;( !! %:/..141@$ !! !/B@/.22$-B143B/41@$ !! J4?@1B242$ Response to Intervention (RtI): Georgia’s Student Achievement Pyramid of Interventions The RtII Framework Tier 4 SPECIALLY- DESIGNED LEARNING Targeted students participate in : •!GPS access/extension •!Greater frequency of progress monitoring •!Specialized programs, methodology or instructional delivery Tier 3 SST-DRIVEN LEARNING In addition to Tier 1 and Tier 2, targeted students participate in learning that is different by including: •!Individualized assessments •!Formal Progress Monitoring •!Interventions tailored to individual needs •!Referral for specially-designed instruction if needed Tier 2 NEEDS-BASED LEARNING: In addition to Tier 1, targeted students participate in learning that is different by including: •!Specialized pyramids of intervention •!Greater frequency of monitoring progress of learning through multiple formative assessments and analysis of student work Tier 1 STANDARDS-BASED CLASSROOM LEARNING: All students participate in general education learning that includes: •!Implementation of the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) through research-based practices •!Use of differentiation of instruction such as flexible grouping, varied instructional strategies •!Monitoring progress of learning through multiple formative assessments and analysis of student work Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools February 5, 2008 All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. International Reading Association Tier 2 Classroom Slow growth or No Growth Tier 1 Regular GUIDING PRINCIPLES Intervention 10 Provide Classroom Differentiated Instruction Instruction 80-90% of Students !! Instruction (Small Group Accelerated Growth of Individual) !! Responsive Teaching and Differentiation 5-10% of students Intervention: Establishing a !! Assessment Coordinated Continuum of Support Slow or No Growth !! Systemic and Comprehensive Accelerated Growth Tier 3 Supplemental, Accelerated Growth !! Collaboration customized, Tier 4 Referral to Special Intervention (Individual or Education for !! Teacher Expertise possible LD Samll Group) Slow or No Growth 1.5-3% of 5-10% of students students http://www.reading.org/Libraries/Resources/RTI_brochure_web.sflb.ashx IRA Guidelines on RTIPrinciples #5: Systemic Approaches 11 12 !! >A?(.C-(;%(E(&.;7#";C(Q&;1&.(;1(:B13.I3$ !! “RTI must be part of a comprehensive, BE$?$:B;./.13$?1=$:B12423.13$<?1@,?@.$?1=$ systemic approach to language and literacy <43./?:K$:,//4:,<,-$;1";(7D&C-( assessment and instruction that supports all 8%3,#1.-&:(&.-;#D8;&%.(<%#("55(-;DC.;-*( preK-12 students and teachers.” !! I%#(&.-;#D8;&%./(&.CC(?<<$4123/,:34B16$-,23$ A.$:B1341,B,2<K$4-D/BF.=$3B$41:/.?2.$432$ .EC4:?:K(".C(3&;&7";(;1(.C(<%#(-,8&"5&_C( &.;#:.;&%.-*(
  4. 4. RTI is a(an): RTI Management: Teams!! General education-led effort implemented within the !! Review school-wide !! Group all students via student performance data level of intervention based general education system; coordinated with all other !! Prescribe instructional or on student performance services, including special education, Title I, ELL, data Migrant Education, etc. behavioral interventions for students based on !! Monitor students’!! System to provide instructional intervention intensity of identified progress toward immediately upon student need needs established goals and!! Process that determines if the child responds to !! Set short- and long-term benchmarks scientific, research-based intervention as a part of goals for the school and !! Adjust interventions the evaluation procedures. students to progress based on student toward established performance data benchmark or standards The Promise… Unsettling Facts!! Children’s needs are addressed as soon as they are !! Of the 6 million children in special education, half noted; of those are identified as having a "specific learning disability," and the number has grown more than!! Focus on prevention that can reduce unnecessary 300 percent since 1976. student failure, labeling, segregation, and !! Roughly 6 percent of all school-age children are remediation in special education; and being served as LD under IDEA !! Special education placements tend to stabilize the!! The artificial general and special education barriers reading growth of students with reading disabilities should be eliminated rather than accelerate it. (Vaughn, 1998, Moody, 2000) !! Students who enter special education 2+ years below age mates can be expected to maintain disparity or fall farther behind. !! Effect size for LD programs is .29 (Reschly)
  5. 5. Points of Consensus!! The current state of affairs needs addressing #!(A1(/B<.2$?1=$ #!A1(1?3,/.$BE$ "! Struggling readers, generally speaking, have not /.2DB124A4<434.2$%<(( 4123/,:34B1$ improved their achievement or performance very much ….Whether that is reading intervention or $!A1(85"--#%%3( $!`1";(;%(;"81a( special education ;"81#( $!b%Q(;%(;"81(&;a( "! Disproportionally more poor and minority students $!A1(#"C&.7(-,8&"5&-;( fail to learn to read well. $!!%C5-(%<(>A?( $!A1(-,8&"5(CD8";%#(!! Waiting for students to fail is not acceptable $!`1%(C%-(Q1";a( $!T;1#-(@*7*(L+0B(!! Providing more effective instruction is worth doing $!A1(C3&.&-;#";%#@-B( 20 !! 2&-;&.8;(<D.C&.7( ,#%8---( $0%5&84(@".C(-DE-UD.;(#7D5";%#4( 85"#&F&8";&%.B(-"4-(;1";(-;";-(".C(C&-;#&8;-( !! 2&:#-(#7D5";%#4( (1":(;1(F5K&E&5&;4(;%(-;"E5&-1( -4-;3-( 3%C5-(;1";(#F58;(;1&#(%Q.( !! (2&<<#.;( 8%33D.&;4H-(D.&UD(-&;D";&%.( ( @,#8&:CB( ":"&5"E5(#-%D#8-*( 3&--&%.-( !! 2&<<#.;&";C( ,#%<--&%."5( 8%33D.&;&-(
  6. 6. 21!! L,8&F&8(",,#%"81-(;%(>A?(.C(;%(E( !! (?C.;&<4(4%D#(:&-&%.( ",,#%,#&";(<%#(;1(,"#;&8D5"#(-81%%5cC&-;#&8;( !! (I#";("(8%33D.&;4(%<(,#%<--&%."5-( 8D5;D#(".C(;"V(&.;%("88%D.;(5"C#-1&,/( 8%33&;;C(;%(;1";(:&-&%.( K,#;&-/(;1(C&:#-&;4(%<(;1(-;DC.;( ,%,D5";&%./(".C(;1(":"&5"E5(#-%D#8-*(( !! (G(,#,"#C(;%(81".7c"C",;(!! L81%%5-(".C(C&-;#&8;-(-1%D5C("C%,;(".( !! !"V(;1(5&.V"7-(E;Q.(".C( ",,#%"81(;1";(E-;(3";81-(;1&#(.C-(".C( "3%.7(;1(,"#;-(=J>)(K,5&8&;(( #-%D#8-(Q1&5(-;&55("88%3,5&-1&.7(;1(%:#"55( 7%"5-(%<(>A?*((( d! 0#"8;&8-( d! JK,#;&-( d! G5&<-(
  7. 7. !! `1";("#(Q(;#4&.7(;%(C%c&3,#%:a( !! `1";(1":(Q("5#"C4(E7D.c;#&Cc &.&;&";Ca( !! `1";(C%(;"81#-(;1&.V(&-(&3,%#;".;("E%D;( ;1-(<<%#;-a( "! L;./.$;?F.$3;.K$D<?:.=$3;.4/$.1./@4.2M$ "! L;?3$42$>B/N41@M$$ Situate RTI with the School Improvement Process 28 !! (C3&.&-;#";%#-(3D-;(!! (?C.;&<4(;1(8%33%.(".Cc%#(8%3,53.;"#4( .-D#("CUD";( "-,8;-(%<(K&-;&.7c,"-;(<<%#;-(".C(3"V(;13( #-%D#8-(".C(,#%:&C( :&-&E5(;%(:#4%.( -D,,%#;(<%#(",,#%,#&";( -81CD5&.7("5%.7(Q&;1(!! b%Q(C%(;1-(<<%#;-(F&;(;%7;1#a( "3,5(;&3(<%#("55(!! b%Q(Q&55(;1(V.%Q5C7c-V&55-("8UD&#C(&.(@".B( ,#%<--&%."5-(;%( "#5&#(&.&;&";&:(E(D-C(&.(.Q(<<%#;-a( 8%55"E%#";(!! `1";(<<%#;-(1":(E.(;"V.(;%(.-D#( 8%55"E%#";&:(,#"8;&8-a((
  8. 8. 29 !! I%.-&-;.84(&.(5&;#"84(&.-;#D8;&%.(&-(#5";C(;%(!! (-4-;3&8(",,#%"81(;%(5".7D"7(".C(5&;#"84( E;;#(-;DC.;(%D;8%3-(@!%-.;1"5/(+&,-%.(;("5*/( 5"#.&.7(Q&;1&.(".(>A?(<#"3Q%#V(/.O,4/.2$3;.$ MNN[B( ?:34F.$D?/34:4D?34B1$?1=$@.1,41.$ !! 0"&#&.7(<<8;&:(-D,,53.;"#4(&.-;#D8;&%.(Q&;1( :B<<?AB/?34B1$BE$-?1K$D/BE.224B1?<2( ",,#%,#&";(85"--#%%3(5--%.-(,#%CD8-(E;;#( &.85DC&.7(85"--#%%3(;"81#-/(#"C&.7( 7"&.-(;1".(85"--#%%3(#"C&.7("5%.(@!";1-(;("5*/( -,8&"5&-;-c5&;#"84(8%"81-/(-,8&"5(CD8";%#-/( MNNeB( L+0-(".C(-81%%5(,-481%5%7&-;-*((( !! 5;1%D71(8%55"E%#";&%.(E;Q.(&.;#:.;&%.(".C( 85"--#%%3(;"81#-(&-(#"#/(&;(&-("--%8&";C(Q&;1( -;#%.7#(#"C&.7(%D;8%3-(@G%#3".(;("5*/(MNNXB( Specifically….. !! Educators may be working from out-dated materials or may have had limited PD to prepare them for new roles !! Teachers may not be teaching with enough urgency 012,EC4:4.13$F?4<?A<.$"ID./342.$$$ and/or differentiating instruction for small groups of 012,EC4:4.13$013.1243K$$ students P42,1=./23?1=41@2$?-B1@$ !! Reading professionals may not detail the nature of GB<<?AB/?34F.$!?/31./2$ their interventions (vs 30 minutes 4 x week) 0-D<.-.13?34B1$!/BA<.-2$ "! What focus and goals? "! What materials =.O,?:K$BE$22.22-.132$ "! How long? "! How will we know?
  9. 9. Specifically….. WORKING TOWARD SOLUTIONS!! Special educators/para educators may not have sufficient literacy expertise to tailor programs for individuals!! The assessment plan may not be coherent or may be Using the Principles inadequate to capture varying profiles of need and the Research to!! There may be no historical legacy of collaboration "! Scheduling time to collaborate can be a real challenge Improve Literacy "! Preparing people to engage in collaborative Instruction and consultation may be an even greater one Achievement $ !! (L;"#;(Q&;1(7%%C(F&#-;(@8%#B(&.-;#D8;&%.( #!(2:5%,3.;"554Z #! JK;.-&:(%,,%#;D.&;4( !! J.F.<BD-.13?<<K$?DD/BD/4?3.$ ",,#%,#&";( ;%(#"C(".C(Q#&;( !! ::.224A<.$3B$?<<$23,=.132$ ID##&8D5D3( #! 2&<<#.;(3";#&"5-/( !! Q2.$.F4=.1:.RA?2.=$D/?:34:.26$A,3$.I?-41.$3;.$ 4-D?:3$B1$2D.:4C4:$23,=.132$ #! I%3,#1.-&:(".C( ;"-V-/(".C(",,#%"81-( E"5".8C(5&;#"84( ;%("88%3,5&-1( !! 9-(C";"(;%(&.<%#3(&.-;#D8;&%.(".C(.7"7(&.(C";"ZE"-C( ,#%7#"3f(g&.85DC&.7( C&<<#.;(%D;8%3-( 8%.:#-";&%.-(Q&;1(8%55"7D-(;%(3"V(C8&-&%.-( ;1(D-(%<( !! "12,/.$3;.$-.?141@E,<1.22$BE$3;.$=?3?$$ 2:4.134C4:?<<K$A?2.=$ #! 2&<<#.;(;K;-(<%#( !! &/K$3B$?FB4=$AB3;$3BB$<433<.$?1=$3BB$-,:;$?22.22-.13$ 4123/,:34B1?<$ C&<<#.;(,D#,%--( !! 0#%:&C(#-,%.-&:(;"81&.7(".C(%,;&3&_(&.-;#D8;&%.(<%#( D/?:34:.2ST$( ,"#;&8D5"#(-;DC.;-(E4(C&<<#.;&";&.7(( #! ?.-;#D8;&%.(;1";(&-( #! ----3.;(;1";( C&<<#.;&";C(".C( !! `%#V(-4-;3&8"554( &.<%#3-(&.-;#D8;&%.( #-,%.-&:(;%( !! "12,/.$:B12423.1:K$?1=$:B;./.1:.$ -;DC.;-H(.C-( !! GB<<?AB/?3.$$
  10. 10. Research—Teachers’ Core Instruction Research—Teacher Expertise!! A1(&3,"8;(%<(;1(;"81#(&-(;1(-&.75(3%-;(,%Q#<D5( !! J<<8;-(%<(<<8;&:c&.<<8;&:(;"81#-(%.(-;DC.;-( :"#&"E5(&.(K,5"&.&.7(-;DC.;(#"C&.7("81&:3.;( #"C&.7("81&:3.;("#(8D3D5";&:(@G3E#4(;("5/( @S4(;("5*(MNN[B( XhhYB(!! J<<8;&:(;"81#-(( "! &;.$@/.?3./$3;.$1,-A./$BE$.EE.:34F.$3.?:;./2$ "! GB11.:3$<.22B12$3B$23,=.13$.ID./4.1:.2$ 23,=.132$;?=$BF./$[$K.?/26$3;.$;4@;./$3;.$23,=.132$ "! UB23./$-B34F?34B1$EB/$<.?/141@$2D.:4C4:$:B13.13$ ?:;4.F.-.13$ "! V.<D$23,=.132$>B/N$3B>?/=$-B/.$:B-D<4:?3.=$ "! %3,=.132$3?,@;3$AK$:B12423.13<K$41.EE.:34F.$ ,1=./23?1=41@2$ 3.?:;./2$2:B/.=$41$7]3;$D./:.134<.$:B-D?/.=$>43;$ "! J4?@1B2.$=4EC4:,<34.2$41$<.?/141@$ 3;B2.$3?,@;3$AK$:B12423.13<K$.EE.:34F.$3.?:;./2$>;B$ "! !/BF4=.$?$>4=.$?//?K$BE$<.?/141@$BDDB/3,1434.2$-?3:;.=$3B$ 2:B/.=$41$^83;$D./:.134<.$ 23,=.132$1..=2$?1=$413./.232$$ "! W<<41@3B1$X$5B;123B16$7887Y$!/.22<.K6$7887Z$ Good Teaching Matters !! OT.7%&.7(".C($%EZ3ECCC(,#%<--&%."5( !! “Many students currently identified as C:5%,3.;(&-(.8--"#4(<%#("55(CD8";%#-( learning disabled would not have been &.:%5:C(&.(;1(>A?(,#%8--P*0#%<--&%."5( identified if instruction had been K,#;&-(&-(--.;&"5(;%(&3,#%:&.7(-;DC.;-H( appropriately targeted and 5".7D"7(".C(5&;#"84(5"#.&.7(&.(7.#"5("-( responsive” (Scanlon et al. 2008, p. 1) Q55("-(Q&;1&.(;1(8%.;K;(%<(>A?*^(
  11. 11. !! J:.(-;#%.7-;(,#%,%..;-(%<(<#UD.;(,#%7#--( d! A"V(;&3(".C(;"V( 3%.&;%#&.7("8V.%Q5C7(;1";(5&;;5(&3,#%:3.;( 8"#( "88#D-(D.5--(;"81#-("#(-&3D5;".%D-54(,#%:&CC( d! ?<(4%D(1":("5#"C4( Q&;1(7D&C".8(%.(1%Q(;%(&.;#,#;(".C(#-,%.C(;%( -;DC.;-(3"V&.7(5&3&;C(,#%7#--(@L;8V#(;("5*/(MNNeB( O-;"#;C^(i(C%(4%D( !! 02(<%#(85"--#%%3(;"81#-(;1";(-D,,%#;-(8%#( .C(;%(O#Z-;"#;^a( &.-;#D8;&%.(Q"-(";(5"-;("-(<<8;&:("-(-D,,53.;"5( -3"55(7#%D,(#3C&";&%.(%.54(&.(#CD8&.7(;1(.D3E#( %<(V&.C#7"#;.#-(Q1%(8%.;&.DC(;%(E(";(#&-V(<%#( #"C&.7(C&<F&8D5;&-(%:#(;1(8%D#-(%<(;1(-81%%5(4"#( @L8".5%.(;("5*/(MNNYB( 1. Identify a Collaborative Leadership 2. Engage in Self-assessment Team!! G#%"C54(#,#-.;";&:( !! 2&-,5"4(".C("."54_(C";"(;%(C;#3&.(-;#.7;1-/("#"-(!! (?C.;&<4(Q1";(#%5-(".C(#-,%.-&E&5&;&-("#(#UD&#C( <%#(7#%Q;1( ".C(C;#3&.(,#-.;(5:5-(%<(K,#;&-(".C( !! 2;#3&.(;1(.C(<%#(81".7( 8%33&;3.;( !! (J:"5D";(-;DC.;(,#<%#3".8(!! (I%.-&C#(>A?(<#%3("(-4-;3&8(,#-,8;&:( !! (JK"3&.(85"--#%%3(5&;#"84(&.-;#D8;&%.c,#%7#"3(!! (L;DC4(>A?(#UD&#3.;-(@;1(5"QB( !! (I%.-&C#(Q1";(&.;#:.;&%.-("#(,#-.;54(":"&5"E5(!! (G8%3("8UD"&.;C(Q&;1(;1(#".7(%<(%,;&%.-(".C( ",,#%"81-(
  12. 12. Consider…. Consider…. !! (`1";(-;#.7;1-("#(:&C.;(&.(%D#(:B/.$4123/,:34B1a( !! (`1";(-;#.7;1-("#(:&C.;(&.(%D#(BF./?<<$2K23.-a( "! L;?3$42$>B/N41@$>.<<M$ "! JB$>.$;?F.$?$2;?/.=$F424B1$BE$<43./?:K$W3.?:;41@$?1=$ "! L;?3$?/.$3.?:;./2$?</.?=K$>B/N41@$B1M$ <.?/141@ZM$ "! JB.2$43$>B/N$.O,?<<K$>.<<$EB/$?<<$23,=.132M$ "! 02$3;./.$?$:B;./.13$?DD/B?:;$3B$<43./?:K$>43;41$?1=$?:/B22$ 3;.$@/?=.2M$ !! (`1";(&-(%D#(?22.22-.13$2K23.-a( "! $JB.2$3;.$2K23.-$2,DDB/3$?1=$.1;?1:.$<.?/141@$EB/$?<<$ "! L;?3$42$>B/N41@$>.<<M$ 23,=.132M$ "! 02$43$:B-D/.;.124F.M$$02$43$2.124A<.M$ !! (b%Q(C%(Q(Q%#V(:B<<?AB/?34F.<Ka( "! JB.2$43$D/BF4=.$,2$>43;$41EB/-?34B1$3;?3$>.$:?1$,2.$3B$ "! L;?3$42$>B/N41@$>.<<M$ 4-D/BF.$B,3:B-.2$EB/$?<<$23,=.132M$ "! /.$>.$@/B>41@$D/BE.224B1?<<KM$ "! JB.2$43$D/BF4=.$,2$>43;$41EB/-?34B1$?AB,3$3;.$2D.:4C4:$ 1..=2$?1=$23/.1@3;2$BE$3;.$-B23$F,<1./?A<.$23,=.132M$ "! 02$3;./.$?$A?<?1:.$BE$?,3B1B-K$?1=$/.2DB124A4<43KM$ "! L;?3$/.2B,/:.2$?/.$?<<B:?3.=$EB/$3;42$.1@?@.-.13M$ 3. Develop an Action Plan 4. Make Decisions!! How will existing initiatives and opportunities be !! (E%D;(?.-;#D8;&%.( incorporated into any systemic plan for action !! (E%D;(----3.;(!! Describe the approach to RTI to be used !! (E%D;(0#%<--&%."5(2:5%,3.;(!! Identify and address concerns and barriers !! (E%D;(I%%#C&.";&%./(I%1#.8(".C(I%55"E%#";&%.(!! Identify needed resources, PD, materials, assessment tools, etc.!! Identify what outcomes will be used to measure effectiveness!! Establish a timeline for implementation
  13. 13. 4. Make Decisions Taking Stock !! What improvements can/should be made in classroom!! Decide who will be involved in shaping interventions and in making decisions about instruction (that would benefit all Ss)? students’ response to instruction !! What does customization and intensification look like for each successive tier?!! Identify the assessment system to be used !! Are intervention designs documented so that:!! Determine the PD required for classroom teachers, "! It is clear what instruction the students are receiving? literacy specialists, and special educators "! They can be used with other students who have!! Establish benchmarks for monitoring students’ similar difficulties? progress !! Are the interventions complementary to Tier 1 instruction?!! Decide how data will be collected, displayed, and discussed !! What provisions have been made to limit interventions and keep scheduling flexible? RTI Requires Top-down and Bottom-Up Actiond! L;?3$-?N.2$*&0$?$EB:,2.=$41434?34F.$42$ d! 2&-;#&8;-(1":(;%(Q"5V(;1(5&.(E;Q.( 3;.$2K23.-?34_?34B1$BE$@BB=$?22.22-.13$ ,#%:&C&.7("(8%1-&:(<#"3Q%#V(<%#(>A?/( ?1=$4123/,:34B1?<$D/?:34:.26$1B3$`,23$ &.85DC&.7(-D,,%#;(<%#(-81%%5-(".C( RTI !"#$%&2$BE$.I:.<<.1:.$>43;41$?$2:;BB<S$ "55%Q&.7(F5K&E&5&;4(;%("CC#--(&.C&:&CD"5( -81%%5(.C-*(( d! L81%%5-(8".H;(Q"&;(<%#(C&-;#&8;-(;%(C%(;1( Q%#V*(A14(1":(;%(K"3&.(;1&#("--;-( ".C(D-(;13("-(ED&5C&.7(E5%8V-(;%(3%:( <%#Q"#C*(
  14. 14. #!(J:#4%.(&-(Q%#V&.7( #!(A"81#-(E5&:(;1";( As Fullan (1997) has noted, ;%Q"#C("(-1"#C(:&-&%.( "55(81&5C#.(8".(5"#.( “Productive educational change roams ".C(<"8D5;4(1":( #!(2";"ZC#&:.( somewhere between over-control and 8%33%.(7%"5-@-B( 8%33D.&8";&%.( chaos…You cannot mandate what matters,#!(T,.(".C(,#%CD8;&:( #!A"81#-(1":( because what really matters for complex 8%33D.&8";&%.(".C( "D;%.%34(&.(85"--#%%3( goals of change are skills, creative 8%55"E%#";&%.("3%.7( C8&-&%.-Z3"V&.7( thinking, and committed action” (pp. 33-35) <"8D5;4( #!>-,%.-&:(;%( .#!(j.D&.(".C(3D;D"5( 8%33D.&;4(.C-( #-,8;("3%.7(-;"<<( From: Mosenthal, Lipson et al. (2004) !

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