Helping Readers Soar with Reciprocal Teaching Presented by: Jennifer Kilmer firstname.lastname@example.orgWhat is RT? • A scaffolded discussion technique built on four strategies that good readers use to comprehend text: – predict, clarify question, and summarize (Palincsar & Brown) –What are the Goals of RT? • To improve students’ reading comprehension using four comprehension strategies: predict, clarify, question, summarize • To scaffold the four strategies by modeling, guiding, and applying the strategies while reading • To guide students to become metacognitive and reflective in their strategy use • To help students monitor their reading comprehension using the four strategies • To use the social nature of learning to improve and scaffold reading comprehension • To strengthen instruction in a variety of classroom settings-whole group, guided reading groups, literature circles, intervention • To be a part of the broader framework of comprehension strategies that comprises previewing, self-questioning, making connections, visualizing, knowing how work, monitoring, summarizing, and evaluating Harvey & Goudvis, 2007; Keene & Zimmermann, 2007; McLaughlin & Allen, 2002; Oczkus, 2004, 2010; Pearson,Roehler, Dole, and Duffy, 1992)What Does the Research Say about RT? • Creators of RT – Palincsar and Brown (1986) – Used RT with a group of students for 15-20 days, students’ reading on a comprehension assessment increased from 30% to 70-80% (Oczkus, 2010) • Study by Palincsar and Klenk (1991) – Students comprehension not only improved immediately, but students also maintained their improved comprehension skills when tested a year later • Originally designed for small-group instruction with struggling middle school students • Proven to produce consistent positive results when implemented across all grade-levels and groupings (small group, whole group, teacher led groups, etc.) • Rosenshine and Meister (1994) reviewed 16 studies of RT and concluded that reciprocal teaching is a technique that improves reading comprehension (Oczkus, 2010). • Lubliner (2001) stated that, “RT is an effective teaching technique that improves on the kind of reading comprehension that is necessary not only for improved test scores, but also for life in the information age.” (Oczkus, 2010).
How do I Implement RT in my Classroom? • Use at any grade level and in all genres (fiction, nonfiction, etc.) • Introduce each strategy individually – One or two lessons on each strategy • Teacher modeling scaffolding, think-alouds – I do, we do, you do • Cooperative learning • Metacognition • Use of props, gestures, etc. (optional)Predict • Predicting with Fiction – Preview cover, title, and illustrations – Preview text structure looking for clues using story structure: setting, characters, problem, resolution, events, and a theme or lesson – Use the frame: I think this is about…because… • Predicting with nonfiction – Preview headings, illustrations, and text – Look for clues to predict – Preview text structure and decide if it is compare-contrast, sequence, main idea and details, cause-effect – Use the frame: I think I will learn…because…ClarifyClarifying Strategies: to clarify an idea • I reread the parts that I don’t understand. • I read on to look for clues • I think about what I know • I talk to a friendClarifying Strategies: to clarify a word • I reread • I look for word parts I know • I try to blend the sounds together • I think of another word that looks like this word. • I read on to find clues. • I try another word that makes sense.Question • Good readers ask wonder questions before and during reading. • During reading good readers ask “quiz” questions that can be answered or inferred from the text.
• Question stems, questions cans/bags • In the book/In my headSummarize • Researched-based way to improve reading comprehension (Duke & Pearson, 2002) • Summarize during and after reading. • Organization depends on type of text. (Lipson, 1996) – Narrative-characters, setting, problem/solution, events – Expository-important points/ideas • Make it exciting!! – 25 word summary, human paragraph, pass a summary, etc.How does RT connect with RTI? • RTI is “a process of implementing high-quality, scientifically validated instructional practices based on learner needs, monitoring student progress, and adjusting instruction based on student’s response to the intervention.” • Tier 1 • Teach all 4 strategies as a package • Use tools to monitor RT strategies • Use in a variety of groupings • Provide targeted instruction through mini-lessons • Use RT with read-aloud, shared reading, small groups, partner reading, and independent reading • Tier 2 • Meet with target students and provide small group instruction using all 4 RT strategies • Teach quick mini-lessons based on students needs with the strategies (P,C,Q,S) • Provide extra word work and support in phonics and phonemic awareness after reading text using the Fab Four • Tier 3 • Provide more direct instruction in books at student’s instruction level using all 4 RT strategies. • Continue to provide specific word work needed based on observations. • Provide mini-lessons on each of the strategies when needed.Notes:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________