Chapter 6 inferences

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Chapter 6 inferences

  1. 1. CHAPTER 6 INFERENCE When we infer, we draw conclusions based on : 1.  1. the information in front us 2.  2. our background knowledge. (Video: Inferences)
  2. 2. MAKING CONNECTIONS 1. Nouns and Pronouns „  He, She, It, We, They, Them „  This, That and Which 2. General Category Substitutes -Sometimes single words replace single words 3. Substitute by Association -Sometimes writers use associated words to represent the topic 4.  Inferring the Main Idea -Sometimes writer expect you to infer the topic or main idea.
  3. 3. EXAMPLES Nouns and Pronouns General Category Substitutes
  4. 4. EXAMPLES Substitute by Association Inferring the Main Idea
  5. 5. LOGICAL AND ILLOGICAL INFERENCES „  Inferences must rely heavily on what the author has written. „  Consider alternatives. „  You must be careful not to put too much of your own background knowledge before the author’s actual statements, or you may end up with an illogical inference. „  (Video: Car commercial)
  6. 6. LOGICAL VS. ILLOGICAL Logical Inferences Illogical Inferences „  1. are solidly grounded in, or „  1. do not follow from the based on, specific statement. „  2. are not contradicted by any statements made in the passage. „  3. rely more heavily on the author’s words than on the reader’s background knowledge or common sense. author’s actual statements. „  2. are contradicted by the author. „  3. rely too heavily on the reader’s personal experience or general knowledge rather than on the author’s words.
  7. 7. BRIDGING INFERENCES „  A bridging inference is an inference that is necessary to connect sentences (or major/minor details) in a paragraph or multiple paragraphs. „  Example: „  Recently, charter schools have come under criticism. Administrators have been accused of accepting only the best students in order to make sure their test scores remain high.
  8. 8. GUIDELINES FOR INFERENCES „  Evidence + Schema = Inference „  Evidence (What the text tells me.) + „  Schema (My background knowledge.) = „  Inference (What I think.)

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